Gija Joseon

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See also: Gojoseon and Wiman Joseon
Gija Joseon
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 箕氏朝鮮
Simplified Chinese 箕氏朝鲜
Korean name
Hangul 기자조선
Hanja 箕子朝鮮

Gija Joseon (?–194 BC) describes the period after the alleged arrival of Gija in the northwest of Korean peninsula. It was considered by most[citation needed] of the Chinese and the Korean scholars as a part of the Gojoseon period (2333?–108 BC) of Korean history.

Understanding before 20th century[edit]

Chinese records before the 3rd century BC describe Gija (箕子) as the paternal uncle (or brother in other records) of the last emperor of the Chinese Shang Dynasty, the tyrannical King Zhou, but contain no mention of his relationship with Gojoseon. Gija was imprisoned by the tyrant until the downfall of Shang Kingdom, when King Wu of Zhou released him.

Records written after the 3rd century BC, when China and Gojoseon were at war, add that Gija led 5,000 to east of present-day Beijing, as written in the Geography of Hanshu from Han Dynasty (though some, especially in China, believe him to have moved to present-day Korea), and became the king of Gija Joseon.

Previously, it was widely believed that Gija Joseon was located in present-day Korea, replacing Gojoseon of Dangun. Some scholars today believe that Gija settled west of Gojoseon, based on records from Geography of Hanshu, and Korean record of Samguk Yusa that suggests that Gojoseon continued to coexist with Gija Joseon after the migration of Gija. These scholars believe that Gija's influence was limited to western part of Gojoseon, west of Liao River, as attested by Geographical record of Hanshu that recorded that Gija migrated to the west of Liao River. Furthermore, the record in Samguk Yusa,

Later Dangun moved his capital to Asadal on T'aebaek-san and ruled 1500 years, until king Wu of Chou (ancient Chinese dynasty) placed Kija on the throne (traditional date 1122 BC). When Kija arrived, Dangun moved to Changtang-kyong and then returned to Asadal, where he became a mountain god at the age of 1908. (Ilyon, Samguk Yusa, translated by T. Ha & G. Mintz (1997), Yonsei University Press, p.33)

(御國一千五百年. 周虎{武}王卽位己卯, 封箕子於朝鮮, 壇君乃移於藏唐京, 後還隱於阿斯達爲山神, 壽一千九百八歲),

and the record in Sima Qian's Shi Ji that

King Wu appointed Gija to Joseon, though he was not a vassal (of Zhou)


suggests that Gija's role in ancient Korean history was limited.

The Genealogy of the Cheongju Han Clan (청주한씨세보) lists the names of 73 rulers of Gija Joseon and their periods of reign, although not widely accepted by current Korean mainstream historians.

Wiman Joseon is said to begin with the usurpation of the throne from the line of kings descended from Gija.

Shin Chaeho's opinion[edit]

Shin Chaeho said that Gija Joseon (323 BC-194 BC) refers to the putative period of Beonjoseon, one of the Three Confederate States of Gojoseon, after Gihu (기후, 箕詡) became the king of Beonjoseon. Chinese traditional accounts indicate that Gihu's ancestor, Gija, was the same person as Jizi (both written as 箕子 in Hanzi/Hanja).

According to Sin Chaeho's Joseon Sangosa, Beonjoseon began disintegrating after its king had been killed by a rebel from the Chinese state of Yan at around 323 BC. With this, the five ministers of Beonjoseon began contending for the throne. Gihu joined in this struggle, and emerged victorious as the new king of Beonjoseon, defeating the competitors for the throne. He established Gija Joseon, named after his ancestor Gija. During Gija Joseon, the king enjoyed strong sovereign powers. Eventually, in 94 BC, Gija Joseon fell after King Jun was overthrown by Wiman, who established Wiman Joseon in its place.

Controversy on whether Gija and Jizi were the same person[edit]

Those records made no references to Jizi being enfeoffed with Joseon by King Wu or his seizing power in Joseon. Archeological evidence suggests that Chinese bronze cultures were very different from Korean bronze cultures through this period, and Chinese writing system was not used in Korea at this period. Until such evidence put the Gija/Jizi theory into doubt, it was widely believed that Gija Joseon was located in current Korea, replacing Gojoseon of Dangun.

Some scholars[who?], who try to reconcile the Book of Han account with archaeological evidence, believe that Jizi settled west of Beonjoseon based on the Book of Han's assertions and Korean record of Samguk Yusa, arguing that the records suggest that Gojoseon continued to coexist with Gija Joseon after the migration of Jizi. These scholars believe that Jizi's influence was limited to western Gojoseon, west of Liao River.

Historian Kim Jung-bae argues that the association between Jizi and Joseon has generally been disproven.[1] He believed that the existence of Gija Joseon as a state established by Jizi was fabricated during Han Dynasty. He and historians[who?] holding similar views point out that the Bamboo Annals, and Confucius's Analects, which was the earliest extant text that referred to Jizi, did not say anything about his going to Gojoseon.[2] Similarly, the Records of the Grand Historian, written soon after the conquest of Wiman Joseon by Han, made no reference to Joseon in its discussions about Jizi[3] and no reference to Jizi in its discussions about Joseon.[4] Kim, and other scholars holding similar views, believe that the confusion and/or intentional fabrication of the account arose out of the confusion between Jizi and Gihun's ancestor Gija. There are many controversies on whether Gija was the surname "Gi," or "Ki", or "Han". There are those controversies because King Jun of Gija Joseon defeated Samhan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan Joseon, uniting the 4 Old Joseon territories, and claimed himself "King of Han", which makes people think that all kings of Samhan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan Joseon of "Han" lineage, which makes people with other surnames in Korea jealous of the surname "Han".

Monarchs of Gija Joseon[edit]

# Portrait Westernized Hanja/Hangul Period of reign
1 Ping Sien Si - 072 Ji Zi (16137921534).jpg Gija 文聖大王
2 King Song 庄惠王(장혜왕 1082-1057
3 King Sun 敬孝王(경효왕 1057-1030
4 King Bak 恭贞王(공정왕 1030-1000
5 King Ch'un 文武王(문무왕 1000-972
6 King Gong 太原王(태원왕 972-968
7 King Chang 景昌王(경창왕 968-957
8 King Ch'ak 兴平王(흥평왕 957-943
9 King Jo 哲威王(철위왕 943-925
10 King Sak 宣惠王(선혜왕 925-896
11 King Sa 谊襄王(의양왕 896-843
12 King Ryun 文惠王(문혜왕 843-793
13 King Wul 盛德王(성덕왕 793-778
14 King Jik 悼怀王(도회왕 778-776
15 King U 文烈王(문열왕 776-761
16 King Mok 昌国王(창국왕 761-748
17 King P'yung 武成王(무성왕 748-722
18 King Gwul 贞敬王(정경왕 722-703
19 King Whe 乐成王(낙성왕 703-675
20 King Jon 孝宗王(효종왕 675-658
21 King Hyo 天老王(천효왕 658-634
22 King Yang 修道王(수도왕 634-615
23 King I 徽襄王(휘양왕 615-594
24 King Ch'am 奉日王(봉일왕 594-578
25 King Gon 德昌王(덕창왕 578-560
26 King Sak 寿圣王(수성왕 560-519
27 King Yö 英杰王(영걸왕 519-503
28 King Gang 逸民王(일민왕 503-486
29 King Hon 济世王(제세왕 486-465
30 King Pyuk 清国王(청국왕 465-432
31 King Jeung 导国王(도국왕 432-413
32 King Jil 赫圣王(혁성왕 413-385
33 King Seup 和罗王(화라왕 385-369
34 King Ha 说文王(설문왕 369-361
35 King Wha 庆顺王(경순왕 361-342
36 King Ho 嘉德王(가덕왕 342-315
37 King Uk 三老王(삼효왕 315-290
38 King Suk 显文王(현문왕 290-251
39 King Yun 章平王(장평왕 251-232
40 King Bu 宗统王(종통왕 232-220
41 King Jun 哀王(애왕 220-195

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Analects, vol. 18.
  3. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, vols. 3, 4.
  4. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, vol. 115.