Gija Joseon

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See also: Gojoseon and Wiman Joseon
Gija Joseon
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 箕氏朝鮮
Simplified Chinese 箕氏朝鲜
Korean name
Hangul 기자조선
Hanja 箕子朝鮮
Monarchs of Korea
Gija Joseon
  1. Gija 1122 BCE-1082 BCE
  2. King Song 1082 BCE-1057 BCE
  3. King Sun 1057 BCE-1030 BCE
  4. King Bak 1030 BCE-1000 BCE
  5. King Ch'un 1000 BCE-972 BCE
  6. King Gong 972 BCE-968 BCE
  7. King Chang 968 BCE-957 BCE
  8. King Ch'ak 957 BCE-943 BCE
  9. King Jo 943 BCE-925 BCE
  10. King Sak 925 BCE-896 BCE
  11. King Sa 896 BCE-843 BCE
  12. King Ryun 843 BCE-793 BCE
  13. King Wul 793 BCE-778 BCE
  14. King Jik 778 BCE-776 BCE
  15. King U 776 BCE-761 BCE
  16. King Mok 761 BCE-748 BCE
  17. King P'yung 748 BCE-722 BCE
  18. King Gwul 722 BCE-703 BCE
  19. King Whe 703 BCE-675 BCE
  20. King Jon 675 BCE-658 BCE
  21. King Hyo 658 BCE-634 BCE
  22. King Yang 634 BCE-615 BCE
  23. King I 615 BCE-594 BCE
  24. King Ch'am 594 BCE-578 BCE
  25. King Gon 578 BCE-560 BCE
  26. King Sak 560 BCE-519 BCE
  27. King Yö 519 BCE-503 BCE
  28. King Gang 503 BCE-486 BCE
  29. King Hon 486 BCE-465 BCE
  30. King Pyuk 465 BCE-432 BCE
  31. King Jeung 432 BCE-413 BCE
  32. King Jil 413 BCE-385 BCE
  33. King Seup 385 BCE-369 BCE
  34. King Ha 369 BCE-361 BCE
  35. King Wha 361 BCE-342 BCE
  36. King Ho 342 BCE-315 BCE
  37. King Uk 315 BCE-290 BCE
  38. King Suk 290 BCE-251 BCE
  39. King Yun 251 BCE-232 BCE
  40. King Bu 232 BCE-220 BCE
  41. King Jun 220 BCE-195 BCE

Gija Joseon (1120–194 BC) describes the period after the alleged arrival of the Han Chinese sage Gija in the northwest of Korean peninsula. It was considered by most[citation needed] of the Chinese and the Korean scholars as a part of the Gojoseon period (2333–108 BC) of Korean history.

Understanding before 20th century[edit]

Chinese records before the 3rd century BC describe Gija (箕子) as the paternal uncle (or brother in other records) of the last emperor of the Chinese Shang Dynasty, the tyrannical King Zhou, but contain no mention of his relationship with Gojoseon. Gija was imprisoned by the tyrant until the downfall of Shang Kingdom, when King Wu of Zhou released him.

Records written after the 3rd century BC, when China and Gojoseon were at war, add that Gija led 5,000 to the east of present-day Beijing, as written in the Geography of Hanshu from the Han Dynasty (though some, especially in China, believe him to have moved to present-day Korea), and became the king of Gija Joseon.

Previously, it was widely believed that Gija Joseon was located in present-day Korea, replacing Gojoseon of Dangun. Some scholars today believe that Gija settled west of Gojoseon, based on records from Geography of Hanshu, and the Korean Samguk Yusa that suggests that Gojoseon continued to coexist with Gija Joseon after the migration of Gija. These scholars believe that Gija's influence was limited to western part of Gojoseon, west of Liao River, as attested by the Geography of Hanshu that recorded that Gija migrated to the west of Liao River. Furthermore, the record in Samguk Yusa,

Later Dangun moved his capital to Asadal on T'aebaek-san and ruled 1500 years, until king Wu of Chou (ancient Chinese dynasty) placed Kija on the throne (traditional date 1122 BC). When Kija arrived, Dangun moved to Changtang-kyong and then returned to Asadal, where he became a mountain god at the age of 1908. (Ilyon, Samguk Yusa, translated by T. Ha & G. Mintz (1997), Yonsei University Press, p.33)

(御國一千五百年. 周虎{武}王卽位己卯, 封箕子於朝鮮, 壇君乃移於藏唐京, 後還隱於阿斯達爲山神, 壽一千九百八歲),

and in Sima Qian's Shi Ji that

King Wu appointed Gija to Joseon, though he was not a vassal (of Zhou)

(於是武王乃封箕子於朝鮮而不臣也).

suggests that Gija's role in ancient Korean history was limited.

The Genealogy of the Cheongju Han Clan (청주한씨세보) lists the names of 73 rulers of Gija Joseon and their periods of reign; however, it is not widely accepted by current Korean mainstream historians.

Wiman Joseon is said to begin with the usurpation of the throne from the line of kings descended from Gija.

Shin Chaeho's opinion[edit]

Shin Chaeho said that Gija Joseon (323 BC-194 BC) refers to the putative period of Beonjoseon, one of the Three Confederate States of Gojoseon, after Gihu (기후, 箕詡) became the king of Beonjoseon. Chinese traditional accounts indicate that Gihu's ancestor, Gija, was the same person as Jizi (both written as 箕子 in Hanzi/Hanja).

According to Sin Chaeho's Joseon Sangosa, Beonjoseon began disintegrating after its king had been killed by a rebel from the Chinese state of Yan at around 323 BC. With this, the five ministers of Beonjoseon began contending for the throne. Gihu joined in this struggle, and emerged victorious as the new king of Beonjoseon, defeating the competitors for the throne. He established Gija Joseon, named after his ancestor Gija. During Gija Joseon, the king enjoyed strong sovereign powers. Eventually, in 94 BC, Gija Joseon fell after King Jun was overthrown by Wiman, who established Wiman Joseon in its place.

Controversy on whether Gija and Jizi were the same person[edit]

Some scholars[who?], who try to reconcile the Book of Han account with archaeological evidence, believe that Jizi settled west of Beonjoseon based on the Book of Han's assertions and Korean record of Samguk Yusa, arguing that the records suggest that Gojoseon continued to coexist with Gija Joseon after the migration of Jizi. These scholars believe that Jizi's influence was limited to western Gojoseon, west of Liao River.

Historian Kim Jung-bae argues that the association between Jizi and Joseon has generally been disproven.[1] He believed that the existence of Gija Joseon as a state established by Jizi was fabricated during Han Dynasty. He holds similar views point out that the Bamboo Annals, and Confucius's Analects, which was the earliest extant text that referred to Jizi, did not say anything about his going to Gojoseon.[2] Similarly, the Records of the Grand Historian, written soon after the conquest of Wiman Joseon by Han, made no reference to Joseon in its discussions about Jizi[3] and no reference to Jizi in its discussions about Joseon.[4] Kim holds similar views, believe that the confusion and/or intentional fabrication of the account arose out of the confusion between Jizi and Gihun's ancestor Gija. There are many controversies on whether Gija was the surname "Gi," or "Ki", or "Han". There are those controversies because King Jun of Gija Joseon defeated Samhan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan Joseon, uniting the 4 Old Joseon territories, and claimed himself "King of Han", which makes people think that all kings of Samhan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan Joseon of "Han" lineage, which makes people with other surnames in Korea jealous of the surname "Han".

Monarchs of Gija Joseon[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.dbpia.co.kr/view/ar_view.asp?pid=694&isid=30674&arid=657709&topMenu=&topMenu1=
  2. ^ Analects, vol. 18.
  3. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, vols. 3, 4.
  4. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, vol. 115.