Gilbert Denys

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Arms of Sir Gilbert Denys: Gules, three leopard's faces or jessant-de-lys azure over all a bend engrailed azure. These are the arms of the Cantilupe family differenced in a brutal fashion (debruised) by the super-imposition of a bend engrailed. It must be assumed that an early member of the Denys family was a knight or feudal tenant of a member of that family, possibly of William I de Cantilupe (died 1239)[1]

Sir Gilbert Denys (c. 1350–1422) of Siston, Gloucestershire, was a soldier, and later an administrator. He was knighted by January 1385, and was twice knight of the shire for Gloucestershire constituency, in 1390 and 1395 and served as Sheriff of Gloucestershire 1393-4. He founded the family which provided more Sheriffs of Gloucestershire than any other.[2]

Early life[edit]

Gilbert Denys was probably born in about 1350 in Glamorgan, South Wales, probably the son of John Denys of Waterton, in the lordship of Coity. The latter is referred to as Johan Denys de Watirton in a charter of 1379 being leased land by Margam Abbey at Bonvilston during the wardship of John Norreis, son and heir of John Norreis of Lachecastel.[3] In 1415 Sir Gilbert Denys is recorded as renting land in Waterton from the late Lord of Coity, Sir Roger Berkerolles.[4] The Denys family are recorded in ancient Glamorgan charters, the earliest mention being in 1258, when Willelmo le Denys witnessed a charter effecting an exchange by Gilbert de Turberville, Lord of Coity, of lands in Newcastle, Glamorgan, with Margam Abbey.[5] The Glamorgan antiquarian Clark (d.1898), supported by the Denys pedigree in the "Golden Grove Book"[6] believed this William Denys to have originated in Gloucestershire and to have married a Turberville.[7]

First marriage to Margaret Corbet[edit]

In about 1379 Denys obtained the hand in marriage of a Gloucestershire heiress, Margaret Corbet, and became thereby a man of wealth and influence. Margaret had been born a triplet in about 1352, and both her brothers had died young in succession, leaving her the sole heir of the large Corbet landholdings in Gloucestershire and elsewhere. John the eldest had died in 1370 and William in 1377. Their father William, husband of Emma Oddingseles, had died while his children were young, predeceasing his own father, Sir Peter Corbet(d.1362). The manors held by Sir Peter Corbet on his death in 1362, which descended to his grandchildren in succession, John, William and Margaret were as follows: Hope-juxta-Caus, Shropshire, a remnant manor from the great Corbet honour, or virtually autonomous lordship established under William I at Caus Castle. Lawrenny in Pembrokeshire, (held from the Carew family) remnant of the family's large Welsh holdings, most of which had been earlier settled on Corbet male lines. The Corbet lands in Gloucestershire were as follows: Siston, held from the Bishops of Bath and Wells, and Alveston and Earthcott Green, both held in chief from the King. The possession of these tenancies-in-chief meant that should they ever descend into the hands of a female heiress, the King could repossess them and install his own favoured tenant who would thenceforth owe royal knight service and would be obliged to become a local administrator of the royal government. Margaret had been married off to a Pembrokeshire man, William Wyriott of Orielton, probably with the intention of consolidating Lawrenny with the Wyriott lands. Yet in 1379, only two years after her brother William's death aged 25, her husband William Wyriott died also, leaving Margaret as a female tenant-in-chief, a very precarious position for her. She could only remarry by royal licence, effectively giving the King the right of veto over her free choice or she could relinquish her family manors to live with a husband of her choice, probably in relative poverty and social obscurity. Within a short time after Wyriott's death, Margaret had accepted Gilbert Denys as her husband. The two were contemporaries, and the marriage proved on a personal level to be successful, as Denys asked in his will to be buried next to Margaret. The marriage, like most of the period, is unlikely to have been the result of a romance but rather arranged by some powerful figure at Court who wished to see Denys rise in the world. Insufficient evidence exists to identify who this patron of Denys might have been, but pure speculation might suggest John of Gaunt.

Early career[edit]

Denys's career had begun in the service of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III, who as Duke of Lancaster was Lord of Ogmore Castle, 3 miles SW of Waterton. Although certainly an insignificant property within his vast holdings, Denys may have made a mark for himself serving at Ogmore and come to the Duke's notice. In May 1375, on behalf of the Duke, Denys had taken formal custody of the manors of Aberavon and Sully in Glamorgan, part of the holdings of the late Edward le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer, Lord of Glamorgan. In 1378 he took out letters of protection to join Gaunt's foreign expedition, no doubt in the expectation of sharing in its profits. In 1382 Denys's subsequent letters of protection were revoked 2 months after issue when Sir John Devereux, Captain of Calais, testified that he had still not crossed the Channel.[8] His absence may have been due to a pregnancy of his wife. In 1384 he enlisted in the army about to sail for Portugal in the company of the Portuguese Chancellor, Fernand, Master of the Order of St. James of the Sword. Denys served on his first Royal Commission at home in 1389, as Sheriff for Gloucestershire in 1393/4, and twice served as Knight of the Shire in 1390 and 1395. In 1401 he was one of 5 men from Gloucestershire summoned to attend a great council in August 1401.

Escapes murder plot[edit]

An indictment heard before the Court of Kings Bench in 1387 accused 3 persons of holding conventicles at Earlswood in the lordship of Lydney in order to plot the killing of Sir Gilbert Denys and John Poleyn. The 3 accused were Ralph Greyndour the younger, John Magot and John Chaunterell. Greyndour was an example of the curious mediaeval phenomenon of the gentleman bandit. The Greyndour clan dominated the sparsely populated and wild area of the Forest of Dean in western Gloucestershire bordering on the Welsh Marches. Ralph's kinsman was John Greyndour, lord of Mitcheldean, Littledean and Abenhall, all within the Forest of Dean. These 3 were also accused of plotting to kill Henry Warner, Nicholas More and Thomas de Berkeley of Berkeley when the latter came hunting in the forest with the king's licence. All 3 were acquitted of the charges.[9]

Holds Farm of Pucklechurch[edit]

The manor of Pucklechurch lies to the immediate north-east of Siston, and was held by the Bishop of Bath & Wells since 1275, when he had received it from Glastonbury Abbey.[10] To save themselves the administrative burden of collecting all the rents within the manor, they farmed the manor to Gilbert Denys, that is to say gave him the right to keep all the rents he could collect in exchange for an annual one-off payment. This sum was set at £40, which must be assumed to represent about 70% of the total rents due, therefore estimated at £57. Thus the See saved itself more than £17 per annum in its admin. expenses by farming it to Denys, who for his outlay of £40 may have collected £51 in rents, i.e. 90%, depending on how forceful he was inclined to be. That would represent a gross return to him of 28%. One must assume that Denys would have been willing to pay more than anyone else for the privilege, already holding next-door Siston, making for convenient administration. Thus in the Communar's Accounts of the See of Bath and Wells the following entries are recorded:

  • 1400-01 Received from Gilbert Denys, knt, for farm of Pokelchurch £40
  • 1400-01 Paid to servant of Sir Gilbert Denys for venison from Pokelchurch for the canons 2s
  • 1407/8 Received from Sir Gilbert Denys, farmer of the church at Pucklechurch £40
  • 1407/9 Expenses of the steward about the agreement with Sir Gilbert Denys and on other occasions £1 3s 2d.
  • 1407/9 Received from Gilbert Denys for wood at Crotesmor £5 13s 4d
  • 1408/9 Received from Sir Gilbert Denys for the farm of Pucklechurch, £5 being remitted for the first term £35
  • 1414-18 Expenses of holding a court at Pucklechurch and treating with Gilbert Denys at Sixton (Siston) and Olvyston and with Abbatiston (Abson?) parish £1 1s 5½d
  • 1414-18 Expenses: Sir Gilbert Denys £2 and his bailiff 3s 4d and his entertainment for horses and men at Simon Bayly's (11s 8d) £2 15s
  • 1414-18 Expenses hire of 2 horses at Wells and holding a court at Pucklechurch 1s 11d
  • 1414-18 Rec'd from the bailiff of Pucklechurch, rent and perquisites of court £1 7s 5d
  • 1417-18 Received from Sir Gilbert Denys for the farm of Pucklechurch £40
  • 1417-18 Expenses at Pucklechurch, with horse hire, about tithes in Pucklechurch, Abbatiston (Abson?) and Westleigh (Westerleigh?) and arranging with Gilbert Denys £1 8s 1d

It would seem that it was a pleasant day out for a couple of the canons or friars of Wells to hire horses and ride over to talk business with Denys, perhaps an excuse to enjoy some all-expenses paid entertainment. It appears that Denys held the farm until his death in 1422, although records are not available to confirm this. A cadet branch of the Denys family became lords of the manor of Pucklechurch, probably in the 16th century, and continuing until the death of William Dennis in 1701, last of the male line.

Joins Retinue of Earl of Stafford[edit]

Following Gaunt's death in 1399, Denys joined the retinue of Edmund, Earl of Stafford(d.1403), and probably fought with the Earl in Henry IV's campaign against the Scots in 1400. In 1403 he was appointed by the King as constable of the late Earl of Stafford's Newport Castle, Monmouth, in charge of 80 archers and 40 lances,[11] specifically to resist the rebellion of Glendower. Having been discouraged from attacking nearby Chepstow Castle, a far larger fortification, Glendower turned his force on Newport, which Denys's force was clearly unable to resist, for the castle was sacked. He must have returned across the Bristol Channel to Gloucestershire as on 7th. Oct in the same year the King issued the following order preserved in the Patent Rolls:

Commission to Maurice Russell, Gilbert Dynys, John Rolves and John Harsefelde to assemble all the able fencible men, footmen and horsemen, of the hundreds of Barton Regis by Bristol, Hembury, Pokelchurche, Thornbury, Grymboldesasshe, Berkeley and Whiston and bring them sufficiently armed to the town of Chepstowe by Thursday next at the latest to go with the King or his lieutenant to Wales to resist the rebels bringing with them victuals for 4 days and to take horses from those who have them who cannot labour and deliver them to those who can labour but lack horses. By K.[12]

Three days later, on 10th. Oct. 1403 Denys and Edward, Lord Charlton were granted full powers to pardon any rebels in the lordships of Usk, Caerleon and Trilleck who submitted to them. He continued to hold office at Newport as steward and sheriff, possibly owing these appointments to Ann, dowager countess of Stafford and her 3rd. Husband, Sir William Bourchier. In 1418 Denys was sheriff of the Marcher Lordship of Gwynllwg (Wentloog), the caput of which was Newport.[13]

Second Marriage to Margaret Russell[edit]

Rubbing from Denys monumental brass, 1506, Olveston Church. Kneeling at left, Maurice Denys(d.1466), son and heir of Sir Gilbert. Sir Walter Denys(d.1506), son of Maurice, to R. The Denys paternal armorials are blazoned at top left: 3 leopards' faces jessant-de-lis overall a bend engrailled

Margaret Corbet died in 1398,[14] having produced no male heir, only a daughter, Joan, who married Thomas Gamage and was old enough by 1422 to serve as executrix of her father's will. Before 1408 Denys married Margaret Russell, elder daughter of his near neighbour Sir Maurice Russell of Dyrham. The marriage was socially advantageous for Denys as the Russells were wealthy and well established in Gloucestershire, yet little prospect existed at the time of the marriage of financial advancement as Maurice Russell then had an 8 year old heir, Thomas, produced by his young second wife Joan Dauntsey. Yet after Denys's death, Thomas Russell died in 1432, leaving an infant child who also died, leaving the Russell inheritance to Margaret, by then remarried to John Kemeys, and Isabel her sister. Thus Maurice Denys (1410–1466) the son and heir of Denys and Margaret Russell, and his Denys descendants, became heirs to half the Russell lands. According to the Heralds' Visitation of Glos. op.cit., Denys had by Margaret Russell the following children:[15]

16th century relief-sculpted stone escutcheon of 9 quarters over main entrance to courtyard of Great Fulford House, Devon:[16] *1: Gules, a chevron argent (Fulford) *7: Gules, three leopard's faces or jessant-de-lys azure over all a bend engrailed azure (Denys of Glamorgan and of Siston, Gloucestershire) *8: Ermine, on a cross gules five bezants (St Aubyn of Combe Raleigh) *9: Gules, two bars between nine martlets argent 3, 3, 3 (Challons (of Legh Challons?))
  • William Denys, second son, who according to the Devon historian Tristram Risdon (d.1640)[17] married Johanna St Aubyn (born 1411), widow of Otho Bodrugan (apparently from the prominent Cornish family of Bodrugan) and one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of John St Aubyn, of Combe Raleigh in Devon, captain of Fangermen in Normandy. William Denys had by her a single daughter and sole-heiress to Combe Raleigh, Alis Denys, who married John Bonville, the illegitimate son of the Devonshire magnate William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville(c.1392/3-1461), of Shute, Devon, by his mistress, Elizabeth Kirkby. John Bonville and Alis Denys had six daughters[18] and co-heiresses, one of whom, Jone Bonville, married William III Fulford (1476-1517)[19] of Great Fulford in the parish of Dunsford in Devon. Risdon was well-versed in the history of the separate ancient family of Denys of Devon, which originated at Orleigh, near Bideford, with different arms to Denys of Glmorgan, and is thus unlikely to have been in error in identifying William as the "son of Sir Gilbert Dennis of Wales". This genealogy is confirmed by the surviving 16th century stone-sculpted heraldic escutcheon over the entrance to the courtyard of Great Fulford, still occupied by the Fulford family in 2015, which shows in the 1st quarter the arms of Fulford and in the 7th quarter the jessant-de-lys arms of Denys of Glamorgan, in the 8th quarter the arms of St Aubyn (Argent, on a cross gules five bezants), an heiress of Denys, and in the 9th and last quarter the arms of Challons (Gules, two bars between nine birds argent 3,3,3[20]) an heiress of St Aubyn.[21] These arms of Denys of Glamorgan are also shown in the Fulford Chapel in Dunsford Church.
  • Richard (a priest).
  • Margaret (b. about 1413, a nun at Lacock Abbey)

The Dictionary of Welsh Biography entry by Evan David Jones for the family of Gamage mentions a daughter "Matilda Denys" who married Thomas Gamage(b.1408), son and heir of William Gamage(d.1419), Denys's co-besieger of Coity, by Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Rodborough. Thomas became a ward of the Earl of Worcester in 1421, following his father's death. There is apparently some confusion here with Joan, Denys's daughter and executrix by Margaret Corbet, who would however have been too old to be the wife of this Thomas Gamage(b.1408) as she acted as Denys's executrix in 1422, and would then have been an adult. However a Matilda Denys is mentioned in the Calendar of the Martyrologue of St. Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, as having died in October 1422:[22]

"Domina Matilda Denys, quae obiit die... Octobris, anno Christi 1422"

Serves under Lord Berkeley[edit]

In 1404 Denys served at sea in a fleet under the command of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley(d.1417), Admiral of the West. It appears this may have involved action around the southern Wales coast in connection with quelling Glendower's revolt.

Appointed feoffee of Lord Berkeley[edit]

In 1417 he was enfeoffed at Berkeley Castle by Lord Berkeley, shortly before his death, as one of the feoffees (i.e. trustees) of his estates, as the catalogue entry for charter number 581 preserved in the muniments at Berkeley Castle records:[23]

"Feoffment by Thomas, Lord Berkeley, Knt, to Walter Poole, Gilbert Denys, Knts,, Thomas Knolles, citizen of London, Thomas Rugge, John Grevell, Robert Greyndour and Thomas Sergeant, esquires, of all the lands, reversions, and tenants' services in Berkeley, Wotton, Glou- cester, South Cerney, Cerneyeswike, Aure, Arlingham, and Horton, and in Berkeley and Bledislow Hundreds ; in the city of London ; in Portbury, Portishead, Weston, Bedminster, and in Bedminster and Portbury Hundreds, co. Somerset, and in Sharnecote and Chicklade, co. Wilts., together with the advowsons of St. Andrew's Church in Baynard's Castle, London, the advowsons of Chicklade, Portishead, and Walton, and the patronage and advowson of St. Mary's Abbey of Kingswood. Witnesses : Thomas

FitzNicoll, John Pauncefoot, Knights; Robert Poyntz, Edmund Bassett, Thomas Kendale. Datum ad Berkeley, Thursday, Feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist (24 June) 5 Hen. V. (1417). (With seal, broken)"

The City of London mansion of the Berkeleys was at Puddle Dock by Baynard's Castle. Thomas FitzNicholl, one of the witnesses, was many times MP for Gloucestershire, including in 1395 when he served jointly with Denys. Saul, N. states that such feoffees were likely to have been members of Lord Berkeley's retinue.[24] This was a very significant position of trust assigned to Denys and others as Berkeley died leaving only a daughter and the succession to the vast Berkeley lands, including the castle itself, became a matter of much dispute amongst his possible heirs resulting in a series of feuds which led in 1470 to the last private battle fought on English soil at the Battle of Nibley Green, between Lord William Berkeley and Viscount Lisle, and there followed the longest dispute in English legal history, which did not end until 1609.

Besieges Coity Castle[edit]

The de Turberville family held the lordship of Coity from c. 1092 to 1360, having been founded by Sir Payn de Turberville, one of the legendary Twelve Knights of Glamorgan of Robert FitzHamon, 1st. Lord of Glamorgan. Richard de Turberville died in 1384, leaving his 4 sisters as co-heiresses. Sarah had married William Gamage; Margaret had married Sir Richard Stackpole, whose da. Joan had married Sir Richard Verney; Agnes had married Sir John de la Bere of Weobly Castle, Gower; Catherine had married Sir Roger Berkerolles (d.1351), another descendant of one of the Twelve Knights of Glamorgan, of East Orchard, St. Athan. It was their son Sir Roger Berkerolles (d.1411) who succeeded to Coity, but clearly not with the approval of all concerned. His sister Wenllian had married Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat's Castle. The tomb effigies of Catherine and Sir Roger can be seen in St. Athan's Church.[25] The Berkerolles' claim to Coity ended on 18 October 1411, with the death of Sir Lawrence Berkerolles II, son of Sir Roger and Catherine. His heir was his 1st. cousin once removed, the minor Thomas de la Bere, son of John de la Bere deceased, son of Agnes Turberville (sister of Richard) and Sir John de la Bere. Thomas died as a minor on 28 October 1414. Coity briefly thereafter escheated to the King, under the hand Isabel Despenser, seemingly in the capacity of Lord of Glamorgan, wife of Richard de Beauchamp, Lord of Bergavenny,[26] following which the lordship reverted to the de Turberville family through Sarah, the youngest sister of Richard de Turberville. Following Sir Roger's death there was much general re-shuffling of property interests in Glamorgan, for example with the Stradling family. Sarah's marriage to Sir William Gamage of Rogiet brought the estate into the Gamage family. The succession was not however easily achieved for in September 1412, William Gamage assisted by Sir Gilbert Denys, raised "no moderate multitude of armed men" and besieged Coity for a month, trying to oust Lady Joan Verney, wife of Sir Richard Verney and daughter of Margaret de Turberville, who it seems had taken up residence to assert her own claim to Coity in the confusion following Berkerolles's death. The king called up a commission of his local tenants to raise the siege and called another one a month later.[27] The pair ended up in the Tower of London for having taken the law into their own hands, from 19th. November 1412 until 3rd. June 1413, after the death of Henry IV.[28] However their action nevertheless proved successful in enforcing the Gamage claim to Coity. Denys's eldest daughter Joan was the wife of a certain Thomas Gamage, as his will reveals,[29] possibly brother of William. Another of Denys's daughters, Matilda, by his 2nd. wife, married another Thomas Gamage, son or grandson of William Gamage and Sarah, thereby becoming Lady of Coity on her husband's succession, producing a son & heir John Gamage.[30] The Gamage family held Coity until 1584.[31] The Corbet triplets, of some thereof became wards of a certain Gamage and it may have been this connection of Margaret Corbet which formed a common link between her and Gilbert Denys, who as a young man would have been known to the Gamage family in Glamorgan.

Connection with Earl of Warwick[edit]

Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick was married to a daughter of Lord Berkeley, and it is likely Denys was known to him. One of Denys's own feoffees was Robert Stanshaw, a retainer of Warwick's, and Denys witnessed a charter at Cardiff in May 1421 for Richard Beauchamp, a cousin of the Earl.

Death and Burial[edit]

Denys's will was dated the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel (16 October 1421), and he died on 24 March 1422. His will is a very short and businesslike document.[32] He requested to be buried in Siston Church, near his first wife Margaret Corbet. The fact that he had appointed his daughter Joan, "wife of Thomas Gamage" as his executrix to arrange this burial, suggests she must have been a daughter of Margaet Corbet, not of his second wife Margaret Russell. This supposition is strengthened by the fact she must have been an adult to be thus appointed, which would place her date of birth before Denys's 2nd. Marriage to Margaret Russell, c. 1408. He requested Margaret Russell to take a vow of chastity if she wished to inherit his moveable goods in addition to her customary dower of 1/3 of his real estate. She was however remarried within 7 months,[33] possibly under pressure from Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat's Castle, Glamorgan, who had obtained the wardship of Morys, her son and Denys's heir.[34] Her new husband, much her junior, was John Kemeys of Began, Monmouth, the young nephew of Stradling. 5 years earlier Stradling's uncle, Sir John Stradling had married Joan Dauntsey, the young widow of Margaret's own father, Sir Morys Russell (d.1416).[35] Sir Edward Stradling married his daughter Katherine to Morys his ward, and Katherine Stradling thereby became matriarch of the Denys line. Denys and Stradling were well known to each other in Glamorgan, and in 1421 Denys had made a quitclaim or General Release to Stradling of his interests in Glamorgan [36] following the death of Sir Roger Berkerolles, Lord of Coity, when much re-shuffling of property occurred. Katherine's mother was Joan, the bastard daughter of Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, and son of John of Gaunt. Denys must have been known to Beaufort since he named him one of the overseers of his will, together with Bishop Philip Morgan of Worcester. It is possible that Stradling had obtained the wardship of Morys Denys through the influence of his father-in-law Beaufort, possibly as part of the marriage settlement, for in the next year, 1423, the marriage of Joan and Stradling took place. Morys was aged 12 in 1422, and the only son of his marriage to Katherine Stradling, Walter, was born in 1437, aging Katherine at just 14 when she became a mother. She seems to have died shortly thereafter as Morys then remarried to Alice Poyntz.

Sources[edit]

  • Roskell, J.S. (ed.) History of Parliament: House of Commons 1386–1421, London, 1992. Vol. 2, pp. 771–2, biography of Sir Gilbert Denys.
  • Williams, W.R. Parliamentary History of Gloucestershire. p. 29.
  • Saul, Nigel. Knights and Esquires: The Gloucestershire Gentry in the Fourteenth Century, Oxford, 1981. ISBN 9780198218838
  • Rawcliffe, Carole. The Staffords, Earls of Stafford and Dukes of Buckingham, 1394–1521, Cambridge, 1978. p. 214. (In series Cambridge Studies in Mediaeval Life & Thought, 3rd. Series, No. 11)
  • Rymer, (ed.). Foedera (orig.edition), vii,186
  • Francis, George Grant (ed.) Original Charters & Materials for a History of Neath and its Abbey, Swansea, 1845.
  • William Salt Archive Society, Stafford, xiv,264
  • Scott-Thomson, Gladys. Two Centuries of Family History, London, 1930. pp. 326–7 (Russell pedigree)
  • Clark, G.T. Limbus Patrum Morganiae et Glamorganiae: Being the Genealogies of the Older Families of the Lordship of Morgan and Glamorgan, 1886, pp. 381–382, Denys
  • Golden Grove Book of Pedigrees, manuscript by anonymous author c. 1765, Carmarthenshire Archives. 2nd. part (G), Advenae of Glamorganshire, G 1026, p. 78, pedigree of Denys
  • Visitation of the County of Gloucester Taken in the Year 1623 by Henry Chitty and John Phillipot, ed. Maclean, Sir John, London, 1885, pp. 49–53, "Dennis"
  • Visitation by the Heralds in Wales, Transcribed and Edited by Michael Powell Siddons, Wales Herald Extraordinary, London, 1996, pp. 62–3, "Dennys"

References[edit]

  1. ^ See also the comparable arms of Hubard of Ipsley, Warwickshire (Victoria County History, Warks., vol.3, 1945, pp.123-126) and of Woodforde of Brentingby(fl.1316), Leicestershire ([1] www.woodforde.co.uk), both known Cantilupe tenants
  2. ^ Atkyns,Sir Robert, The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, 1712.
  3. ^ Harleian Charter 75 A 45, printed as Carta no. MXLIII in vol. 4 of Clark, G. Cartae et Alia Munimenta quae ad Dominium de Glamorgancia Pertinent. (6 vols.), Cardiff, 1910.
  4. ^ Cal. Fine Rolls 1413–1422 (1934): 100, 441/442 Inq.p.m. of Thomas de la Bere, heir of Sir Roger Berkerolles(d.1411)
  5. ^ Clark, G. Cartae vol.2, no.DXCIV.
  6. ^ Golden Grove Book of Pedigrees, by anonymous author c. 1765, Carmarthenshire Archives. 2nd. part (G), Advenae of Glamorganshire, G 1026, p.78, pedigree of Denys [2]
  7. ^ Footnote to Clarke's Cartae no. MXLIII supra
  8. ^ Saul, N. p.48: Cal. Pat. Rolls 1381-5, p.111.
  9. ^ Saul, N. op.cit., pp.179-180, quoting: K.B.27/507 Rex m.31
  10. ^ Calendar of Bishops of Bath & Wells, April 1275. Accord between Robert Bishop of Bath & Wells and John Abbot of Glastonbury, namely that whereas Robert late Abbot of Glastonbury and the convent quitclaimed to Walter late Bishop of Bath & Wells the manor and advowson of Pokeleschyrch...
  11. ^ Acts of the Privy Council. Bibl.Cloepatra, F.III,f.42b. Contemporaneous ms. Ordinances of the Council Respecting the Fortresses in Wales.
  12. ^ Cal. Patent Rolls, Membrane 20, 1403, 7 Oct.. Gloucester.
  13. ^ Visitation by the Heralds in Wales, Transcribed and Edited by Michael Powell Siddons, Wales Herald Extraordinary, London, 1996, p.64, Gamage, footnote 14, quoting British Library Additional MS 20509
  14. ^ Cal. Fine Rolls 21 Richard II (1398), Membrane 10 "24 April Westminster, Margaret late the wife of Gilbert Denys, knight; Salop...(probably part of her Inq.p.m.)
  15. ^ Visitation of Devon, p.50
  16. ^ Arms per Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 15th Edition, ed. Pirie-Gordon, H., London, 1937, p.848, pedigree of Fulford of Fulford, and as depicted on the monument to Sir Thomas Fulford (died 1610) and in the 19th century stained glass east window in the Fulford Chapel of Dunsford Church
  17. ^ Risdon, Tristram (d.1640), Survey of Devon, 1811 edition, London, 1811, with 1810 Additions, p.39 (Combe Raleigh): "John (St Aubyn)...left issue a daughter, married to William Dennis, son of Sir Gilbert Dennis of Wales"; also per Vivian, Heraldic Visitations of Devon, 1895, p.189, pedigree of Chudleigh of Ashton, which does not however identify the father of this "William Dennys"
  18. ^ Pole, p.132
  19. ^ Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitation of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.379, pedigree of Fulford
  20. ^ As quartered by Fulford, but arms of "Challons of Leigh Challons" given slightly differently by Pole, p.477: Gules, two bars an orle of martlets argent
  21. ^ Arms identified in Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 15th Edition, ed. Pirie-Gordon, H., London, 1937, p.848, pedigree of Fulford of Fulford; See descent of Combe Raleigh and Beandport (Port in the parish of Bishop's Nympton) in Pole, Sir William (d.1635), Collections Towards a Description of the County of Devon, Sir John-William de la Pole (ed.), London, 1791, pp.132, 437
  22. ^ Dallaway, James. Antiquities of Bristow in the Middle Centuries; Including the Topography by William Wyrcestre and the Life of William Canynges.
  23. ^ Jeayes, Isaac Herbert, Catalogue of the Charters & Muniments in the Possession of Rt. Hon Lord FitzHardinge at Berkeley Castle, Bristol, 1892. No.581 Enfeoffment 24 June 1417.
  24. ^ Saul, Nigel. Knights and Esquires: The Gloucestershire Gentry in the Fourteenth Century, Oxford, 1981. p. 73. ISBN 9780198218838
  25. ^ An image of the recumbent pair can be seen in Kenyon, J.R. et al. Coity Castle, Ogmore Castle, Newcastle. Cardiff, 2001. p.13.
  26. ^ Cal. of Fine Rolls, 1413–1422 (1934): 100, 441/442. Entry dated 16 January 1415, includes a long list of the tenants holding under Berkerolles, "lands held of Isabel wife of Richard de Bello Campo of Bergavenny, chivaler, as to the lordship of Kerdyf and the co. of Glamorgan by service of a moiety of a knight's fee..."
  27. ^ Patent Rolls, 16 September 1412, at Westminster. & 12/10/1412
  28. ^ Roskell, J.S. History of Parliament: House of Commons 1386–1421 (vol.2) 1992, p772. Biog. of Sir Gilbert Denys.
  29. ^ See the will of Sir Gilbert Denys in which he names his da. Joan "wife of Thomas Gamage" as his executrix. Line 12: "Ordino et confirmo Johnam filiam meam uxorem Thom. Gamage..."National Archives, PROB 11/2B Image Ref:413/285.
  30. ^ Dictionary of Welsh Biography, National Library of Wales. Welsh Biography Online. (Gamage)
  31. ^ Griffiths,R, Morgan W, & Richards V. A History of the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin ,2007.
  32. ^ National Archives PROB 11/2B, Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Image ref. 413/285. Former cat: PCC 53 Marche. Also, recorded in Dodsworth MSS, per Corbet, Augusta E. The Family of Corbet, its Life & Times.London, 1918, vol.2, pp.162–182
  33. ^ Cal. Patent Rolls, H VI, vol.1: 12 Dec. 1422, Licence for Margaret late the wife of Gilbert Denys, knight, tenant-in-chief of Henry V, to marry John Kemmes, esquire.
  34. ^ Cal. Fine Rolls 10 Henry V (1422) 17 July Westminster: Commitment to Edward Stradlyng, chivaler – by mainprise of William Oldhalle of the county of Norfolk and William Stradlyng of the co. of Somerset, - of the keeping of 2/3rds of all the lands, and of 2/3rds. of the hundred of Langeley, co. Gloucester, late of Gilbert Denys, chivaler, who held of the King in-chief by knight service on the day of his death, the same being in the King's hand by the death of Gilbert and by reason of the minority of Maurice his son and heir; to hold the same from Michaelmas next until the lawful age (i.e.21) of the said heir, and so from heir to heir until one of them shall have attained full age, rendering the extent thereof, or as much as may be agreed upon between him and the Treasurer, yearly at Easter and Michaelmas equally, maintaining all houses, enclosures and buildings, and supporting all other charges incumbent on the said 2/3rds of the lands and hundred aforesaid. By bill of the Treasurer. Clark, in his Limbus Patrum (1886) states that Stradling was paying yearly 20 marks to the Treasurer for this wardship
  35. ^ Cal. Patent Rolls, 1416–1422, p.120: 8 July. 1418, Waltham. Pardon, for 40 marks paid in the hanaper, to John Stradlyng, chivaler, and Joan late the wife of Maurice Russell, chivaler, tenant-in-chief, of their trespass in intermarrying without licence.
  36. ^ Clark Cartae no. MCXIX, 1st. Nov. 1421. Vol.4, p.1492.