Gilbert Levin

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Gilbert V. Levin is an American engineer, the founder of Biospherics and the principal investigator of the Viking mission Labeled Release experiment.[1]

In 1997, Levin published his conclusion that a 1976 Viking lander had discovered living microorganisms on Mars.[1][2] He is noted for still claiming that his experiment on board the 1976 Viking Mars landers to detect microscopic life on Mars rendered a true positive result. On 12 April 2012, an international team including Levin reported, based on cluster analysis of the Labeled Release experiments of the Viking program, that may suggest the detection of "extant microbial life on Mars."[3][4][5]

He is one of the science advisers of the International Committee Against Mars Sample Return.[6][7]

He also patented an inexpensive method to make tagatose, an artificial sweetener, in 1988.[8]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Dr Gilbert V Levin - Research on Mars".
  2. ^ Levin, Gilbert V. (October 10, 2019). "I'm Convinced We Found Evidence of Life on Mars in the 1970s". Scientific American. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  3. ^ Bianciardi, Giorgio; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia Ann; Levin, Gilbert V. (March 2012). "Complexity Analysis of the Viking Labeled Release Experiments". IJASS. 13 (1): 14–26. Bibcode:2012IJASS..13...14B. doi:10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.14. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  4. ^ Life on Mars Found by NASA's Viking Mission?
  5. ^ Spie (2014). "Gilbert Levin: Mars microbes -- proof from the Viking missions?". SPIE.TV on YouTube.
  6. ^ ICAMSR Advisors, retrieved 2013-7-16
  7. ^ Richard Stenger Mars sample return plan carries microbial risk, group warns, CNN, November 7, 2000
  8. ^ A Natural Way to Stay Sweet, NASA, archived from the original on 2005-01-06, retrieved 2009-09-02.

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