||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (October 2014)|
Radner with husband Gene Wilder in the film Haunted Honeymoon, 1986
|Born||Gilda Susan Radner
June 28, 1946
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
|Died||May 20, 1989
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Ovarian cancer|
|Alma mater||University of Michigan|
|Notable work||Saturday Night Live|
|Spouse(s)||G. E. Smith (1980–1982; divorced)
Gene Wilder (1984–1989; her death)
Gilda Susan Radner (June 28, 1946 – May 20, 1989) was an American comedienne and actress. She was an original cast member of the hit NBC sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live, for which she won an Emmy Award in 1978.
Radner was born in Detroit, Michigan to Jewish parents, Henrietta (née Dworkin), a legal secretary, and Herman Radner, a businessman. She grew up in Detroit with a nanny, Elizabeth Clementine Gillies, whom she called "Dibby" (and on whom she based her famous character Emily Litella), and an older brother named Michael. She attended the University Liggett School in Grosse Pointe. Toward the end of her life, Radner wrote in her autobiography, It's Always Something, that during her childhood and young adulthood she battled numerous eating disorders: "I coped with stress by having every possible eating disorder from the time I was nine years old. I have weighed as much as 160 pounds and as little as 93. When I was a kid, I overate constantly. My weight distressed my mother and she took me to a doctor who put me on Dexedrine diet pills when I was ten years old."
Radner was close to her father, who operated Detroit's Seville Hotel, where many nightclub performers and actors stayed while performing in the city. He took her on trips to New York to see Broadway shows. As Radner wrote in It's Always Something, when she was twelve her father developed a brain tumor, and the symptoms began so suddenly that he told people his eyeglasses were too tight. Within days he was bedridden and unable to communicate, and remained in that condition until his death two years later.
Radner graduated from Liggett and enrolled at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1964. While at the university, she made a lifelong platonic friend of fellow student David Saltman, who wrote a biography of her after her death. She joined him and his girlfriend on a trip to Paris in the summer of 1966. According to Saltman's book, he was so affectionate with his girlfriend that they left Radner to fend for herself during much of their sightseeing. Radner was nervous and upset about gaining weight from the French cuisine, but Saltman paid little attention at the time.
Twenty years later, Saltman had a strong emotional reaction when details of Radner's eating disorder were reported in a bestselling book about Saturday Night Live by Doug Hill and Jeff Weingrad, Saltman realized that in 1966 she had been unable to discuss with anyone her eating disorder and its impact on their trip to France. (The book by Hill and Weingrad was published and received much media coverage during a period when Radner was consulting various doctors in Los Angeles about her symptoms of illness that turned out to be cancer.)
In Ann Arbor, Radner began her broadcasting career as the weather girl for college radio station WCBN-FM, but dropped out in her senior year to follow her then-boyfriend, a Canadian sculptor named Jeffrey Rubinoff, to Toronto, Canada. In Toronto, she made her professional acting debut in the 1972 production of Godspell with future stars Eugene Levy, Andrea Martin, Victor Garber, Martin Short, and Paul Shaffer. Afterward, Radner joined the Toronto Second City comedy troupe.
Radner was a featured player on the National Lampoon Radio Hour, a comedy program syndicated to some 600 U.S. radio stations from 1974 to 1975. Fellow cast members included John Belushi, Richard Belzer, Chevy Chase, Bill Murray, Brian Doyle-Murray, and Rhonda Coullet.
Saturday Night Live
Radner gained name recognition as one of the original "Not Ready for Prime Time Players", the freshman group on the first season of Saturday Night Live. She was the first performer cast for the show. Between 1975 and 1980, she created characters such as obnoxious personal advice expert Roseanne Roseannadanna and "Baba Wawa", a parody of Barbara Walters. After Radner's death, Walters stated in an interview that Radner was the "first person to make fun of news anchors, now it's done all the time."
She also played the character Emily Litella, an elderly hearing-impaired woman who gave angry and misinformed editorial replies on "Weekend Update". In addition, Radner parodied celebrities such as Lucille Ball, Patti Smith, and Olga Korbut in SNL sketches. She won an Emmy Award in 1978 for her work on SNL.
Radner battled bulimia while on the show. She once told a reporter that she had thrown up in every toilet in Rockefeller Center. She had a relationship with SNL castmate Bill Murray, with whom she worked at the National Lampoon, and that ended badly. Few details of their relationship or its end were made public. When Radner wrote It's Always Something, this is the one reference she made of Murray in the entire book: "All the guys [in the National Lampoon group of writers and performers] liked to have me around because I would laugh at them till I peed in my pants and tears rolled out of my eyes. We worked together for a couple of years creating The National Lampoon Show, writing The National Lampoon Radio Hour, and even working on stuff for the magazine. Bill Murray joined the show and Richard Belzer ..."
In 1979, incoming NBC President Fred Silverman offered Radner her own prime time variety show, which she turned down. That year, she was a host of the Music for UNICEF Concert at the United Nations General Assembly.
Alan Zweibel, who co-created the Roseanne Roseannadanna character and co-wrote Roseanne's dialogue, recalled that Radner, one of three original SNL cast members who stayed away from cocaine, chastised him for abusing it.
Radner had mixed emotions about the fans and strangers who recognized her in public. She sometimes became "angry when she was approached, and upset when she wasn't."
In 1979, Radner appeared on Broadway in a successful one-woman show entitled Gilda Radner - Live From New York. The show featured material that was racier than NBC censors allowed on Saturday Night Live, such as the song Let's Talk Dirty to the Animals. In 1979, shortly before Radner's final season on Saturday Night Live, her Broadway show was filmed by Mike Nichols under the title Gilda Live, co-starring Paul Shaffer and Don Novello, and was released in theaters nationwide in 1980 with poor results. A soundtrack album was unsuccessful. During the production, she met her first husband, G. E. Smith, a musician who worked on the show. They were married in a civil ceremony in 1980.
In the fall of 1980, after all original SNL cast members departed from the show, Radner starred opposite Sam Waterston in the Jean Kerr play, Lunch Hour, as a pair whose spouses are having an affair, and in response invent their own, consisting of trysts on their lunch hour. The show ran for over seven months.
Marriage to Gene Wilder
Radner met actor Gene Wilder on the set of the Sidney Poitier film Hanky Panky, when the two worked together making the film. She described their first meeting as "love at first sight." She was unable to resist her attraction to Wilder as her marriage to guitarist G. E. Smith deteriorated. Radner went on to make a second film, The Woman in Red, released in 1984 with Wilder and their relationship grew. The two were married on September 18, 1984, in Saint-Tropez. The pair made a third film together, Haunted Honeymoon, released in 1986. They remained married until her death in 1989.
After experiencing severe fatigue and suffering from pain in her upper legs on the set of Haunted Honeymoon in the United Kingdom in 1985, Radner sought medical treatment. After 10 months of inept diagnostics, she was finally diagnosed with ovarian cancer on October 21, 1986. She suffered extreme physical and emotional pain during chemotherapy and radiation therapy treatment.
After her diagnosis, the following issue of the National Enquirer ran the headline Gilda Radner In Life-Death Struggle. Without asking for her comment, the publication asserted that she was dying. Radner wrote in It's Always Something: "They found an old photo of me looking frightened from a 'Saturday Night Live' sketch and blew that up to make the point. What they did probably sold newspapers, but it had a devastating effect on my family and my friends. It forced [her husband] Gene [Wilder] to compose a press release to respond. He said that I had been diagnosed with ovarian cancer, had had surgery and my prognosis was good. The Enquirer doesn't like good news, so the Gilda Radner story stopped running."
Four months after her ordeal with the National Enquirer, Radner saw her Saturday Night Live castmates one last time at the 35th birthday party of Laraine Newman (March 1987). According to Bill Murray when he heard she was leaving the party, he and Dan Aykroyd carried her around and around the Los Angeles house where the party was held, repeatedly saying goodbye to everyone. Since all the guests were comedians, they all did comedy bits with her, over and over.
After Radner was told that she had gone into remission, she wrote It's Always Something (a catchphrase of her character Roseanne Roseannadanna), which included details of her struggle with the illness. Life magazine did a March 1988 cover story on her illness, titled "Gilda Radner's Answer to Cancer: Healing the Body with Mind and Heart." In 1988, Radner guest-starred on It's Garry Shandling's Show on Fox (TV network), to critical acclaim. When Shandling asked her why she had not been seen in public for a while, she replied, "Oh, I had cancer. What did you have?" Shandling's reply: "A very bad series of career moves ... which, by the way, there's no cure for whatsoever." She repeated on-camera Mark Twain's apocryphal saying, "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated." Radner planned to host an episode of Saturday Night Live that year, but a writers' strike caused the delay of the network television season.
In September 1988, after tests showed no signs of cancer, Radner went on a maintenance chemotherapy treatment to prolong her remission, but three months later, in December, she learned the cancer had returned. She was admitted to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles on May 17, 1989 to undergo a CT scan. She was given a sedative and went into a coma during the scan. She did not regain consciousness, and died three days later on May 20, 1989; Wilder was at her side.
Her funeral was held in Connecticut on May 24, 1989. In lieu of flowers, her family requested that donations be sent to The Wellness Community. Her gravestone reads: "Gilda Radner Wilder / Comedienne – Ballerina / 1946–1989". She was interred at Long Ridge Union Cemetery in Stamford, Connecticut.
News of her death broke as Steve Martin was rehearsing to act as the guest host for that night's season finale of Saturday Night Live. The show's performers and crew, including Lorne Michaels, Phil Hartman, and Mike Myers (who had, in his own words, "fallen in love" with Radner after playing her son in a BC Hydro commercial on Canadian television and considered her the reason he wanted to be on SNL), had not known how grave her situation was. Martin's planned opening monologue was scrapped; in its place Martin, in tears, introduced a video clip of a 1978 sketch in which he and Radner had parodied Fred Astaire and Cyd Charisse in a well-known dance routine from The Band Wagon. After the clip Martin said it reminded him of "how great she was and of how young I looked. Gilda, we miss you."
Wilder established the Gilda Radner Hereditary Cancer Program at Cedars-Sinai to screen high-risk candidates (such as women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent) and to run basic diagnostic tests. He testified before a Congressional committee that Radner's condition had been misdiagnosed and that if doctors had inquired more deeply into her family background they would have learned that her grandmother, aunt, and cousin all died of ovarian cancer, and therefore they might have attacked the disease earlier.
Radner's death helped raise awareness of early detection of ovarian cancer and the connection to familial epidemiology. The media attention in the two years after Radner's death led to registry of 450 families with familial ovarian cancer at the Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry, a research database registry at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York. The registry was later renamed the Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry (GRFOCR). In 1996, Gene Wilder and Registry founder Steven Piver, one of Radner's medical consultants, published Gilda's Disease: Sharing Personal Experiences and a Medical Perspective on Ovarian Cancer.
In 1991, Gilda's Club, a network of affiliate clubhouses where people living with cancer, their friends and families, can meet to learn how to live with cancer, was founded by Joanna Bull, Radner's cancer psychotherapist, along with Radner's widower, Gene Wilder (also a cancer survivor) and broadcaster Joel Siegel (who died after a long battle with cancer). The first club opened in New York City in 1995. The organization took its name from Radner's comment that cancer gave her "membership to an elite club I'd rather not belong to". Radner's story can be read in her book, It's Always Something.
Many Gilda's Clubs have opened across the United States and in Canada. In July 2009, Gilda's Club Worldwide merged with The Wellness Community, another established cancer support organization to create the Cancer Support Community (CSC), which was legally adopted in 2011. As of 2012, there were more than twenty active local affiliates of Gilda's Club. Although some local affiliates of Gilda's Club and The Wellness community have retained their names, many affiliates have adopted the name Cancer Support Community following the merger.
Awards and honors
Radner won an Emmy Award for "Outstanding Continuing or Single Performance by a Supporting Actress in Variety or Music" for her performance on Saturday Night Live in 1977. She posthumously won a Grammy Award for "Best Spoken Word Or Non-Musical Recording" in 1990.
In 1992, Radner was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame for her achievements in arts and entertainment. On June 27, 2003, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Blvd.
Parts of West Houston Street in New York City, Lombard Street in Toronto, Kirk Road in Warminster, Pennsylvania and Chester Street in White Plains, New York have been renamed "Gilda Radner Way".
|1974||Jack: A Flash Fantasy||Jill of Hearts|
|1974||The Gift of Winter||Nicely/Malicious/Narrator||Voice Only|
|1974–75||Dr. Zonk and the Zunkins||—||Voice Only|
|1975–80||Saturday Night Live||Various Characters||107 Episodes
Primetime Emmy Award for Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program
|1978||All You Need Is Cash||Mrs. Emily Pules||Radner appeared in a cameo role as a character who is cornered on the street by Eric Idle for an interview about her memories of The Rutles|
|1978||The Muppet Show||Herself||1 Episode|
|1978||Witch's Night Out||Witch||Voice Only|
|1979||Bob & Ray, Jane, Laraine & Gilda||Herself|
|1980||Animalympics||Barbara Warbler/Brenda Springer/Coralee
Perrier/Tatiana Tushenko/Doree Turnell
|1985||Reading Rainbow||Herself||Voice Only
|1988||It's Garry Shandling's Show||Herself||1 Episode|
|1973||The Last Detail||Nichiren Shoshu Member|
|1979||Mr. Mike's Mondo Video||Herself|
|1980||Gilda Live||Herself/Various Characters||Also writer|
|1980||First Family||Gloria Link|
|1982||Hanky Panky||Kate Hellman|
|1982||It Came from Hollywood||Herself|
|1984||The Woman in Red||Ms. Millner|
|1985||Movers & Shakers||Livia Machado|
|1986||Haunted Honeymoon||Vickie Pearle|
- "Fighting for Life". Los Angeles Daily News. 1989-07-11.
- "Gilda Radner profile". Film Reference. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- "Michaels and Radner talk SNL". 90 Minutes Live. CBC Television. 1978-02-02. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- Radner, Gilda. It's Always Something New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989, p. 97
- Saltman, David. Gilda: An Intimate Portrait. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1992.
- Hevesi, Dennis. "Gilda Radner, 42, Comic Original Of 'Saturday Night Live' Zaniness", nytimes.com, May 21, 1989.
- Radner, Gilda. It's Always Something New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989, p. 99
- Hill, Doug and Jeff Weingrad. Saturday Night: A Backstage History of Saturday Night Live. New York: Beech Tree Books. 1986.
- Radner, Gilda. It's Always Something. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989.
- Barbara Walters being interviewed about Gilda Radner on YouTube
- Radner, Gilda. It's Always Something. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989, pp. 100–101.
- Zweibel, Alan. Bunny Bunny: Gilda Radner. New York: Villard, 1994.
- "Roseanne Roseannadanna vs. Columbia School of Journalism"
- Gilda Radner at the Internet Broadway Database
- Hischak, Thomas S. American Theatre: A Chronicle of Comedy and Drama, 1969–2000. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-512347-6.
- Radner, Gilda. It's Always Something. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989, pg. 60.
- Shales, Tom (2010). Live From New York: An Uncensored History Of Saturday Night Live. ISBN 0-316-73565-5.
- "Mark Twain on Coldest Winter". Snopes.com. 26 September 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- Song, Jenny. "America's Funny Girl", CRMagazine.org, Spring 2009.
- "Gilda Radner profile at". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- "Mike Myers biography". Talktalk.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-07-26.
- Martin & Radner, vimeo.com; accessed March 20, 2015.
- Wilder, Gene. "Why Did Gilda Die?" People Magazine, June 3, 1991.
- Squires, Sally. "Fighting Ovarian Cancer: Doctors Don't Know Who Is At Risk and Why", Washington Post, May 30, 1989.
- Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry website; accessed March 19, 2015.
- "Gilda's Club Twin Cities: Who We Are". Website. gildasclubtwincities.org. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "Wellness Community & Gilda's Club May Merge". Oncology Times vol 31, Issue 7. pp. 8–10. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- McClure, Susan (December 14, 2009). "Gilda's Club and The Wellness Community Join Forces". Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "Merging to Increase Mission Impact". The NonProfit Times. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- Deming, Mark. "Making Trouble: Three Generations of Funny Jewish Women". New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- "A Gilda Radner Tribute" on YouTube, video clips compilation
- "Tribute to Gilda" on YouTube, video compilation
- Cancer Support Community (formerly Gilda's Club)
- Gilda Radner Hereditary Cancer Program
- Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry
- Gilda Radner at the Internet Movie Database
- Gilda Radner at the Internet Broadway Database
- Gilda Radner at Find a Grave
- Jewish Women in Comedy - Gilda Radner
- Gilda Radner page at Godspell.ca