Gillis Grafström in 1924
|Full name||Gillis Emanuel Grafström|
7 June 1893|
|Died||14 April 1938
Gillis Emanuel Grafström (7 June 1893 – 14 April 1938) was a Swedish figure skater. He was born in Stockholm, Sweden. He won three successive Olympic gold medals in Men's Figure Skating (1920, 1924, 1928) as well as an Olympic silver medal in the same event in 1932, and three World Championships (1922, 1924, 1929). Together with Eddie Eagan he is the only athlete to have won a gold medal at both the Summer and Winter Olympic Games, having the further distinction of being the only person to have won an individual gold medal in both the Summer (1920) and Winter Olympics (1924, 1928), although Eagan remains the only one to have managed the feat in different disciplines. Grafstrom is one of the few athletes who have competed in both the Summer and Winter Olympic games.
In 1914, Grafstrom competed at the last World Championships before the First World War. After the war, Grafström won the Olympic gold medal three successive times (1920, 1924, 1928 and 1929) and the silver medal at the 1932 Winter Olympics (behind Karl Schäfer). He remains the only male figure skater to have won three Olympic gold medals (Sonja Henie and Irina Rodnina are other three-time Olympic Champions), and with his silver medal in 1932, is the most successful figure skater in Olympic history. He competed in and won three World Championships in 1922, 1924, 1929, competing only intermittently between editions of Olympic Games.
Grafström was one of the best skaters ever in compulsory figures. He also invented the Grafström-pirouette (on the back outside edge of the blade) and the flying sit spin. He skated very elegantly and was famous for his interpretation of music.
From 1925 to his death he lived in Potsdam, Germany. He trained on the Bornstedter See (Bornstedt Lake) when it was frozen or in Berlin on the artificial ice rink at the Volkspark Friedrichshain. Grafström studied architecture at the Technical University of Berlin (Technische Hochschule Berlin) and worked later as an architect. He collected graphics, paintings and sculptures about skating. This collection was continued by his wife Cecilie Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1898–1995). Today this collection belongs to the World Figure Skating Museum in Colorado Springs in the United States. Grafström was also a writer and an etcher.
Today there is a street in Potsdam named after him. In 1976 he was admitted to the World Figure Skating Hall of Fame. Additionally, Grafström won the Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal in 1929 (Shared with Sven Utterström).
- List of Olympic medalists in figure skating
- World Figure Skating Championships
- List of Olympians who won medals in the Summer and Winter Games
- "Gillis Grafström". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- Gall, Jonnie (18 December 2013). "Who’s competed in the summer and winter Olympics?". GrindTV. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Hines, James R. (2006). Figure skating: a history. University of Illinois Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-252-07286-4. OCLC 59149288.
- "Olympic Winter Games Figure Skating Results" (PDF). International Skating Union. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- Smith, Beverley (1994). Figure skating: a celebration. McClelland & Stewart. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-7710-2819-9. OCLC 30974224.
- Künzle-Watson, Karin; DeArmond, Stephen J. (1996). Ice Skating: Steps to Success. Steps to Success 1. Human Kinetics. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-87322-669-1.
To this day, there are two individuals considered the best at this art: Gillis Grafström of Sweden, who was the men's Olympic champion in 1920, 1923, and 1928, and Beatrix "Trixi" Schuba of Austria, who was the women's Olympic champion in 1972.
- "Hall of Fame Members". World Figure Skating Hall of Fame. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gillis Grafström.|
|Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal with Sven Utterström