Gioventù Italiana del Littorio
The Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) (English: Italian Youth of the Lictor) was the consolidated youth movement of the National Fascist Party of Italy that was established in 1937. It replaced the Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) It was created to supervise and influence the minds of all youths, that was effectively directed against the influence of the Catholic Church on youths.
- Alexander J. De Grand. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: the 'fascist' style of rule. 2nd edition. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 1997. Pp. 66.
- Jean-Guy Prévost. A total science: statistics in liberal and Fascist Italy. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2009. Pp. 228
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