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Girardia sp.jpg
Living specimen of Girardia sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Rhabditophora
Order: Tricladida
Suborder: Continenticola
Family: Dugesiidae
Genus: Girardia
Ball, 1974

See text

Girardia is a genus of freshwater triclad belonging to the Dugesiidae family.

Until 1991 Girardia was considered a subgenus of Dugesia, then it was upgraded to the genus rank.[1] Many works are still using incorrectly the old genus for some Girardia species, mainly for Girardia dorotocephala and Girardia tigrina.[2][3][4][5]



Girardia sp. specimen preserved in alcohol.

Phylogenetic tree including five dugesiid genera after Álvarez-Presas et al., 2008:[7]








  1. ^ De Vries, E. J.; Sluys, R. (1991). "Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Dugesia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola)". Journal of Zoology. 223 (1): 103–116. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1991.tb04752.x. 
  2. ^ Sheiman, I. M.; Kreshchenko, N. D.; Sedel'Nikov, Z. V.; Groznyi, A. V. (2004). "Morphogenesis in Planarians Dugesia tigrina". Russian Journal of Developmental Biology. 35 (4): 228. doi:10.1023/B:RUDO.0000036713.86633.c2. 
  3. ^ Lombardo, P.; Giustini, M.; Miccoli, F. P.; Cicolani, B. (2011). "Fine-scale differences in diel activity among nocturnal freshwater planarias (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida)". Journal of Circadian Rhythms. 9: 2. doi:10.1186/1740-3391-9-2. PMC 3094315Freely accessible. PMID 21477354. 
  4. ^ Hassall, C.; Hollinshead, J.; Hull, A. (2012). "Temporal dynamics of aquatic communities and implications for pond conservation". Biodiversity and Conservation. 21 (3): 829. doi:10.1007/s10531-011-0223-9. 
  5. ^ Prados, J.; Alvarez, B.; Howarth, J.; Stewart, K.; Gibson, C. L.; Hutchinson, C. V.; Young, A. M. J.; Davidson, C. (2012). "Cue competition effects in the planarian". Animal Cognition. 16 (2): 177–186. doi:10.1007/s10071-012-0561-3. PMID 22976576. 
  6. ^ *Tyler S, Schilling S, Hooge M, and Bush LF (comp.) (2006-2012) Turbellarian taxonomic database. Version 1.7 Database Archived February 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Álvarez-Presas, M.; Baguñà, J.; Riutort, M. (2008). "Molecular phylogeny of land and freshwater planarians (Tricladida, Platyhelminthes): From freshwater to land and back". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 47 (2): 555–568. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.01.032. PMID 18359250.