Girardia tigrina

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Girardia tigrina
G tigrina pattern 2.jpg
Scientific classification
G. tigrina
Binomial name
Girardia tigrina
(Girard, 1850)
  • Dugesia tigrina (Girard,1850)
  • Girardia jimi Martins, 1970

Girardia tigrina is a species of dugesiid native to the Americas.[1] It has been accidentally introduced into Europe[2] and Japan.[3]


G. tigrina individuals are around 10 mm in length. They have a head with two broad and short auricles. The two eyes are in two pigment-free patches. The dorsal surface of the body has numerous pigment spots.[3]

Distribution and ecology[edit]

Originally from the Americas, Girardia tigrina has become an invasive species in Europe and Japan. Since being first recorded in France in 1925,[4] this species has been reported from many other European countries, including Germany,[5][6] Italy,[7] the Netherlands,[8] Romania,[9] and Wales.[10]

In North Wales, this species has displaced the native triclad species Polycelis nigra and Polycelis tenuis due to its superior exploitation of food.[2]


G. tigrina is a carnivorous species that feeds on invertebrates such as oligochaetes, isopods, chironomids, snails, caddisflies, and mayflies.[2]


The haploid number is n=8. There are diploid (2n=16) and triploid (3n=24) specimens.[3]


  1. ^ Ball, I. R.: A contribution to the phylogeny and biogeography of the freshwater triclads (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria). Biology of the Turbellaria (Edited by: Riser NW and Morse MP). New York: McGraw-Hill New York 1974 , 339-401.
  2. ^ a b c Gee, H.; Young, J. O. (1993). "The food niches of the invasive Dugesia tigrina (Girard) and indigenous Polycelis tennis Ijima and P. Nigra (Müller) (Turbellaria; Tricladida) in a Welsh lake". Hydrobiologia. 254 (2): 99. doi:10.1007/BF00014313.
  3. ^ a b c Sluys, R., Kawakatsu, M., Yamamoto, K., 2010. "Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan". Belgian Journal of Zoology, 140 (Suppl.). p. 103-109
  4. ^ Gourbault, N. (1969). "Expansion de dugesia tigrina (Girard), planaire américaine introduite en Europe". Annales de Limnologie. 5: 3. doi:10.1051/limn/1969006.
  5. ^ Meinken (H.)., 1925. Ein verkannter Laichraùher — Wochenschrift fur Aquarien und Terrarienkunde, 22 S : 94-96.
  6. ^ Meinken (H.)., 1927. Planaria maculata, ein aus Nordamerika eingeschleffter Laichriiber und seine Vertilgung — Blatter fiir Aquarien und Terrarienkunde, 38 S : 131-133.
  7. ^ Benazzi M., 1970. Karyological research on the American planarians Dugesia dorotocephala and Dugesia tigrina. J. Biol. Psychol. / Worm Runner's Digest, XII (1): 81-82.
  8. ^ Velde, G. (1975). "The immigrant triclad flatworm Dugesia tigrina (Girard) (Plathelminthes, Turbellaria). Range-extension and ecological position in the Netherlands". Hydrobiological Bulletin. 9 (3): 123–130. doi:10.1007/BF02263331.
  9. ^ An der Lan (H.)., 1962. Zur Turbellarien Fauna der Danau. Arch. Hydrobiol., suppl., 2 7 : 3-27.
  10. ^ Gee, H., 1990. The biology of the immigrant triclad Dugesia tigrina, (Girard): a comparative study with native triclad species. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool, England.