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A girder is a support beam used in construction. It is the main horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams. Girders often have an I-beam cross section for strength, but may also have a box shape, Z shape and other forms. A girder is commonly used many times in the building of bridges, and planes.
The Warren type girder combines strength with economy of materials and can therefore be relatively light. Patented in 1848 by its designers James Warren and Willoughby Theobald Monzani, its structure consists of longitudinal members joined only by angled cross-members, forming alternately inverted equilateral triangle-shaped spaces along its length, ensuring that no individual strut, beam, or tie is subject to bending or torsional straining forces, but only to tension or compression. It is an improvement over the Neville truss which uses a spacing configuration of isosceles triangles.
- Song W, Ma Z, Vadivelu J, Burdette E (2014). Transfer Length and Splitting Force Calculation for Pretension Concrete Girders with High-Capacity Strands. Journal of Bridge Engineering. 19(7), DOI 04014026.
- Chen X, Wu S, Zhou J (2014). ”Compressive Strength of Concrete Cores with Different Lengths.” Journals Materials and Civil. Engineering, 26(7), DOI 04014027.
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