and if and only if
All known Giuga numbers n in fact satisfy the stronger condition
The sequence of Giuga numbers begins
For example, 30 is a Giuga number since its prime factors are 2, 3 and 5, and we can verify that
- 30/2 - 1 = 14, which is divisible by 2,
- 30/3 - 1 = 9, which is 3 squared, and
- 30/5 - 1 = 5, the third prime factor itself.
The prime factors of a Giuga number must be distinct. If divides , then it follows that , where is divisible by . Hence, would not be divisible by , and thus would not be a Giuga number.
Thus, only square-free integers can be Giuga numbers. For example, the factors of 60 are 2, 2, 3 and 5, and 60/2 - 1 = 29, which is not divisible by 2. Thus, 60 is not a Giuga number.
This rules out squares of primes, but semiprimes cannot be Giuga numbers either. For if , with primes, then , so will not divide , and thus is not a Giuga number.
|Unsolved problem in mathematics:
Are there infinitely many Giuga numbers?
(more unsolved problems in mathematics)
All known Giuga numbers are even. If an odd Giuga number exists, it must be the product of at least 14 primes. It is not known if there are infinitely many Giuga numbers.
It has been conjectured by Paolo P. Lava (2009) that Giuga numbers are the solutions of the differential equation n' = n+1, where n' is the arithmetic derivative of n. (For square-free numbers , , so n' = n+1 is just the last equation in the above section Definitions, multiplied by n.)
José Mª Grau and Antonio Oller-Marcén have shown that an integer n is a Giuga number if and only if it satisfies n' = a n + 1 for some integer a > 0, where n' is the arithmetic derivative of n. (Again, n' = a n + 1 is identical to the third equation in Definitions, multiplied by n.)
- Borwein, D.; Borwein, J. M.; Borwein, P. B.; Girgensohn, R. (1996). "Giuga's Conjecture on Primality" (PDF). American Mathematical Monthly. 103: 40–50. doi:10.2307/2975213. Zbl 0860.11003.
- Balzarotti, Giorgio; Lava, Paolo P. (2010). Centotre curiosità matematiche. Milan: Hoepli Editore. p. 129. ISBN 978-88-203-4556-3.