Giulio Claro

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Giulio Claro
Sententiae receptae, 1661 edition
Born(1525-01-06)January 6, 1525
Died13 April 1575(1575-04-13) (aged 50)
  • Jurist
  • Public official
Parent(s)Giovanni Luigi Claro and Ippolita Claro (née Gambaruti)
Academic background
Alma mater
Academic work
DisciplineCriminologist, legal theorist, magistrate
School or traditionMos italicus iura docendi
InfluencedVirtually every area of criminal law in Western civil law countries under the Ancien Régime, notably Farinacci, Carpzov, Spee, Beccaria

Giulio Claro or Clarus (Italian: [ˈdʒuːljo ˈ]; 6 January 1525 – 13 April 1575) was an Italian Renaissance jurist and public official.


Giulio Claro was born in Alessandria of a noble family. He studied at Pavia under Andrea Alciato, and took his doctor's degree in 1550.[1]

After receiving his doctorate, Claro was appointed a Milanese Senator by Philip II in 1536, a royal pretor in Cremona in 1560/61, president of the Milanese Magistrato straordinario delle entrate in 1563 and regent of the Consejo d'Italia in Madrid in 1565.


Claro's work, together with that of Deciani and Farinacci, provided the theoretical foundation for the common criminal law of Europe. That common law held sway until it was attacked by Enlightenment legal critics such as Feuerbach and replaced by national penal codes in the 19th century.

Claro's principal work is the Liber V. Sententiarum, the fifth volume of his legal encyclopedia Sententia receptae. Dedicated to criminal law, it was reprinted as part of the Julii Clari Opera omnia as late as 1737.


Libri sententiarum, 1555 manuscript. Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan.
  • Sententiae receptae (in Latin). Lyon: Horace Boissat & George Remeus. 1661.