Giulio Terzi di Sant'Agata
|Giulio Terzi di Sant'Agata|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
16 November 2011 – 26 March 2013
|Prime Minister||Mario Monti|
|Preceded by||Franco Frattini|
|Succeeded by||Mario Monti|
9 June 1946 |
|Political party||Independent (before 2013)
Brothers of Italy (2013–present)
|Alma mater||University of Milan|
Giuliomaria Terzi di Sant'Agata (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒuːljo ˈtɛrtsi di sanˈtaːɡata] (Count); born 9 June 1946) is an Italian diplomat who was Italy's Minister of Foreign Affairs from November 2011 until he resigned 26 March 2013. From August 2008 to September 2009 he was the Permanent Representative of Italy to the United Nations in New York, where he also headed the Italian delegation to the United Nations Security Council, which Italy had joined as non-permanent member for the 2007–2008 term. He then served as Italy's ambassador to the United States from 2009 to 2011.
Count Giulio Maria Terzi of Sant'Agata, The Lord of Sant'Agata, Baron, Knight of the Holy Roman Empire, Noble of Bergamo (in Italian Conte Giulio Maria Terzi di Sant'Agata, Signore di Sant'Agata, Barone, Cavaliere del Sacro Romano Impero, Nobile di Bergamo).
Born in Bergamo, Terzi is a career diplomat. He joined Italy's foreign service in 1973. During his first two years at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Rome, he served as a protocol officer assigned to visits abroad by Italian government officials. In 1975 he was posted as first secretary for political affairs at the Italian embassy in Paris. After returning to Rome in 1978, as Special Assistant to the Secretary General, he was in Canada as Economic and Commercial Counsellor for almost five years, a period of sharp growth in economic and high-tech cooperation between Italy and Canada. He was Consul General in Vancouver during Expo 86, where he promoted major events for Italian businesses and culture on Canada’s Pacific Coast.
In 1987, Terzi returned to Rome to serve first at the Department for Economic Affairs, focusing on high technology exchange, and later as Head of one of the Offices of the Department of Personnel and Human Resources. His next foreign assignment was to NATO in Brussels, where he was Political Adviser to the Italian Mission to the North Atlantic Council in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War, German reunification, and the first Gulf War.
From 1993 to 1998, Terzi was in New York City at the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations as First Counsellor for Political Affairs and later as Minister and Deputy Permanent Representative. During this period – marked by the Bosnian War, the Somali Civil War, as well as conflicts in the African Great Lakes region – Italy was a non-permanent member of the Security Council. By the mid-nineties globalisation and new challenges to international security underscored the need for major reforms of the UN bodies, a cause that Italy championed in all the UN fora.
Terzi served as deputy secretary general of Italy's Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Rome, director general for political affairs and human rights, and political director. In this capacity, his responsibilities included major international security and political issues, especially in the framework of the UN Security Council, the UN General Assembly, and the UN Council on Human Rights, as well as the Council of the European Union, NATO, the G8, and OSCE. He also advised the Foreign Minister on international security, focusing on the Western Balkans, the Middle East, Afghanistan, East Africa, nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and human rights.
His most recent overseas posting was ambassador of Italy to Israel (2002–2004), a period characterized by the outbreak of the Second Intifada, improved relations between the EU and Israel during the Italian Presidency of the EU (July–December 2003), and the renewed commitment of Israel and the Palestinian Authority to the peace process on the basis of the road map.
On November 16, 2011, he was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs of Monti’s government. During his tenure, he held 1,483 meetings and events, which covered 91 different countries with 75 official visits abroad and 138 meetings with other foreign ministers, of which 63 in Italy and 75 overseas. He was member of the “Westervelle Group”, composed by 11 European Foreign Ministers and aimed at supporting initiatives for “More Europe” in the European political integration process. He actively promoted UN moratorium on the death penalty resolution and other campaigns for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Within the EU and NATO, Minister Terzi was a strong advocate for a renewed “Pratica di Mare” partnership with the Russian Federation in order to settle energy and rule of law issues, as well as European security concerns raising from East-West diverging positions on conventional and nuclear forces. He gave impulse to policies of diversification of energy supplies to Italy, by negotiating and signing during the 2012 UNGA in New York the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) between Albania, Greece and Italy, by strengthening relations with transitional governments in Libya, and enhancing economic cooperation with Mozambique, Angola and Algeria. He pursued a reinforced Mediterranean political and economic cooperation in the Mediterranean region in the “5+5 Dialogue” framework, with Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania and Tunisia, and other bilateral and multilateral initiatives through the EU, NATO and the UN. At the same time Minister Terzi did strive for a closer EU political, economic, and scientific cooperation with Israel and for the reactivation of the MEPP on the base of the two-state solution. During his tenure, Minister Terzi engaged in a more active Italian diplomacy for the Horn of Africa, by visiting and signing new agreements with Ethiopia and Somalia.
Diplomatic crisis with India
The seizure by India of two Italian Marines in international waters off the Kerala coast on 16 February 2012 over an alleged incident and the death of two fishermen which India claimed had involved the Italian tanker Enrica Lexie and its Military Protection Unit, while on official duty in the framework of international anti-piracy activities, caused a dispute between India and Italy on jurisdiction.
The dispute was brought by the Italian Government to the UN, EU, regional and global fora, and discussed at bilateral and multilateral level with India, with the intent of settling the dispute through the arbitration procedure established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), to which both Italy and India are signatories. Having India formally rejected all Italian proposals for convening UNCLOS Arbitration, Minister Terzi on 11 March 2013 announced – on behalf of and in agreement with the government – that the two Italian marines, Massimiliano Latorre and Salvatore Girone – who had meanwhile been sent back to Italy having obtained from the Indian authorities a “temporary leave” to exert their electoral duties – would not have left the country to return to India until the arbitration established by UNCLOS  decided on the matter of jurisdiction.
The Indian reaction and concerns for the loss of Defense Procurement, already investigated by the Italian and Indian courts, led some members of PM Monti’s government next March 22 to insist for a complete reversal of the previous decision announced by Italy on 11 March. Prime Minister Office announced then the decision to send the two riflemen back to India. Such a sudden change of the government’s strategy was severely criticized and rejected formally in writing by the Foreign Minister. While Terzi was awaiting for clarifications from the PM Monti, he momentarily uphold his resignation.
Three days later, on March 26, 2013 – as soon as the plenary session of the Chamber of Deputies reconvened to discuss the latest developments on the case – Minister Terzi announced in parliament his resignation because of his dissent with the position of the government which had reversed a previously agreed decision of keeping the two Marines in Italy until the UNCLOS arbitration would have deliberated on the matter of jurisdiction. The following day, PM Mario Monti assumed the interim as foreign minister. Terzi’s resignation has been criticized by PM Monti, who told the Chamber of Deputies that Terzi would never had - before that day - expressed his own dissent or expressed his intention to resign. In the opinion of Prime Minister Monti, who strongly criticized the Minister Terzi's resignation were attributable to the non-effective handling of the dossier of the diplomatic dispute over the 2012 Enrica Lexie incident.
On 27 March 2013, Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti addressed the Italian parliament and revealed that Terzi repeatedly hampered efforts to settle the dispute with India in a quiet manner by perpetuating controversies through hawkish statements posted on Twitter. Monti attributed the “hardening” of India’s stance to “rash” statements to the press by Terzi and concluded his parliamentary briefing on the debacle, saying that Italy’s strategy "shouldn’t have been the subject of premature statements to the press, which Minister Terzi decided instead to make, previewing a final result which at that point couldn’t be taken for granted,”. According to Monti, Terzi’s resignation was aimed at achieving "other results that will soon become more evident". Terzi immediately contested Monti’s innuendos publicly, reiterating in various interviews and articles reasons and facts which had led to his resignation. On 29 March 2013 Terzi unveiled during a TV interview the heavy pressures he had received in order to give his consent to the return of the two Italian marines to India. Pressures that he firmly refused, since the Marines return to India before the UNCLOS Arbitration would have infringed principles and norms enshrined in the Italian Constitution.
As of this edit, this article uses content from "Ambassador of Italy to the United States", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed. As of this edit, this article uses content from "Embassy of Italy to the United States", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed.
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