Giuoco Piano, Jerome Gambit
|Moves||1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.Bxf7+ Kxf7 5.Nxe5+ Nxe5|
|Named after||Alonzo Wheeler Jerome|
|This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves.|
The opening is named after Alonzo Wheeler Jerome (1834–1902) of Paxton, Illinois, who had a game with this opening against the problemist William Shinkman published in the Dubuque Chess Journal in 1876. Blackburne wrote of it, "I used to call this the Kentucky opening. For a while after its introduction, it was greatly favoured by certain players, but they soon grew tired of it." Blackburne's name for the opening may have arisen from confusion with 1.e4 e5 2.Qh5, which was also published in the Dubuque Chess Journal and dubbed the "Kentucky Opening" there.
In the third edition of the opening treatise Chess Openings, Ancient and Modern (1896), the authors wrote:
The Jerome Gambit is an American invention, and a very risky attack. It is described in the American Supplement to Cook's Synopsis as unsound but not to be trifled with. The first player sacrifices two pieces for two pawns, with the chances arising from the adversary's king being displaced, and drawn into the centre of the board.
Similarly, du Mont wrote that it "is unsound, but has the saving grace of leading to a lively game and is therefore suitable for an occasional friendly game. The defender cannot afford to be careless."
White may regain one of the two sacrificed pieces with 6.d4, but Black retains a decisive advantage with 6...Bxd4 7.Qxd4 Qf6. More commonly, White plays 6.Qh5+. In that event, Freeborough and Ranken analyzed two lines. One is 6...Kf8 7.Qxe5 Qe7 8.Qf5+ Ke8 9.Nc3 d6 10.Qf3 Qf7 11.Qe2 Nh6 12.0-0 c6, with large advantage to Black. Freeborough and Ranken also analyze the bold 6.Qh5+ Ke6!? ("follow[ing] out Mr. Steinitz's theory that the King is a strong piece") 7.Qf5+ Kd6 8.d4 (or 8.f4 Qf6 9.fxe5+ Qxe5) Bxd4 9.Na3 c6 10.c3 Qf6 11.cxd4 Qxf5 12.exf5 Nf7 13.Bf4+ Ke7, again with a large advantage. A bad line for Black after 6.Qh5+ is 6...Kf6?? 7.Qf5+ Ke7 8.Qxe5+ Kf7 9.Qxc5, regaining both pieces and winning two pawns.
versus Blackburne, London 1884:
1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Bc5 4. Bxf7+? Kxf7 5. Nxe5+ Nxe5 6. Qh5+ g6
- Seirawan and Minev observe that after 6...Kf8 7.Qxe5 d6 or 6...Ng6 7.Qxc5 d6 White has insufficient compensation for the sacrificed piece, but Blackburne likes to attack.
7. Qxe5 d6?
- Blackburne remarks, "Not to be outdone in generosity."; however, after 7...Qe7! White cannot safely take the rook.
8. Qxh8 Qh4 9. 0-0 Nf6 10. c3?
- Better is 10.Qd8!
10... Ng4 11. h3 Bxf2+ 12. Kh1 (see diagram) 12... Bf5! 13. Qxa8 Qxh3+! 14. gxh3 Bxe4# 0–1
- Having accepted White's sacrifice of two , Blackburne responded by returning the knight, then sacrificing both rooks and his queen to deliver checkmate with his three remaining minor pieces.
- Rick Kennedy,The Life of Alonzo Wheeler Jerome, blog post, July 27 2009
- Joseph Henry Blackburne, Mr. Blackburne's Games at Chess, selected, annotated and arranged by himself 
- E. Freeborough and Rev. C. E. Ranken, Chess Openings, Ancient and Modern, Third Edition, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., London, 1896, p. 85. 
- J. du Mont, 200 Miniature Games of Chess, David McKay, 1965, p. 147.
- Freeborough and Ranken, p. 86.
- Larry Evans, Chess Catechism, 1970, ISBN 0-671-20491-2
- Yasser Seirawan and Nikolay Minev, Take My Rooks, International Chess Enterprises, 1991, p. 66. ISBN 1-879479-01-X.
- N.N.–Blackburne, England 1880
- Rick Kennedy. "Jerome Gambit theory and practice".
- Gary Lane. "Opening Lanes #158 - A Game of Shadows" (PDF). chesscafe.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Gary Lane. "Opening Lanes #159 - Trash or Treasure?" (PDF). chesscafe.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Rapporto di apertura (Opening Report): 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.Bxf7+ (3 games)