Portrait by José Gil de Castro (detail)
March 14, 1788|
Mezzano Superiore, Italy
|Died||May 24, 1866
|Allegiance|| French Empire
Giuseppe Rondizzoni (March 14, 1788 – May 24, 1866) was an Italian army officer who contributed to the independence of Chile.
Early life and Napoleonic Wars
He was born in Mezzano Superiore on March 14, 1788. Rondizzoni joined the French Imperial Guard in 1807. With Napoleon's army did the Spanish campaign in 1808 and the Austrian one in 1809. In 1812 he participated in the campaign of Russia and the year following in that of Germany. With Napoleon fought till his end: in 1813 and 1814 in Germany (the battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, Leipzig, Magdeburg). In 1815, with the rank of captain, gave evidence of great value in Waterloo. The Napoleonic Wars caused him a total of four wounds, earned him twenty mentions in dispatches for his courage and the Legion of Honor.
Back to Italy after Waterloo was admitted to the Regiment of the Duchy of Parma then ruled by Marie Louise of Austria. Later he moved to United States in Philadelphia, in this city, he met the Chilean General Jose Miguel Carrera and in February 1817 he traveled with him to Buenos Aires on the schooner Clifton.
In July 1817 he joined the Chilean army and took part in Sorpresa de Cancha Rayada battle. He left the army after the shooting of the Carrera brothers, but came back in 1823 with the rank of lieutenant colonel.
Rondizzoni participated in the expedition for the liberation of Peru from the Spaniards earning the rank of colonel. Then he took part in the expedition of Chiloe in 1824 and 1826. He participated in the civil war of 1829-1830, fighting with Ramón Freire in the battles of Ochagavía and Lircay. The defeat suffered in the last battle forced him going into exile, first in Peru and then in El Salvador.
He remained loyal to the government during the Revolution of 1851, fighting in the Battle of Loncomilla. He was appointed Chief of Army Staff in 1851. That same year he became intendente of Concepción and intendente of Chiloe in January 1853. In 1861 he took leave of the Army and retired in Valparaíso where he died on May 24, 1866.
Appointed a Member of the Legion of Merit of Chile, General Rondizzoni is still living in the memory of his adopted country, which has named streets, squares and monuments and even a fortified work in the port of Talcahuano in his honour.
- Loevison, Ermanno (1930). Tipografia parmense, ed. Gli Ufficiali Napoleonici Parmensi (in Italian). Parma, Italy. pp. 28–29.
- Loevison, Ermanno (1937). Dizionario Risorgimento (in Italian). 4. Parma, Italy. p. 104.
- da Mareto, Felice (1973). Deputazione di storia patria, ed. Bibliografia generale delle antiche province parmensi (in Italian). Parma, Italy.
- "Il generale Giuseppe Rondizzoni Canepa, un parmense al servizio del Cile" (in Italian). Retrieved 6 August 2006.