Giza

Coordinates: 29°59′13″N 31°12′42″E / 29.9870°N 31.2118°E / 29.9870; 31.2118
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Giza, Egypt)

Giza
الجيزة
Clockwise from top:
Giza panorama, Pyramids of Giza, Cairo University, Great Sphinx of Giza, aerial view of Pyramids
Flag of Giza
Official seal of Giza
Giza is located in Egypt
Giza
Giza
Location of Giza within Egypt
Giza is located in Africa
Giza
Giza
Giza (Africa)
Coordinates: 29°59′13″N 31°12′42″E / 29.9870°N 31.2118°E / 29.9870; 31.2118
CountryEgypt
GovernorateGiza
Founded642 AD
Government
 • GovernorAhmed Rashed[1]
Area
 • Total98.4 km2 (38.0 sq mi)
Elevation30 m (100 ft)
Population
 (2021)[2]
 • Total4,367,343
 • Density44,000/km2 (110,000/sq mi)
 • Demonym
Gizan Gizanne
Time zoneUTC+2 (EST)
Postal code
5-Digit
Area code(+20) 2
WebsiteGiza.gov.eg

Giza (/ˈɡzə/; sometimes spelled Gizah, Gizeh, Geeza, Jiza; Arabic: الجيزة, romanizedal-Jīzah, pronounced [æˈjiːzæ], Egyptian Arabic: الجيزة el-Gīza [elˈgiːzæ])[3] is the third-largest city in Egypt by area after Cairo and Alexandria; and fourth-largest city in Africa by population after Kinshasa, Lagos, and Cairo. It is the capital of Giza Governorate with a total population of 4,872,448 in the 2017 census.[4] It is located on the west bank of the Nile opposite central Cairo, and is a part of the Greater Cairo metropolis. Giza lies less than 30 km (18.64 mi) north of Memphis (Men-nefer, today the village of Mit Rahina), which was the capital city of the unified Egyptian state during the reign of pharaoh Narmer, roughly 3100 BC.

Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau, the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, among which are the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and a number of other large pyramids and temples. Giza has always been a focal point in Egypt's history due to its location close to Memphis, the ancient pharaonic capital of the Old Kingdom.

Districts and population[edit]

The city of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate, and is located near the northeast border of this governorate.

2017 Population and administrative divisions[edit]

Giza city is a municipal division and capital of Giza governorate with an appointed city head.[5] It comprises nine districts (ahya', singl. hayy) and five new towns (mudun jadidah) administered by the New Urban Communities Authority (NUCA).

The districts/qisms fully subsume to the city head and according to the 2017 census had 4,872,448 residents:[4][6]

District/qism Code 2017 Population
Shamal (North)/ Imbâba 210100 632,599
Agouza, al- 210200 278,479
Duqqî, al- 210300 70,926
Janoub (South)/ Jîza, al- 210400 285,723
Bûlâq al-Dakrûr 210500 960,031
`Umrâniyya, al- 210600 366,066
Ṭâlbiyya, al- 210700 457,667
Ahrâm, al- 210800 659,305
Warrâq, al- 211700 722,083
Shaykh Zâyid, al (new city)[7] 211900 90,699
6 October 1 (new city)[8] 212000 93,012
6 October 2 (new city) 212100 196,373
6 October 3 (new city) 212300 59,485

The new towns are mostly administered by the national level New Urban Communities Authority (NUCA), with some public services under the jurisdiction of Giza. They are confusingly named madina (city), however they are not administratively incorporated as such where many are formed of a single district or qism. Ones not in the 2017 census as they were not yet incorporated, or inhabited at that time are:

  • New 6th of October[9]
  • October Gardens[10]
  • New Sphinx[11]

Permanently inhabited Nile islands:

2006 population[edit]

The city's population was reported as 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census,[12][13] while the governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census, without specifying what the city is. The former figure corresponds to the sum of nine districts/qisms.

Region (Population) Area
km2
2006
Giza, 9 kisms (contiguous) 2,681,863 98.4
Giza, 10 kisms (not contiguous) 2,822,271 115.7
Giza, 10 kisms + Giza markaz (contiguous) 3,063,777 187
Giza, 10 kisms + Giza, Kerdasa, Ossim markaz (contiguous) 338.9

Geography and history[edit]

Giza's most famous landform and archaeological site, the Giza Plateau, holds some major monuments of Egyptian history, and is home to the Great Sphinx. Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau, the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, across the river from modern day Cairo. The Great Pyramid of Giza at one time was advocated (1884) as the location for the Prime Meridian, a reference point used for determining a base longitude.[14]

Climate[edit]

Giza experiences a hot desert like arid climate (Köppen: BWh). Its climate is similar to Cairo, owing to its proximity. Windstorms can be frequent across Egypt in spring, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from 16 to 20 °C (61 to 68 °F), while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C (45 °F). In summer, the highs are 40 °C (104 °F), and the lows can drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rain is infrequent in Giza; snow is extremely rare.

Up to August 2013, the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C (115 °F) on 13 June 1965, while the lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on 8 January 1966.[15]

Climate data for Giza
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28
(82)
30
(86)
36
(97)
41
(106)
43
(109)
46
(115)
41
(106)
43
(109)
39
(102)
40
(104)
36
(97)
30
(86)
46
(115)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
20.9
(69.6)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
32.0
(89.6)
34.9
(94.8)
34.5
(94.1)
34.4
(93.9)
32.4
(90.3)
30.2
(86.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.1
(70.0)
28.1
(82.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
14.0
(57.2)
17.2
(63.0)
20.5
(68.9)
24.0
(75.2)
27.1
(80.8)
27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
25.6
(78.1)
23.5
(74.3)
19.2
(66.6)
15.0
(59.0)
21.2
(70.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.2
(45.0)
10.3
(50.5)
12.7
(54.9)
16.1
(61.0)
19.3
(66.7)
20.6
(69.1)
20.7
(69.3)
18.9
(66.0)
16.8
(62.2)
13.0
(55.4)
8.9
(48.0)
14.3
(57.7)
Record low °C (°F) 2
(36)
4
(39)
5
(41)
8
(46)
11
(52)
16
(61)
17
(63)
17
(63)
16
(61)
11
(52)
4
(39)
4
(39)
2
(36)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(0.1)
4
(0.2)
17
(0.7)
Source 1: Climate-Data.org[16]
Source 2: Voodoo Skies[15] for record temperatures

History[edit]

The Giza pyramid complex

Ancient era[edit]

The area in what is now Giza served as the necropolis of several pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt, during the second millennium BC. Three of these tombs, in the form of giant pyramids, are what is now the famed Giza pyramid complex, featuring the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Classical to medieval era[edit]

Giza and the bridge from Roda Island in c. 1800 Description de l'Égypte

As ancient Egypt passed under several conquests under the Persians, Greeks, Romans and Byzantines, so did the area in what is now Giza. A Byzantine village named Phylake (Greek: Φυλακή) or Terso (Coptic: ϯⲣⲥⲱ, meaning "the fortress", now Tersa) was located south of Giza and should not be confused with it.[17][18][19]

Egyptians called the area Tipersis (Bohairic Coptic: ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ[a] and Sahidic Coptic: ⲧⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲃⲁⲃⲩⲗⲱⲛ, lit.'the Persian (fortress) of Babylon').[20][21][22] Eutychius gives a legend the about city's name and its foundation by Artaxerxes Ochus, while Abu Salih says it was found by a Persian king Hūš at the same time as Qasr ash-Sham,[23] but in view of the fact that older evidence is missing, it is perhaps most likely to have been founded during the Sasanian conquest of Egypt in the early 7th century.[24]

As Muslims of the fledgling Islamic caliphate went on with their conquest of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire beginning in 639 AD, three years after their victory at the battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD, they conquered all of the land by the time they captured the city of Alexandria in 641 AD. A year later in 642 AD (year 21 in Islamic calendar), they founded the city of Giza. The exact etymology of its name is unknown. Al-Maqrizi suggested an irregular Arameo-Arabic root meaning "edge, side" to be the source. Everett-Heath suggested Ancient Egyptian: r-gs-ḥr "on the side of the height (pyramid)". Peust also suggests a Persian etymology of the word from Middle Persian: 𐭣𐭦, romanized: diz, lit.'fortress, castle', which Persians could have given to the pyramids or a fortress they found in the area.[25]

Infrastructure[edit]

Sunset in Giza

Giza has seen many changes over time. Changes in infrastructure during the different occupations of Egypt by various rulers, including the British in the 18th and early 20th century, focused on the construction of roads, streets, and buildings in the area. Giza is a thriving centre of Egyptian culture and is quite heavily populated, with many facilities and buildings in the current area. Giza saw much attention in particular to its vast amount of ancient Egyptian monuments found on the Giza Plateau, and has astonished thousands of visitors and tourists over the years. Giza's infrastructure saw much attention from both the British government prior to the 1952 coup d'état, as well as the current Egyptian government due to the city's importance in tourism. Giza's St. George Cathedral is the episcopal see of the Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Giza.

The city hosts the first zoo on the entire African continent and one of the oldest in the Mediterranean region, the Giza Zoo. In addition, there are several parks, the most famous among them is Orman Park, which means "Forest Park" in the Turkish language.

Transportation[edit]

The Cairo Metro (line 2)

Transportation in Giza comprises an extensive road network, rail system, subway system, and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses and microbuses.

Giza shares with Cairo a subway system, officially called the "Metro (مترو)", a fast and efficient way of getting around. An extensive road network connects Giza with 6th of October City, Cairo and other cities. There are flyovers and bridges such as the 15th. Traffic in Giza is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.

There are other means of transport, like:

  • Cairo Taxi
  • Uber (Available in Cairo and Giza since 2015)[26]
  • Careem (Available in Cairo and Giza since 2015)[27]
  • Swvl (Available in Cairo and Giza since 2017) (A new concept of shared rides within Egypt).
  • Water Taxis (Motorized Feluccas) available for transport to nearby places along the Nile River

Economy[edit]

Grass farm near the Nile.

Industries here include movies, chemicals, Giza cotton, machinery and cigarettes. In addition, Giza has many luxury apartment buildings along the Nile, making it a popular place to live.

International access[edit]

Access to the city of Giza, which has its own governorate adjacent to the Governorate of Cairo, is dependent on the Cairo International Airport. Another local airport is found in Giza, called the Imbaba Airport, but recently the Egyptian government has decided to shut down the area and turn it into a cultural or an athletic area.

Sphinx International Airport was opened in 2018 as an alternative to the already congested Cairo International Airport, but also to improve accessibility to the Giza necropolis as well as to the Grand Egyptian Museum.

Education[edit]

Cairo University

Giza's learning institutions include Cairo University, which was moved to Giza in 1924. The city is a hub of education and educational services not only for Egypt but also for the entire Mediterranean Region. Giza has numerous schools, kindergartens, and institutes of higher learning.

The Cairo Japanese School, a Japanese international school, is in Giza.[28] The Deutsche Evangelische Oberschule, a German international school, is located in Dokki in Giza.[29] Previously the Pakistan International School of Cairo had its campus in Giza.[30]

Sports[edit]

The city hosts the second most successful sports club in Egypt and Africa, El Zamalek, which is located in the Meet Okba neighbourhood near the Mohandesin neighbourhood. Beside El Zamalek there are other clubs like El Tersana and Seid Shooting Club which is one of the elite clubs in Egypt.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Giza is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "محافظ الجيزة يترأس اجتماع اللجنة التنفيذية للمبادرة الوطنية للمشروعات الخضراء الذكية", Masrawy, archived from the original on 2 September 2022, retrieved 2 September 2022
  2. ^ a b c "Egypt: Governorates, Major Cities & Towns - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 17 March 2023. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  3. ^ Egyptian Arabic Place Names and Monument Names, 11 February 2019, retrieved 30 June 2023
  4. ^ a b Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics (CAPMAS) (2017). "2017 Census for Population and Housing Conditions". CEDEJ-CAPMAS. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  5. ^ ""أبو النجا" يتفقد المراحل النهائية لتطوير نفق مشاه بميدان الجيزة". بوابة اخبار اليوم. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  6. ^ "الصفحة الرئيسية - الأحياء". www.giza.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  7. ^ "الصفحة الرئيسية - الشيخ زايد". www.newcities.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  8. ^ "الهيكل الإداري". www.6october.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  9. ^ "الصفحة الرئيسية - مدينة 6 أكتوبر الجديدة". www.newcities.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  10. ^ "الصفحة الرئيسية - حدائق اكتوبر". www.newcities.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  11. ^ "الصفحة الرئيسية - مدينة سفنكس الجديدة". www.newcities.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  12. ^ Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates (Jr.) (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 403. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9. Archived from the original on 11 January 2023. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  13. ^ "Giza, Egypt". Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  14. ^ "The Canary Islands and the Question of the Prime Meridian: The Search for Precision in the Measurement of the Earth", Wilcomb E. Washburn. link Archived 29 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ a b "El-Giza, Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  16. ^ "Climate: Giza – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  17. ^ "TM Places". www.trismegistos.org. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  18. ^ موسوعة " القاموس الجغرافى للبلاد المصرية " – محمد رمزى بك (قسم ثانى ج3 – ص4): مركز وثائق وتاريخ مصر المعاصر الهيئة المصرية العامةللكتاب ط 1994
  19. ^ جغرافية مصر في العصر القبطى – الفرنسى أميلينو : الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب2013 ترجمة ميخائيل مكسى إسكندر – استدراكات العلامة محمد رمزى على الكتاب في الجزء الثالث من ص 274: نشر المعهد العلمى الفرنسى
  20. ^ Amélineau, Emile (1893). La géographie de l'Egypte à l'époque copte. Paris: Imprimerie nationale. pp. 190.
  21. ^ "Trismegistos". www.trismegistos.org. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  22. ^ Stefan, Timm (1988). Das christlich-koptische Agypten in arabischer Zeit. p. 1055.
  23. ^ Timm, Stefan (1985). Das christlich-koptische Agypten in arabischer Zeit (Teil 3 G-L). Wiesbaden. p. 1058.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  24. ^ Peust, Carsten. "Die Toponyme vorarabischen Ursprungs im modernen Ägypten" (PDF). p. 44. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  25. ^ Peust, Carsten. "Die Toponyme vorarabischen Ursprungs im modernen Ägypten" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  26. ^ "Ya Om El Donia. Your Uber Has Just Arrived, Cairo! – Uber Blog". Uber. 20 November 2014. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Ride or Drive with Careem in Cairo, Egypt – Careem". Careem.com. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  28. ^ Home (Archive). Cairo Japanese School. Retrieved on 2 January 2014. "NAZLET EL BATRAN EL AHRAM GIZA, A.R.EGYPT"
  29. ^ "Kontakt Archived 18 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine." Deutsche Evangelische Oberschule. Retrieved on 18 January 2015. "6, El Dokki St. Dokki / Giza"
  30. ^ "Contact Us." Pakistan International School Cairo. Retrieved on 21 April 2015. "12 Midan Tehran, Dokki, Cairo."
  1. ^ Other forms are Coptic: ⲧⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ, Coptic: ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲓ, Coptic: ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ, Coptic: ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲱϯ and Coptic: ⲡⲣⲥⲱⲓ

Further reading[edit]

  • Der Manuelian, Peter. 2017. Digital Giza: Visualizing the Pyramids. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Hawass, Zahi A. 2010. Wonders of the Pyramids: The Sound and Light of Giza. Cairo: Misr Company for Sound, Light, & Cinema.
  • --. 2011. Newly-Discovered Statues From Giza, 1990–2009. Cairo: Ministry of State for Antiquities.
  • Magli, G. 2016. "The Giza 'written' landscape and the double project of King Khufu." Time & Mind-the Journal of Archaeology Consciousness and Culture 9, no.1: 57–74.
  • Khattab, Hind A. S., Nabil Younis, and Huda Zurayk. 1999. Women, Reproduction, and Health In Rural Egypt: The Giza Study. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press.
  • Kormysheva, Ė. E., Svetlana Malykh, and Sergey Vetokhov. 2010. Giza, Eastern Necropolis: Russian Archaeological Mission In Giza. Moscow: Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences.
  • Lawton, Ian, and Chris Ogilvie-Herald. 2000. Giza: The Truth: the People, Politics and History Behind the World's Most Famous Archaeological Site. Rev. ed. London: Virgin.
  • Lehner, Mark, and Zahi A. Hawass. 2017. Giza and the Pyramids: The Definitive History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.