Giżycko Castle, 14th century
|Gmina||Giżycko (urban gmina)|
|• Mayor||Wojciech Iwaszkiewicz|
|• Total||13.87 km2 (5.36 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||142 m (466 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||116 m (381 ft)|
|• Density||2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||+48 87|
Giżycko [ɡʲiˈʐɨt͡skɔ] (former Polish: Lec or Łuczany, German: Lötzen (help·info) or "Castrum Leicze", Lithuanian: Leičių pilis) is a town in northeastern Poland with 29,642 inhabitants (2016). It is situated between Lake Mamry and Lake Niegocin in the region of Masuria, and has been within the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship since 1999, having previously been in the Suwałki Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the seat of Giżycko County.
- 1 History
- 2 Sports
- 3 Education
- 4 Notable residents
- 5 International relations
- 6 Gallery
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Antiquity and Middle Ages
The first known settlements in the area of Giżycko date back Roman times and are connected to Amber Road in vicinity of which Giżycko was located. A defensive grod was known to exist in the area, and in IX was recorded as being ruled by king known as Izegup or Jesegup.
In 1008 Bolesław I the Brave sent an expedition to Christianize the Old Prussians; according to the legend the missionary Bruno of Querfurt was killed by Sudovians near Lake Niegocin in 1009, and a memorial the Bruno – cross was erected near Gizycko in 1910.
The Teutonic Knights built a castle in Prussia named Lötzen (Łuczany in Polish, later also Lec) in 1340, located at the isthmus between two lakes in Masuria. Lötzen was administered within the Komturei of Balga.
After the outbreak of the Thirteen Years’ War in 1454, Łuczany sided with Poland. The settlement was captured by the Teutonic Knights in 1455, but the Poles recaptured it the next year. After the peace treaty signed in Toruń in 1466 it remained under Polish suzerainty as a fief.
The settlement near the castle received town privileges, with a coat of arms and seal, in 1612, while part of the Duchy of Prussia under Polish suzerainty. The first mayor was Paweł Rudzki. The Polish name of the town, used by its overwhelmingly Polish population, at the time was Łuczany.
Lötzen became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701 and was made part of the province of East Prussia in 1773. In 1709/10 the plague claimed 800 victims, only 119 inhabitants survived. In the 19th century, a Lutheran church designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel was erected in the centre of the town. Lötzen became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany.
1844–1848 the "Feste Boyen", a fortress named after the Prussian war-minister Hermann von Boyen, was built on a small landtongue between lake Mamry (Mauersee) and lake Niegocin (Löwentinsee). This fortress is one of the largest and best conditioned fortresses of the 19th century. In 1942–1945 it was the headquarters of the German military intelligence service (Fremde Heere Ost) under Reinhard Gehlen.
In the 1930s Lötzen was the garrison of several military units of the Wehrmacht as a Sub-area Headquarter of Wehrkreis I, which was headquartered at Königsberg. Staff-, maintenance- and guardtroops of Hitler's headquarter Wolfsschanze and the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH, army highcommand) were also based in or nearby Lötzen. The OKH was based at the Mauerwald area, ca. 10 km north of Gizycko, an undestroyed bunker system.
The town was occupied by the Soviet Union's Red Army in 1945 during World War II and placed under Polish administration after the war ended. The German-speaking populace who had not been evacuated during the war were subsequently expelled westward. The town was renamed Giżycko in 1946 in honor of the Masurian folklorist Gustaw Gizewiusz, a 19th-century Evangelical-Lutheran pastor in southern Masuria, who had greatly supported Polish language and Polish culture and stood against Germanisation of Masuria.
- Szkoła Podstawowa nr 4 im. I Dywizji Piechoty
- Szkoła podstawowa nr 5
- Szkoła Podstawowa nr 6
- Szkoła Podstawowa nr 7 im. Janusza Korczaka
- Gimnazjum nr 1 w Giżycku im. Jana Pawła II
- Gimnazjum nr 2 w Giżycku im. Chwały Oręża Polskiego
- Katolickie Gimnazjum im. św. Brunona z Kwerfurtu
- Zespół Szkół nr 1 im. Mikołaja Kopernika
- I Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Wojciecha Kętrzyńskiego
- II Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Gustawa Gizewiusza
- Zespół Szkół Elektronicznych i Informatycznych im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej
- Zespół Szkół Kształtowania Środowiska i Agrobiznesu
- Zespół Szkół Zawodowych
- Katolickie Liceum im. św. Brunona z Kwerfurtu
- Medyczne Studium Zawodowe im. Hanny Chrzanowskiej
- Prywatna Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa
- Wojciech Kętrzyński (1838–1918), Polish historian and activist
- Paul Davidson (1867–1927), German film producer
- Jan Bułhak (1876–1950), Polish pioneer of photography in Poland
- Franz Pfemfert (1879–1954), German publisher
- Lothar Gall (born 1936), German historian
- Łukasz Broź (born 1985), Polish footballer
- Marcin Budziński (born 1990), Polish footballer
- Jakub Kochanowski (born 1997), Polish volleyball player, 2018 World Champion
Twin towns — Sister cities
Giżycko is twinned with:
- History Giżycko City official website
- Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom V, Warsaw, 1884, p. 113
- Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom V, Warsaw, 1884, p. 114
- Jan Leo, Dzieje Prus. Z braniewskiego wydania roku 1725 przełożył bp Julian Wojtkowski, Olsztyn, 2008, p. 581
- Kossert, Andreas (2006). Masuren. Ostpreußens vergessener Süden (in German). Pantheon. ISBN 3-570-55006-0.
Kossert, Andreas (2004). Mazury, Zapomniane południe Prus Wschodnich (in Polish). ISBN 83-7383-067-7.
- Leon Sobociński, Na gruzach Smętka, wyd. B. Kądziela, Warsaw, 1947, p. 76
- von Haxthausen, August (1839). Die ländliche verfassung in den einzelnen provinzen der Preussischen Monarchie (in German). Königsberg: Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung. pp. 78–81.
- Jasiński, Grzegorz (2009). "Statystyki językowe powiatów mazurskich z pierwszej połowy XIX wieku (do 1862 roku)" (PDF). Komunikaty Mazursko-Warmińskie (in Polish). 1: 97–130 – via BazHum.
- Belzyt, Leszek (1996). "Zur Frage des nationalen Bewußtseins der Masuren im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (auf der Basis statistischer Angaben)". Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung (in German). Bd. 45, Nr. 1: 35–71 – via zfo-online.
- Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Provinz Ostpreußen, Kreis Lötzen
- Bandy 2006, World Championships
- Co Giżycko łączy z Ghazni? Archived 2013-11-11 at the Wayback Machine
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Giżycko.|
- Municipal website
- Tourism website
- 1882 Map of East Prussia with Lötzen between Lakes Mauer & Löwentinsee
-  Full text of "Monumenta historiæ Warmiensis, oder, Quellensammlung zur Geschichte Ermlands"
- festeboyen.pl (Polish)