Gjon Kastrioti

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For Skanderbeg's son, see Gjon Kastrioti II.
Gjon Kastrioti
Reign 1407–1437
Spouse Voisava
Noble family Kastrioti
Father Pal Kastrioti
Died 4 May 1437
Buried Serbian Orthodox monastery Hilandar in Mount Athos[1][2]
Occupation 1385–1407: Ottoman vassal
1407–1410: Venetian ally
1415–1417: Ottoman vassal
1419–1426: ally of Despot Stefan
until 1437: Ottoman vassal

Gjon Kastrioti or John Castriot[a] (13?? – 4 May 1437) was an Albanian nobleman, member of the Kastrioti family, and the father of Skanderbeg. He governed the territory between Cape of Rodon and Debar and had at his disposal an army of 2,000 horsemen.[3]

Family[edit]

According to Gjon Muzaka's chronicle (1515), Gjon Kastrioti's father was nobleman Pal Kastrioti, who held two villages, Sina and Lower Gardi.[4][5] These two villages were located on the mountain of Qidhna northwest of Debar.[6]

Gjon managed to expand his family domain over the region of Mat.[7]

Gjon married Voisava, the daughter of a "Triballian" ruler, the lord of Polog (situated in modern R. Macedonia) and had nine children with her: four sons and five daughters. The sons' names were Stanisha, Reposh, Kostandin, and George (Skanderbeg) and the daughters' names were Mara, Jelena, Angjelina, Vlajka and Mamica. The oldest daughter of Gjon Kastrioti, Maria Kastrioti, also called Mamica, married Muzakë Topia. Gjon Kastrioti was also the name of the grandson through George Kastrioti.

Life[edit]

According to some sources, Gjon Kastrioti participated on the Serbian side against the Ottomans in the Battle of Pločnik (1386).[8] Some even attribute the Serbian victory to him, through his cleverness and cooperation with Bosnian troops.[9] In 1386, like many other noblemen from Albania, Gjon became an Ottoman vassal.[10] In 1402 together with other Ottoman vassals from Albania he supported Bayezid I in the Battle of Ankara.[11] He was one of the noblemen who were guarantors for Balša III and Jelena Balšić in the treaty they concluded with the Venetians on 6 June 1408 during the First Scutari War.[12] At the beginning of 1412 Venetians offered 1,000 ducats of yearly provisions to Gjon and the Đurašević brothers to switch sides and leave Balša III, but they refused.[13]

Kastrioti accepted the suzerainty and was made a citizen of Venice in 1413, along with his heirs.[14] Kastrioti maintained good relations with Venice after becoming an Ottoman vassal between 1415 and 1417, and was not likely to endanger the relations by seizing the Cape from Venice.[14] The Venetians tried to bribe the Kastrioti and Dukagjini to fight against Zeta in 1419, but it seems without success.[14]

Map of operations in 1421–1423 war between Serbian Despotate and Venice

In the period 1419–1426 Gjon was an ally of Serbian Despot Stefan Lazarević, who was also an Ottoman vassal. Lazarević had been ceded Zeta from Balša III in 1421, but the Venetians did not recognize him, holding on to the occupied Zetan coast and Bojana, including Drivast.[15] In August 1421, Lazarević led armies into Zeta and took Sveti Srdj, Drivast and Bar; the Venetians concluded a truce and now held only the towns of Skadar, Ulcinj and Budva; when Lazarević demanded the surrender of these towns, Venice refused and war resumed.[15] A number of Gjon Kastrioti's Albanians led by one of his sons joined Lazarević immediately upon the arrival of the latter in Zeta.[16][17] According to Fan Noli it was Stanisha who was sent by his father, together with auxiliary forces, to help Serbian despot to capture Scutari from Venetians.[18] Lazarević besieged Scutari, probably in June 1422, and for a year, it seemed that Venice would have lost their possessions, however, supported by some local Albanians, Venice managed to break the siege in December 1422.[19] In January 1423, Venice bribed and won over the Pamaliots on Bojana, and then bought over several tribal leader in or near Zeta: the Paštrovići, Gjon Kastrioti (who had extended to the outskirts of Alessio), the Dukagjins, and Koja Zaharija.[19] Though none of these were mobilized militarly by Venice, they left the ranks of Lazarević's army, thus became a potential danger to Lazarević.[19] Although Venetian admiral Francesco Bembo offered money to Kastrioti, Dukagjins and to Koja Zaharija in April 1423 to join the Venetian forces against Serbian Despotate (offering 300 ducats to Gjon Kastrioti), they refused.[20]

From time to time one or more of Gjon's sons were sent as a hostages to Ottoman court. In 1428 Gjon Kastrioti had to seek forgiveness from the Venetian Senate because of Skanderbeg's participation in Ottoman military campaigns against the Christians.[21]

In attempt to relieve Ottoman pressure during the Siege of Thessalonica Venice inspired Gjon to rebel against Ottomans in 1428. In August 1428 sent his envoys, priest Dimitrije and lord Murat, to present to Venetians the letters written by sultan during past five years (since Venetians captured Thessalonica in 1423). By those letters sultan sent orders to Gjon to attack Venetian possessions in Albania. Since he refused to cooperate with Ottomans Gjon begged Venetians to provide him with a safe conduct if Ottomans would attack him.[22] In April 1430, after Ottomans captured Thessalonica, they captured most of Gjon's land. Ottoman forces were led by Isak-Beg who was a sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Skopje. He positioned Ottoman garrison in two Gjon's castles and destroyed rest of them. Isak-Beg allowed Gjon to govern a very small part of the territory because Ottomans held Gjon responsible only for disobedience, not for the treason.[23] Gjon Kastrioti joined an unsuccessful uprising against the Ottoman Empire led by Gjergj Arianiti between 1432 and 1436 and was again defeated by the Ottoman forces of Isak-Beg.

Gjon died in on 4 May 1437.[24] The territory previously controlled by Gjon Kastrioti was annexed by the Ottomans and listed in their registers as land of Yuvan-ili (Yuvan was Gjon's name on Turkish language).[25] Until 1438 a part of Gjon Kastrioti's estates comprising nine villages was awarded to Skanderbeg as his timar and in May 1438 those nine villages had been awarded to André Karlo.[26] The granting of these villages to André Karlo must have upset Skanderbeg[27] who requested to be granted with control over the zeamet in Misia consisting of his father's former domain.[28] Sanjakbey (probably of the Sanjak of Ohrid) objected Skanderbeg's request.[29]

Administration[edit]

Some of Gjon's subordinates held the title of kephale as it was used in many regions of Albania at that time (like in Valona and Kanine).[30] At the court of Gjon Kastriot there was also the position of čelnik,[31] with the same or similar duties like those of Stefan Lazarević or Đurađ Branković – being responsible for judiciary and civil affairs.[32]

Collecting the custom duties from Ragusan traders, exporting the grain and trading with salt was important source of income of Gjon Kastrioti.

Venetian Republic attempted to introduce its own units of measure on marketplaces in Scutari, Durazo and Alessio since the beginning of 1410. This intention caused confusion which was a reason for Gjon Kastriot to complain through his envoys in Venice. In January 1410 Venetians accepted Gjon's demands to measure grain and other products exported by him the way they were previously measured.[33]

On 25 February 1420 Gjon Kastriot wrote a letter in the Serbian language to merchants from Ragusa (Dubrovnik). Based on the order of the despot of Serbia, when they would travel from Ragusa to Prizren they had to use the route through Shkodër in Albania Veneta and the Kastriot's land instead of the previous route through the land under control of the small feudal lords and highland tribes of Montenegro.[34] With that letter Gjon informed merchants from Dubrovnik that they were granted safe conduct when passing through regions under his control, on their way from Šufadaj to Prizren.[35] In March 1422 Gjon asked Venice to allow Ragusan traders to travel to his territory in Sufaday through Alessio instead of Scutari, which was allowed starting from August.[36]

After the death of Balša in 1421 Venetians promised to allow Kastrioti to collect salt produced in Durres. Because of the reduced production Venice did not respect its promise. Gjon tried to avoid the monopoly of Venetian Republic and built his own salt evaporation ponds. In 1424 Venetians forced him to destroy all of them because they noticed some of their convoys directed to collect salt in Durres never appeared there. At the beginning of the 15th century Šufaday (important former marketplace on the Adriatic sea, near Lezhë) was a possession of Jonima family and in 1428 it was under Gjon's control.[37] At that time region of Šufadaj was rich with forests and the wood was transported through its port to Ragusa.[38] Оn 17 August 1428 Gjon complained through his representatives in Venice because he was not allowed to collect salt in Durres.[39]

Religion[edit]

His religion was directly influenced by the international balance of political powers. It is believed that a popular saying in southern Albania "Where the sword is, there lies religion" (Albanian: Ku është shpata, është feja) have originated from Gjon Kastrioti.[40] When he was an ally of Venice, in period 1407–1410, he was Roman Catholic. After he allied himself with Stefan Lazarević, despot of Serbian Despotate in period 1419–1426, he converted to Orthodoxy, and in 1431 he was converted to Islam because he was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire.[41]

In 1426 he donated the right to the proceeds from taxes collected from the two villages (Rostuša and Trebište in Macedonia) and from the church of Saint Mary, which was in one of them, to the Serbian Orthodox Monastery of Hilandar in Mount Athos where his son Reposh retired and died on 25 July 1431. Afterwards, in period between 1426 and 1431,[42] Gjon Kastrioti and his sons, with the exception of Stanisha, purchased four adelphates (rights to reside on monastic territory and receive subsidies from monastic resources) to the Saint George tower and to some property within the monastery. In his honor the Saint George tower of Monastery of Hilandar was known as the Albanian tower (Serbian: Arbanaški pirg).[43][44][45]

According to Noli, he died Roman Catholic.[46] According to the archives of the Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos, he took monastic vows there and received the name Joachim, becoming an Orthodox monk, where he died.[47]

Titles[edit]

His different titles used in sources include Lord of Emathia and Vumenestia or simply Lord of Mat. In Venetian sources he was also referred to as "lord in Albania" (dominum in Albania),[48] and "lord of the part of Albania" (dominus partium Albanie).[49]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In the documentary acts of the time, Scanderbeg's father is variously called Ivan Castriothi,[50] Ivanus Castrioti,[51] Juano/Juanum Castrioti,[52] Juannus Castrioti,[53] Juanum, Johanni, Ivanus, Ivani,[54] Iohannes, Janus, Iouan, Ioannis, Yuan, Ivan, Yuvan, etc.[55] In the few acts of his own chancellery, his name results Ivan or Ivanъ. It is possible that these acts were written by Ninac Vukosalić.[56][57] Besides the acts in Slavonic, Ivan is used by some Byzantine chroniclers, like Laonicus Chalcocondyles (Ὶβάνης)[58] and many works written by the contemporary scholars. Gjon Muzaka (Giovanni Musachi, fl. 1510) in his work written in Italian, calls him Giovanni, which is also used by Demetrio Franco (1443–1525). Marin Barleti in his 1508–10 Latin work, calls him Iohannes. Frang Bardhi (1606–1643) in his Apology, called him "Gion, which in Latin is Iohannis".[59]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sindik, Dušan (1990), "Dve povelje u Hilandaru o Ivanu Kastriotu i sinovima", Stanovništvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbian), Titograd: Istorijski institut SR Crne Gore ; Stručna knj., OCLC 29549273, Pretpostavka da je kao monah u Hilandaru umro i sam Ivan Kastriot zasniva se na podacima jednog zapisa u kojem se kaže da je umro Kastriot... Ioakim monah. Po sličnosti imena Ioakim i Ivan, zatim po datumu u tome zapisu 2. maj, i po jednom drugom zapisu u kojem je pod 2. majem zabeležena smrt Ivana Kastriota, može se sa dosta sigurnosti podržati navedena pretpostavka. 
  2. ^ Savez društava arhivskih radnika Jugoslavije, Savez društava arhivskih radnika FNRJ., Glavni arhivski savet FNRJ. (1952). Arhivist, Томови 2-4. Savez društava arhivskih radnika FNRJ. p. 73. Retrieved 25 March 2012. Ту је белешка да се 2 маја преставио „господин Иван Кастриот, Монах Јов, ктитор светаго места сего" 
  3. ^ Selishchev, Afanasiĭ Matveevich (1978) [1931], Slavjanskoe naselenie v Albanii [Slavic population in Albania] (in Russian), Köln: Böhlau Verlag, p. 179, ISBN 9783412012786, OCLC 5658110, Иван Кастриот (1407–1437) располагал войском в 2000 всадников и владел областью от морского побережья у Кап Родони (к северу от Драча) до пределов Дебра. 
  4. ^ Hopf, Carl Hermann Friedrich Johann (1873), Chroniques Gréco-Romanes Inédites ou peu Connues, Berlin, Germany: Librairie de Weidmann, p. 236, Paolo, segneur de Signa et de Gardi-ipostesi 
  5. ^ Buda, Aleks, Shkrime historike, 3, Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese 8 Nëntori, p. 239, ISBN 978-99927-1-651-9, OCLC 163395350, Në fund të shek. XIV Pal Kastrioti kishte këtu dy fshatra. Sinjën dhe Gardhin e Poshtëm. 
  6. ^ Recherches albanologiques: Série historique, Volume 12 (in French). Priština: Albanološki institut u Prištini. 1982. p. 67. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Le grand-pére de Scanderbeg s'appelait Pal Kastrioti, qui au cours de la Ile moitié du XlVe siècle était un petit féodal-maître de Sina et de Gardhi i Poshtëm. Ces deux villages se trouvent à la montagne de Qidhna dans le nord-ouest de Dibra. 
  7. ^ Bartl, Peter (2001) [1995], Albanci : od srednjeg veka do danas (in Serbian), translated by Ljubinka Milenković, Belgrade: Clio, p. 40, ISBN 9788671020176, OCLC 51036121, retrieved 1 February 2012, Његов деда поседовао је неколико села у области Дебра. Отац је проширио породично имање на област Мати 
  8. ^ Mandrović, Kosta (1885). Ilustrovana istorija srpskog naroda od najstarijih vremena do proglašenja nove kraljevine: Sa 120 slika i jednom kartom Balkanskog poluostrova. p. 183. 
  9. ^ Đerić, Branislav (1989). Kosovska bitka: vojno-istorijska rasprava. Naučna knjiga. p. 25. Нарочито о боју код Плочника наводе се разне версије, као да је у вези са босанским трупама и лукавством некак- вога Кастриоте задобивен. 
  10. ^ Povijesno društvo Hrvatske (1989). Historijski zbornik, Volumes 41-42 (in Croatian). Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Hrvatske. p. 24. OCLC 1752136. Retrieved 20 April 2012. dok je tesalski car Anđeli postao vazal još 1386. godine.2* Osmanski vazali bili su tada i... kao i albanska vlastela Dimitrije Jonima, Koja Zakarija, Ivan Kastriot i Tanuš Veliki Dukađin. 
  11. ^ Fine 1994, p. 422.
  12. ^ M. Bešić, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 95, OCLC 175122851, Јелена и Балша III...су 6. маја 1408.год. овластили у свом двору у Бериславићима (сјеверно од Ска- дарског језера) Никиту Топију да се с њим споразумије. Удво-;стручили су број јемаца, додајући им Ивана Кастриота, ... Никита Топијасастао се с драчким бајилом 6. јуна 1408. год....И ту је постигнут нови споразум 
  13. ^ M. Bešić, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 105, OCLC 175122851, Млечани су и н>има и Ивану Кастриоту узалуд нудили годишње провизије — до 1.000 дукатаза сву тројицу. 
  14. ^ a b c Fine 1994, p. 515.
  15. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 516
  16. ^ Ćorović 2001: "Уз Стевана се борило и нешто Арбанаса Ивана Кастриота, који је пришао деспоту одмах по доласку овог у Зету."
  17. ^ Vujović, Dimitrije; Risto Dragićević, Nikola Đakonović, Milinko Đurović, Mirčeta Đurović, Pavle Mijović, Đoko Pejović, Vlado Strugar (1970), Milinko Đurović, ed., Istorija Crne Gore [History of Montenegro] (in Serbian), II, Titograd: Naučno Delo, p. 143, OCLC 633018773, У деспотовој војсци налазили су се и одреди Ивана Кастриота, који је тада имао посједе око Љеша, и то под командом једног од његових синова....  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  18. ^ Noli, Fan Stilian (1947), George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405–1468), International Universities Press, OCLC 732882, As a matter of fact, he had sent his son Stanisha with an auxiliary corps to help the Serbians against the Venetians at Scutari 
  19. ^ a b c Fine 1994, p. 517
  20. ^ Vujović, Dimitrije; Risto Dragićević, Nikola Đakonović, Milinko Đurović, Mirčeta Đurović, Pavle Mijović, Đoko Pejović, Vlado Strugar (1970), Milinko Đurović, ed., Istorija Crne Gore [History of Montenegro] (in Serbian), II, Titograd: Naučno Delo, p. 144, OCLC 633018773, Франћеско Бембо је настојао да привучена млетачку страну најистакнутије арбанаске господаре. Ивану Кастриоту је нудио 300, Који Закарији 200, а двојици Дукађина по сто дуката....Ни он ту није ништа учинио...  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  21. ^ Elsie, Robert (2010), "Independent Albania (1912–1944)", Historical dictionary of Albania, Lanham: Scarecrow Press, p. 399, ISBN 978-0-8108-7380-3, OCLC 454375231, retrieved 4 February 2012, The young Iskander also participated in military campaigns against the Christians, for which his father was obliged to beg the pardon of Venetian senate in 1428 
  22. ^ M. Bešić, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 156, OCLC 175122851, Иван Кастриот је одбијао сарадњу с Турцима, ... Иванови посланици поп Димитрије и властелин Мурат излагали су Сињорији, у августу 1428. год., да је султан, откако су Млечани узели Солун (1423), позивао њиховог господара да нападне млетачкепосједе у Албанији. Показивали су и султанова писма. Како јеон одбијао турске позиве, молио је да га Млечани прихвате ако га Турци нападну. 
  23. ^ M. Bešić, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 158, OCLC 175122851, Исхак је најприје одузео Ивану Кастриоту већи дио земље, увео у његове двије тврђаве турскепосаде а остале порушио. Мањи дио посједа му је оставио, јер ганије кажњавао због издаје него због непокорности 
  24. ^ History of the Albanian people 2002 edition from the Academy of Sciences of Albania Tome I, p. 335
  25. ^ İnalcık 1995, p. 77

    Ces neuf villages, toujours selon le registre en question, étaient situés dans les terres de Jean (Yuvan-ili), c'est-à-dire qu'ils appartenaient aux domaines de Jean Kastriote, le père de Skanderbeg. (These nine villages, according to the register in question, were located in the land of John (Yuvan-ili), that is to say they were part of John Kastrioti's property.)

  26. ^ İnalcık 1995, p. 77

    La note en question, datée 1438, ne laisse subsister aucun doute que c'est autour de cette date que ces terres avaient été cadastrées. Les neuf villages en question, compte tenu qu'ils se trouvaient sur le Registre de Yuvan-ili (Jean Kastriote), sont du domaine du père de Skanderbeg. L'octroi de ces villages à André Karlo doit avoir fâché Skanderbeg. Quoique l'Etat ottoman considérât ces terres des domaines d'Etat attribuables en timar, pour Skanderbeg il s'agissait des domaines seigneuriaux de son père. (The note, dated 1438, leaves no doubt that it is around this date that the land had been surveyed and registered. As the nine villages were listed on the Register of Yuvan-ili (John Kastrioti), they were definitely part of Skanderbeg's father's land. The granting of these villages to André Karlo must have upset Skanderbeg. Although the Ottoman state regarded these as areas of state land as Skanderbeg's Timar holding, these were in fact the fiefs of his father.)

  27. ^ İnalcık 1995, p. 77

    L'octroi de ces villages à André Karlo doit avoir fâché Skanderbeg.

  28. ^ Gibb, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen; Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Bernard Lewis, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht (1954), The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 4, Brill, p. 139, In the same year nine villages of his in Yuvan-eii were made over to Andre Karlo (ibid., no. 335). His father's centre ol Mus (Mysja) was made a xi'amet, and Isken- der asked for it to be granted to himself (Topkapi Sarayi Archives  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  29. ^ Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Sir Hamilton; Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Bernard Lewis, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht (1954), The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 4, Brill, p. 139, ...but sanjakbegi (? of Ohrid) objected to the granting of this important...  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  30. ^ Blagojević, Miloš (2001). Državna uprava u srpskim srednjovekovnim zemljama (in Serbian). Belgrade: Službeni list SRJ. p. 265. Retrieved 8 July 2012. Поред Канинеи Валоне кефалије су постојале иуобласти Ивана Кастриота, што без сумње сведочи да се установа кефалије учврстила у многим крајевима Албаније. 
  31. ^ Selishchev, Afanasiĭ Matveevich (1978) [1931], Slavjanskoe naselenie v Albanii [Slavic population in Albania] (in Russian), Köln: Böhlau Verlag, p. 179, ISBN 9783412012786, OCLC 5658110, При дворе Ивана Кастриота была должность чельника. 
  32. ^ Samardžić, Radovan (1982). Istorija srpskog naroda: Doba borbi za očuvanje i obnovu države 1371-1537 (in Serbian). Belgrade: Srpska knjiiževna zadruga. p. 120. Retrieved 11 July 2012. Надлежности челника Лазаревића најчешће су везане за судство и цивилне послове.... Потпуно исте или сличне надлежности имали су челници БранковиЬа и Ивана Кастриота.... 
  33. ^ Istorisko društvo Narodne Republike Crne Gore; Istoriski institut Narodne Republike Crne Gore.; Istorijski institut SR Crne Gore u Titogradu.; Društvo istoričara SR Crne Gore.; Istorijski institut Republike Crne Gore.; Društvo istoričara Republike Crne Gore.; Društvo istoričara Crne Gore. (1993), Istoriski zapisi [Historical records] (in Serbian), 66, Cetinje, pp. 37, 42, 63, OCLC 5227190  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  34. ^ Jireček, Konstantin (1952). Politička istorija Srba (Political history of Serbs) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Naučna Knjiga. p. 335. Retrieved 14 December 2014. Забрани деспот дубровчанима да иду тим путем, и нагна их да путују кроз млетачку скадарску област и кроз земљу Ивана Кастриота... Види српско писмо Ивана Кастриота од 25. фебруара 1420 за дубровачке трговце кроз његову земљу за Призрен (Despot forbid to Dubrovnik merchants to use that way, and ordered them to travel through Venetian area in Scutari and through land of Ivan Kastriot.... See serbian letter to merchants from Dubrovnik traveling through his land to Prizren, written by Ivan Kastriot on February 25, 1420. 
  35. ^ Archiv für slavische Philologie (in German), 21, Weidmann, 1899, p. 95, 1420, 25. Februar. Geleitsbrief des Herrn Ivan (Kastriota) und seiner Sühne filr die Kaufleute von Ragusa auf dem Wege durch sein Land von Sufadaja (bei Alessio) nach Prizren, nebst Bestimmungen Uber die Zölle. 
  36. ^ Istorisko društvo Narodne Republike Crne Gore; Istoriski institut Narodne Republike Crne Gore.; Istorijski institut SR Crne Gore u Titogradu.; Društvo istoričara SR Crne Gore.; Istorijski institut Republike Crne Gore.; Društvo istoričara Republike Crne Gore.; Društvo istoričara Crne Gore. (1993), Istoriski zapisi [Historical records] (in Serbian), 66, Cetinje, p. 35, OCLC 5227190, Иван Кастриот ]е од Снн‚ори]е тражио да дубровачкн комерсанти уместо да прелазе копном пут од Скадра могу да се искрца]у у. ТЬешу и да преко млетачке тернторн]е долазе на тьегово подруч]е, т]. у Шуфада]; та] захтев ]е остварен августа  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  37. ^ Detelić, Mirjana (2007), Dušan T. Bataković, ed., Epski gradovi, leksikon [Epic cities, a lexicon] (in Serbian), Belgrade: Balkanološki institut SANU, p. 253, ISBN 9788671790406, OCLC 298613010, U blizini Lješa postojalo je trgovište Šufadaj ili Sufade čiji položaj danas nije moguće tačno utvrditi. Taj strateški važan trg blizu mora (budući daje bio dostupan brodovima) Venecija nije kontrolisala, iako je držala zemljišni pojas od Skadra do Lješa, uz Dračsa okolinom. Šufadaj je početkom XV v. bio u vlasti porodice Jonima, a 1428. u vlasti Jovana Kastriota 
  38. ^ Povijesno društvo Hrvatske; Društvo za hrvatsku povjesnicu (1984), Historijski zbornik (in Croatian), 37, Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Hrvatske, p. 68, Očigledno je da su tada Šufalaj i rt Rodoni kraj Drača raspolagali ne samo bogatim šumskim kompleksima nego i začecima brodogradnje... kao stanice za izvoz hrastovog drveta u pravcu Dubrovnika. 
  39. ^ Balkanološki institut (1972), Balkanika : godišnjak Instituta za Balkanologiju [Balcanica : annual of the Institute for Balkan Studies] (in Serbian), III, Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, p. 258, OCLC 212380606 
  40. ^ Licursi, Emiddio Pietro (2011), Empire of Nations: The Consolidation of Albanian and Turkish National Identities in theLate Ottoman Empire, 1878 – 1913, New York: Columbia University, p. 22, A popular saying in southern Albanian is said to have originated fromSkanderbeg’s father, Gjon Kastrioti, “Ku është shpata, është feja.” (Where the sword is, there lies religion). 
  41. ^ Egro, Dritan (2010), Oliver Jens Schmitt, ed., Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa, 4, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, p. 20, ISBN 978-3-631-60295-9, Gjon Kastrioti...was a Roman Catholic from 1407 to 1410, as an ally of Venice ... he converted to Orthodoxy from 1419 to 1426, accepting the alliance of Stephen Lazarevic of Serbia ... From 1431 to 1438 he was converted into Islam, because politically he was a vassal of the Ottomans 
  42. ^ Sindik, Dušan (1990), "Dve povelje u Hilandaru o Ivanu Kastriotu i sinovima", Stanovništvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbian), Titograd: Istorijski institut SR Crne Gore ; Stručna knj., OCLC 29549273, Повеља није датирана... Стога ће бити најбоље да се за датум издавања ове повеље задржи временски оквир између 1426. и 1431. године.... This act was not dated....Therefore it is best to assume that it was issued in period between 1426 and 1431. 
  43. ^ Frashëri, Kristo (1962), George Kastrioti-Scanderbeg: the national hero of the Albanians (1405–1468), s.n., pp. 86–92, OCLC 1339175 
  44. ^ Anamali, Skënder (2002), Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër vëllime (in Albanian), I, Botimet Toena, p. 342, OCLC 52411919 
  45. ^ Slijepčević, Đoko M. (1983). Srpsko-arbanaški odnosi kroz vekove sa posebnim osvrtom na novije vreme (in Serbian). Himelstir. p. 45. Retrieved 14 December 2014. Заједно са синовима Константином, Репошем и Ђурђем приложио је Иван Кастриот манастиру Хиландару село Радосуше са црквом св. Богородице и село Требиште....Због тога је и пирг св. Ђорђа прозван »арбанашки пирг». Репош је умро у манастиру Хиландару 25. јула 1431. године и ту је сахрањен. (Together with his sons Konstantin, Repoš and Đurađ, Ivan Kastriot donated village Radosuše with church of saint Mary and village Trebište to the monastery Hilandar... Therefore the tower of Saint George was named "Albanian tower". Repoš died in Hilandar on July 25, 1431 and he was buried there. 
  46. ^ Noli 1989, pp. 244-245
  47. ^ Mount Athos, Wallachian princes (Voyvodes), John Kastriotis, and the Albanian tower, a dependency of Hilandar Bojović Boško (2006), Balcanica, 2006 Volume, Issue 37, Pages: 81-87. doi:10.2298/BALC0637081B. Full text in French, Abstract in English
  48. ^ Ljubić, Šime (1868–1891), Listine o odnošajih izmedju južnoga slaventsva i mletačke republike (Documents about the relations of South Slavs and Venetian Republic), Monumenta spectantia historiam slavorum meridionalium, X (XXV), Zagreb, p. 299, OCLC 68872994, Ivanum Castrioti dominum in Albania 
  49. ^ Studi storici, Issues 125-131. Istituto storico italiano per il medio evo. 1980. p. 292. ISSN 0391-8475. Retrieved 14 December 2014. Nei documenti veneziani Giovanni è detto ora « dominus partium Albanie» 
  50. ^ Ljubić 1875, p. 120.
  51. ^ Archiv für slavische Philologie. 21. Weidmann. 1899. p. 90. 
  52. ^ Giuseppe Valentini (1973). Beiträge zur Kenntnis Südosteuropas und des Nahen Orients. R. Trofenik. pp. 1, 186, 192. 
  53. ^ Noli 1947, p. 108.
  54. ^ Ljubić, Šime (1868–1891), Listine o odnošajih izmedju južnoga slaventsva i mletačke republike (Documents about the relations of South Slavs and Venetian Republic), Monumenta spectantia historiam slavorum meridionalium, X (XXV), Zagreb, pp. 44, 133, 134, OCLC 68872994 
  55. ^ Thalloczy & Jireček, Zwei Urkunden, 146.
  56. ^ Korablev, Actes, II, 561, 562
  57. ^ Petković, Arbanaški Pirg, 196-197
  58. ^ e.g. Chalkokondyles, 5.40; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, The Histories (Cambridge: Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, 2014), vol. 1 pp. 412f
  59. ^ Blancus, Georgius Castriotus, 73: "Gion (id est Iohannis Latine) Castrati nuncupatus"

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