Glacial refugium

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A glacial refugium (plural refugia) is a geographic region which made possible the survival of flora and fauna in times of ice ages and allowed a post-glacial re-colonization.[1] Different types of glacial refugia can be distinguished namely nunatak-, peripheral and lowland refugia.[2] Glacial refugia have been suggested as a major cause of the distributions of flora and fauna in both temperate and tropical latitudes.[3][4][5] However, in spite of the continuing use of historical refugia to explain modern-day species distributions, especially in birds,[6][7] doubt has been cast on the validity of such inferences, as much of the differentiation between populations observed today may have occurred before or after their restriction to refugia.[8][9]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ The encyclopedia of earth, http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/155685/
  2. ^ Holderegger, R., Thiel-Egenter, C. (2009): A discussion of different types of glacial refugia used in mountain biogeography and phytogeography. Journal of Biogeography 36, 476-480.
  3. ^ Petit, Rémy J.; Aguinagalde, Itziar; Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis de; Bittkau, Christiane; Brewer, Simon; Cheddadi, Rachid; Ennos, Richard; Fineschi, Silvia; Grivet, Delphine (2003-06-06). "Glacial Refugia: Hotspots But Not Melting Pots of Genetic Diversity". Science. 300 (5625): 1563–1565. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 12791991. doi:10.1126/science.1083264. 
  4. ^ PROVAN, J; BENNETT, K (2008-10-01). "Phylogeographic insights into cryptic glacial refugia". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 23 (10): 564–571. ISSN 0169-5347. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.010. 
  5. ^ Rull, Valentí (2011-10-01). "Neotropical biodiversity: timing and potential drivers". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 26 (10): 508–513. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 21703715. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2011.05.011. 
  6. ^ Brumfield, Robb T. (2012-07-01). "Inferring the Origins of Lowland Neotropical Birds". The Auk. 129 (3): 367–376. ISSN 0004-8038. doi:10.1525/auk.2012.129.3.367. 
  7. ^ Bermingham, E.; Rohwer, S.; Freeman, S.; Wood, C. (1992-07-15). "Vicariance biogeography in the Pleistocene and speciation in North American wood warblers: a test of Mengel's model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 89 (14): 6624–6628. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 49554Freely accessible. PMID 11607307. 
  8. ^ Klicka, John; Zink, Robert M. (1997-09-12). "The Importance of Recent Ice Ages in Speciation: A Failed Paradigm". Science. 277 (5332): 1666–1669. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.277.5332.1666. 
  9. ^ Colinvaux, P. A.; De Oliveira, P. E.; Bush, M. B. (2000-01-01). "Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses". Quaternary Science Reviews. 19 (1–5): 141–169. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00059-1.