Born in Springfield, Massachusetts, Anslow attended Springfield Central High School and entered Smith College in 1909.She earned her A.B. in 1914 after studying physics beginning her second year under Professor Frank Allan Waterman. Following graduation, she was hired as a demonstrator (1914–15) and then an assistant (1915–17) in physics and took advanced physics courses, including one in spectroscopy by Janet T. Howell. In 1916 she began her graduate studies under Howell using a new Rowland grating spectrograph acquired by Smith College to research the emission spectra of radium, resulting in her thesis "Spectroscopic Evidence for the Electron Theory of Matter". She graduated in 1917 with her A.M. Following her graduation, she was appointed instructor in physics to replace Howell.
She then obtained a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1924. She was awarded the President's Certificate of Merit for service during World War II. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1955.
- Fleck, George (1993). "Gladys Amelia Anslow". In Grinstein, Louise S.; Rose, Rose K.; Rafailovich, Miriam H. Women in Chemistry and Physics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. pp. 9–17.
- Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey (2000). The biographical dictionary of women in science: pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis. pp. 42–3. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Bailey, Martha J. (1994). American Women in Science:A Biographical Dictionary. ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 0-87436-740-9.
- Physics Today (June 1949). "Honors and Awards". Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 29, 2014.