Glasgow Central station
|Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu Mheadhain|
The main concourse
|Local authority||City of Glasgow|
|Managed by||Network Rail|
|Number of platforms||17 (including 2 on lower level)|
Live arrivals/departures, station information and onward connections|
from National Rail Enquiries
|Annual rail passenger usage*|
|Passenger Transport Executive|
|1 August 1879||High Level Station opened|
|10 August 1896||Low Level Station opened|
|1901–1905||High Level Station rebuilt|
|5 October 1964||Closure of Low Level Station|
|May 1974||Start of "Electric Scot" services to London Euston|
|5 November 1979||Reopening of Low Level Station as part of Argyle Line|
|National Rail – UK railway stations|
|* Annual estimated passenger usage based on sales of tickets in stated financial year(s) which end or originate at Glasgow Central from Office of Rail and Road statistics. Methodology may vary year on year.|
|UK Railways portal|
Glasgow Central & St Enoch approaches
Glasgow Central (Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu Mheadhain, Scots: Glesga Central, also known simply as Central) is the major mainline rail terminus in Glasgow, Scotland. The station was opened by the Caledonian Railway on 1 August 1879 and is one of nineteen managed by Network Rail. It is the northern terminus of the West Coast Main Line (397 miles (640 km) north of London Euston), and for inter-city services between Glasgow and England. The other main city-centre railway station in Glasgow is Glasgow Queen Street.
With over 32 million passengers in 2016–17, Glasgow Central is the twelfth-busiest railway station in Britain, and the busiest in Scotland. According to Network Rail, over 38 million people use it annually, 80% of whom are passengers. The station is protected as a category A listed building.
In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins, the station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars. In 2017 the station received a customer satisfaction score 95.2%, the highest in the UK.
- 1 Original station
- 2 Low-level station
- 3 The 1901–1905 station rebuild
- 4 The Central Hotel
- 5 Signalling
- 6 Railway electrification
- 7 Late-20th-century developments
- 8 21st century developments
- 9 Station ticket facilities
- 10 Services
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The original station, opened on 1 August 1879 on the north bank of the River Clyde, had eight platforms and was linked to Bridge Street station by a railway bridge over Argyle Street and a four-track railway bridge, built by Sir William Arrol, which crossed the Clyde to the south. The station was built over the site of Grahamston village, whose central street (Alston Street) was demolished to make way for the station platform.
The station was soon congested. In 1890, a temporary solution of widening the bridge over Argyle Street and inserting a ninth platform on Argyle Street bridge was completed. It was also initially intended to increase Bridge Street station to eight through lines and to increase Central station to 13 platforms.
The low-level platforms were originally a two island separate station, and were added to serve the underground Glasgow Central Railway, authorised on 10 August 1888 and opened on 10 August 1896. The Glasgow Central Railway was taken over by the Caledonian Railway in 1890. Services ran from Maryhill Central and from the Lanarkshire and Dunbartonshire Railway in the west through to Rutherglen and via Tollcross through to Carmyle, Newton, and other Caledonian Railway destinations to the east of Glasgow. Other stations include Cambuslang & Motherwell
The 1901–1905 station rebuild
By 1900 the station was again found to be too small, passenger numbers per annum on the high-level station having increased by 5.156 million since the first extension was completed in 1890. Passenger usage per annum in 1899 was 16.841 million on the high-level station and 6.416 million on the low-level station, a total of 23.257 million. The station is on two levels: the High-Level station at the same level as Gordon Street, which bridges over Argyle Street, and the underground Low-Level station.
Between 1901 and 1905 the original station was rebuilt. The station was extended over the top of Argyle Street, and thirteen platforms were built. An additional eight-track bridge, the Caledonian Railway Bridge, was built over the Clyde, and the original bridge was raised by 30 inches (0.75 m). Bridge Street station was then closed.
Also during the 1901–1905 rebuild a series of sidings was created at the end of Platforms 11 and 12 on the bridge over the River Clyde. These were named West Bank Siding, Mid Bank Siding and East Bank Siding. A dock siding – No. 14 Dock was created at the south end of Platform 13.
Central Station has a spacious concourse containing shops, catering outlets, ticket offices and a travel centre. It is fronted by the Central Hotel on Gordon Street, designed by Robert Rowand Anderson. The station building also houses a long line of shops and bars down the Union Street side. The undercroft of the station is not open to the general public, except through regular official tours, and houses private car-parking and utility functions for the station and the adjoining Central Hotel.
The station's famous architectural features are the large glass-walled bridge that takes the station building over Argyle Street, nicknamed the 'Hielanman's Umbrella' (Highlandman's Umbrella) because it was used as a meeting place for highlanders living in the city; and the former ticket office and information building. This was a large oval building, with the booking office on the ground floor and the train information display for passengers on large printed cloth destination boards placed behind large windows on the first floor by a team of two men. Underneath the "Umbrella" are a number of shops and bars. The former nightclub, theatre, gallery and restaurant complex, The Arches, was also located below the station.
The Central Hotel
Central Station is fronted by the Central Hotel on Gordon Street. Adjoining onto the station concourse, it was one of Glasgow's most prestigious hotels in its heyday.
It was originally designed by Robert Rowand Anderson, in 'Queen Anne style'; he also furnished the public rooms. The hotel was completed in 1883, but was extended along with the station in 1901–1906. The hotel extension was designed by James Miller and it opened on 15 April 1907.
The world's first long-distance television pictures were transmitted to the Central Hotel in the station, on 24 May 1927 by John Logie Baird. The hotel was sold by British Rail in the 1980s, and passed through the hands of various private operators until its most recent owner, the Real Hotel Group, went into administration in February 2009, and the hotel subsequently closed amid concerns of asbestos contamination and structural deterioration.
The original 1889 signal box was replaced with an electro-pneumatic power-operated box based on the Westinghouse system. Work started in October 1907 and it opened on 5 April 1908. It was built directly over the River Clyde, sitting between the two river bridges, above the level of the tracks. Inside was a frame of 374 miniature levers, making it the longest power frame ever built in Great Britain.
Glasgow Central Signalling Centre, located in the "vee" of Bridge Street Junction, opened on 2 January 1961. It replaced signal boxes at Central Station, Bridge Street Junction, Eglinton Street Junction and Eglinton Street Station. When initially opened it was capable of handling 1,000 routes.
The new signalling centre was needed for three reasons:
- The 1907 power signal box was worn out;
- The original 1879 bridge over the River Clyde was coming to the end of its useful life, and it was more effective to use the newer (1904) bridge to handle all the traffic, with the lines signalled bi-directionally;
- Electrification of the Cathcart Circle Lines, and subsequently the Gourock and Wemyss Bay services and the West Coast Main Line.
In addition to the removal of the east river bridge, the scissor crossovers through the station, the Cathcart Engine siding, East Bank Siding, Mid Bank Siding and No. 14 Dock were removed. The West Bank Siding was numbered as Platform 11a.
Glasgow Central Signalling Centre closed on 27 December 2008, when its area of control was transferred to the new West of Scotland Signalling Centre (WSSC) at Cowlairs. The NX panel is to be preserved. The station is currently signalled by two Westinghouse Westlock Interlockings which are controlled via a GE MCS control system.
Overhead power lines began to appear on the high-level platforms early 1960s under British Railways. Firstly came 6.25 kV AC overhead power lines from the Cathcart Circle Line electrification scheme, which started on 29 May 1962. During this period, the old 1879 bridge over the River Clyde was removed and the railway lines were rearranged.
This was followed by the 25 kV AC overhead-power-lines electrification of the Glasgow and Paisley Joint Railway and the Inverclyde Line to Gourock and Wemyss Bay, completed in 1967; and the WCML northern electrification scheme, which started on 6 May 1974. Part of the Cathcart Circle was upgraded to 25 kV AC supply in 1974, to provide a diversionary route; the whole of the Cathcart Circle route was later upgraded to that supply.
Plans to electrify other routes, such as the Whifflet Line, as part of a scheme to improve rail services in Scotland were completed in November 2014.
Services through the Low-Level station, initially generous, had been greatly reduced due to competition with the extensive and efficient tram system well before their withdrawal on 3 October 1964 under the "Beeching Axe". The trams themselves had been replaced by buses by 1962.
In 1979, part of the low-level line was electrified and the Low-Level station was re-opened as the Argyle Line of the Glasgow suburban railway network. It consisted of a single island platform, numbered as Platforms 14 and 15 (later renumbered to 16 and 17 respectively when the project to re-signal and add two additional platforms to the higher level took place in 2008).
Initially services were provided by Class 303 and Class 314 units. The latter were built specifically for this service. Following the withdrawal of the Class 303 units, the service was provided by Class 318 and Class 334 "Juniper" units.
Class 320 units were intended to be used on the route, but due to the position of the original driver's monitors for checking doors, this proved impossible. Therefore, these units were restricted to the North Clyde Line. This changed in 2011 with a programme of works carried out to enable the Class 320 units to work through the station in passenger service. The class 320 and 318 units between them now provide the majority of Argyle Line services, with most 334s having moved to operate the Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link.
Flooding of the Low-Level line
Over the Christmas festive period of 1994, on 11 December, torrential rain caused the River Kelvin to burst its banks at the closed Kelvinbridge station, with the water making its way through the disused tunnels to Exhibition Centre and the Low-Level station, which was completely submerged by the resultant flash flood. It was closed until 24 September 1995 while repairs were made.
In August 2002, torrential rain flooded out the low-level stations from Dalmarnock through to Exhibition Centre for a number of weeks. Most services were routed to the high-level platforms, or to Queen Street station. The 2002 Glasgow floods had a number of other effects, causing a cryptospiridium outbreak in Glasgow's water supply.
The high-level station's facilities were substantially redeveloped in the mid-1980s. The old ticket office / train information building was replaced in 1985 by an all-new Travel Centre adjacent to the Gordon Street entrance. By 1986 a large electro-mechanical destination board at the end of the platforms, with a smaller repeater board at the western side of the concourse, had replaced the former manually operated train-information boards. The old booking office / train information building was retained and redeveloped into shops, eateries and an upstairs bar/restaurant, and the station was re-floored in marble.
During this redevelopment the manned ticket barriers at Platforms 1 to 8 were removed and the yellow ticket automatic barriers were removed from Platforms 9 to 13 (now 15).
In 1998, a five-year renovation programme was initiated by Railtrack, which saw the trainshed completely re-roofed and internally refurbished by Bovis Lend Lease – which also included the restoration of Hielanman's Umbrella. The 1980s vintage mechanical pixel-style destination boards were later replaced around 2005 with an array of LED-style destination boards. The final improvement, the upgrading of the upstairs restaurant area, was completed in 2005.
21st century developments
To accommodate the cancelled Glasgow Airport Rail Link plans, the platforms were renumbered. Platform 11a (the previous West Bank Siding, on the bridge over the Clyde) was renumbered 12, whilst 12 & 13 were renumbered 14 & 15 respectively. In September 2009 the former platform-level car park and passenger drop-off area was taken out of use and the platform over the Clyde (recently renumbered 12) was removed. Two new platforms were created between 11 and 14, being brought into use in May 2010. There are no plans to replace indoor parking or passenger drop-off within Central station. The existing multi-storey parking facility on Oswald Street and on-street parking surrounding Central station remain, with passenger drop-off having moved to surrounding streets. During Cyclone Bodil in December 2013, the glass roof of the station was broken by flying debris.
Automatic ticket barriers were installed at Glasgow Central and three other city-centre stations from 2011 as part of a crackdown on fare-dodging to increase ticket revenue. This follows barriers being erected at Queen Street Station in 2004, ending ScotRail's "open stations" policy under which staffed and previous yellow ticket automatic barriers had been scrapped during the 1980s to encourage more passengers; tickets were checked on trains instead. ScotRail finalised negotiations with Network Rail over the project in June 2010, with the project completed on February 2012, covering High Level Platforms 3 to 15 and Low Level Platforms 16 and 17. Platforms 1 and 2 were left without barriers, as they are mostly used by long distance express services with a high proportion of passengers carrying heavy luggage.
Following the success of the doors open day event in summer 2013, tours of the station are now being run several times a week as of November 2014. These 90-minute tours cover the roof, plus the catacombs, vaults, and a view of disused platforms below the station.
Station ticket facilities
There are three ticket halls. Two are operated by ScotRail (main concourse and Argyle Street entrance) and the third is a travel centre run by Virgin Trains at the Gordon Street entrance. Virgin Trains also operate a dedicated customer lounge next to Platform 1 and a First Class lounge.
As of 2016, Glasgow Central is served by six train-operating companies.
Operates a two-hourly service on the CrossCountry route using the East Coast Main Line to Birmingham New Street via Leeds and onwards to destinations such as Bristol Temple Meads, Exeter St Davids, Plymouth & Penzance as an extension to its services from Edinburgh Waverley.
Operates services to Scottish destinations including Ayr (for a bus connection to the Stena Line ferry from Cairnryan to Belfast), Troon, Kilmarnock, East Kilbride, Gourock, Neilston, Stranraer, Largs and Lanark.
There are also services to Carlisle (via Kilmarnock) and Newcastle in England. During the closure of Glasgow Queen Street High Level Station, services to Inverness/Aberdeen via Dundee and Perth were diverted to Glasgow Central.
Operates an hourly service to London Euston directly, and a two-hourly service to London Euston via Birmingham New Street, using Super Voyagers and Pendolinos via the West Coast Main Line. They also operate services to/from Birmingham New Street and Crewe.
Operates one sleeper service per night, Sunday to Friday, to London Euston.
- Brailsford 2017, Gaelic/English Station Index.
- Butt (1995), page 103
- List of railway station names in English, Scots and Gaelic – NewsNetScotland Archived 22 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Commercial information" (PDF). Complete National Rail Timetable. London: Network Rail. May 2013. p. 43. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Thomas (1971); Chapter VIII – Glasgow
- "Estimates of Station Usage 2011/12" (PDF). Office of Rail Regulation. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- "Footfall Figures" (PDF). Network Rail. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- "Central Station and Hotel: Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
- Norrie Gilliland. "Grahamston: Glasgow's Forgotten Village".
- Matheson, Donald Alexander (1908). "Glasgow Central Station Extension". In: Minutes of Institution of Civil Engineers, 10 November 1908.
- Awdry (1990); p77
- Hume (2006), Chapter 1, "Railways and the City". In: Cameron(2006).
- Tweedie & Lascelles (1925), insert facing page 184
- The Tour - Glasgow Central Tours
- Nicolaisen, W.F.H. (2001). Scottish Place Names. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-556-3.
- Johnston and Hume (1979), pages 38–41.
- Interview with Paul Lyons Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., historian and Control and Information officer at Glasgow Central Station.
- Nicoll, Viviene (25 June 2009). "Return to Grand Central in £20m hotel revamp". The Evening Times. Glasgow. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
- Nelson (2006), Chapter 17: "Signalbox with a view". In: Cameron (2006).
- Nock, O.S.,(1963). British Rail in Transition. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson and Sons.
- Little, Stuart M. (December 1979). "Greater Glasgow's Railway Network". Scottish Transport. No. 33: 2–12. ISSN 0048-9808.
- Summers (2006), "Changing Trains", Chapter 26 In: Cameron (2006).
- "Glasgow Central Low Level Railway Flood / 11 December/12th 1994". Retrieved 13 February 2008.
- Winney, Mike (19 October 2000). "Dome wins construction world 'Oscar'". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Scottish Parliament (15 January 2007). "Glasgow Airport Rail Link Act 2007 – Schedule 1 – Scheduled Works". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
- Scottish Parliament (15 January 2007). "Glasgow Airport Rail Link Act 2007 – Schedule 8 – Listed Buildings". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
- Weber Shandwick (10 February 2007). "Glasgow Airport Rail Link – Q and A" (PDF). Strathclyde Passenger Transport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
- Dalton, Alastair (19 May 2010). "ScotRail set to create £5m 'ring of steel' to tackle fare dodging". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Glasgow Central Station Plan". Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- "Behind-the-scenes tours of Glasgow Central Station begin". BBC News. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "The Tour". Glasgow Central Experience. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Table 51 National Rail timetable, May 2016
- Table 218, 219, 221 & 222 National Rail timetable, May 2016
- Table 216 National Rail timetable, May 2016
- Table 65 National Rail timetable, May 2016
- Table 26 National Rail timetable, May 2016
- Table 400 National Rail timetable, May 2016
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- Butt, R. V. J. (1995). The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt, platform and stopping place, past and present (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199.
- Kernahan, Jack (1980). The Cathcart Circle. Falkirk, Stirlingshire: Scottish Railway Preservation Society. ISBN 0-9043-9601-0. OCLC 85045869.
- Cameron, Dugald (compiler) (2006). Summers, Jim, ed. Glasgow Central: Central to Glasgow. Boat of Garten: Strathwood Ltd. ISBN 1-9052-7605-2. OCLC 80155887.
- Johnston, Colin; Hulme, John H. (1979). Glasgow Stations (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7569-5. OCLC 6091133.
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- Thomas, John; Paterson, Rev A. J. S. (1984). A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain. VI Scotland: The Lowlands and the Borders (2nd ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. ISBN 0-9465-3712-7. OCLC 12521072.
- Tweedie, M.G.; Lascelles, T.S. (1925). Modern Railway Signalling. Covent Garden, London: The Gresham Publishing Company Ltd. OCLC 502959836.
- History of Glasgow Central station
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Glasgow Central railway station.|
- Meighan, Michael (2013). Glasgow Central Station Through Time. Amberley Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4456-1094-8. OCLC 830352220.
- Hunt, John (14–27 January 1998). "All line lead to Glasgow Central". RAIL. No. 322. EMAP Apex Publications. pp. 20–26. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.