From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A glass building facade

Glass is a non-crystalline, often transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most often formed by rapid cooling (quenching) of the molten form, some glasses such as volcanic glass are naturally occurring. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. Soda-lime glass, containing around 70% silica, account for around 90% of manufactured glass. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, although silica-free glasses often have desirable properties for applications in modern communications technology. Some objects, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses, are so commonly made of silicate-based glass that they are simply called by the name of the material.

Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Archaeological evidence suggests glass-making dates back to at least 3,600 BCE in Mesopotamia, Egypt, or Syria. The earliest known glass objects were beads, perhaps created accidentally during metal-working or the production of faience. Due to its ease of formability into any shape, glass has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms, it has also been used for paperweights, marbles. Glass can be coloured by adding metal salts or painted and printed with vitreous enamels, leading to its use in stained glass windows and other Glass art objects.

The refractive, reflective and transmission properties of glass make glass suitable for manufacturing optical lenses, prisms, and optoelectronics materials. Extruded glass fibres have application as optical fibres in communications networks, thermal insulating material when matted as glass wool so as to trap air, or in glass-fibre reinforced plastic (fibreglass).

Glass structure (microscopic)[edit]

The amorphous structure of glassy silica (SiO2) in two dimensions. No long-range order is present, although there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of oxygen (O) atoms around the silicon (Si) atoms.

The standard definition of a glass (or vitreous solid) is a solid formed by rapid melt quenching.[1][2][3][4] However, the term "glass" is often defined in a broader sense, to describe any non-crystalline (amorphous) solid that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state.[4][5]

Glass is an amorphous solid. Although the atomic-scale structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure of a supercooled liquid, glass exhibits all the mechanical properties of a solid.[6][7][8] As in other amorphous solids, the atomic structure of a glass lacks the long-range periodicity observed in crystalline solids. Due to chemical bonding constraints, glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect to local atomic polyhedra.[9] The notion that glass flows to an appreciable extent over extended periods of time is not supported by empirical research or theoretical analysis (see viscosity in solids). Laboratory measurements of room temperature glass flow do show a motion consistent with a material viscosity on the order of 1017–1018 Pa s.[5][10]

Formation from a supercooled liquid[edit]

Question, Web Fundamentals.svg Unsolved problem in physics :
What is the nature of the transition between a fluid or regular solid and a glassy phase? "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition." —P.W. Anderson[11]
(more unsolved problems in physics )

For melt quenching, if the cooling is sufficiently rapid (relative to the characteristic crystallization time) then crystallization is prevented and instead the disordered atomic configuration of the supercooled liquid is frozen into the solid state at Tg. The tendency for a material to form a glass while quenched is called glass-forming ability. This ability can be predicted by the rigidity theory.[12] Generally, a glass exists in a structurally metastable state with respect to its crystalline form, although in certain circumstances, for example in atactic polymers, there is no crystalline analogue of the amorphous phase.[13]

Glass is sometimes considered to be a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phase transition[7][14] where certain thermodynamic variables such as volume, entropy and enthalpy are discontinuous through the glass transition range. The glass transition may be described as analogous to a second-order phase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermal expansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous.[2] Nonetheless, the equilibrium theory of phase transformations does not entirely hold for glass, and hence the glass transition cannot be classed as one of the classical equilibrium phase transformations in solids.[4][5]

Occurrence in Nature[edit]

Glass can form naturally from volcanic magma. Obsidian is a common volcanic glass with high silica (SiO2) content formed when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly.[15] Impactite is a form of glass formed by the impact of a meteorite, where Moldavite (found in central and eastern Europe), and Libyan desert glass (found in areas in the eastern Sahara, the deserts of eastern Libya and western Egypt) are notable examples.[16] Vitrification of quartz can also occur when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites.[17] Trinitite is a glassy residue formed from the desert floor sand at the Trinity nuclear bomb test site.[18] Edeowie glass, found in South Australia, is proposed to originate from Pleistocene grassland fires, lightning strikes, or hypervelocity impact by one or several asteroids or comets.[19]


Roman cage cup from the 4th century CE

Naturally occurring obsidian glass was used by Stone Age societies as it fractures along very sharp edges, making it ideal for cutting tools and weapons.[20] Archaeological evidence suggests that the first true synthetic glass was made in Lebanon and the coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or ancient Egypt.[21][22] The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third millennium BCE, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working (slags) or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing.[23]

During the Late Bronze Age there was a rapid growth in glassmaking technology in Egypt and Western Asian.[21] Archaeological finds from this period include coloured glass ingots, vessels, and beads.[21][24] Much early glass production relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working meaning that glass was ground and carved in a cold state.[25] However, glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze Age civilizations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. Indigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in 1730 BCE.[26] In ancient China, though, glassmaking seems to have a late start, compared to ceramics and metal work. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking centre at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance.[27] Glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire[28] in domestic, funerary,[29] and industrial contexts.[30] Examples of Roman glass have been found outside of the former Roman Empire in China,[31] the Baltics, the Middle East and India.[32]

Windows in the choir of the Basilica of Saint Denis, one of the earliest uses of extensive areas of glass (early 13th-century architecture with restored glass of the 19th century)

Glass was used extensively during the Middle Ages. Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites.[33] Glass in the Anglo-Saxon period was used in the manufacture of a range of objects including vessels, windows,[34] beads,[35] and was also used in jewelry.[36] From the 10th-century onwards, glass was employed in stained glass windows of churches and cathedrals, with famous examples at Chartres Cathedral and the Basilica of Saint Denis. By the 14th-century, architects were designing buildings with walls of stained glass such as Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, (1203–1248)[37] and the East end of Gloucester Cathedral.[38] Stained glass had a major revival with Gothic Revival architecture in the 19th century.[39] With the Renaissance, and a change in architectural style, the use of large stained glass windows became less prevalent.[40] The use of domestic stained glass increased[41] until most substantial houses had glass windows. These were initially small panes leaded together, but with the changes in technology, glass could be manufactured relatively cheaply in increasingly larger sheets, leading to larger window panes.

From the 19th century, there was a revival in many ancient glass-making techniques including cameo glass, achieved for the first time since the Roman Empire and initially mostly used for pieces in a neo-classical style.[42] The Art Nouveau movement made great use of glass,[43] with René Lalique, Émile Gallé, and Daum of Nancy producing coloured vases and similar pieces, often in cameo glass, and also using luster techniques. Louis Comfort Tiffany in America specialized in stained glass, both secular and religious, and his famous lamps.

The early 20th-century saw the large-scale factory production of glass art by firms such as Waterford and Lalique. From about 1960 onwards, there have been an increasing number of small studios hand-producing glass artworks, and glass artists began to class themselves as in effect sculptors working in glass, and their works as part fine arts. Throughout the 20th century, new types of glass such as laminated glass, reinforced glass and glass bricks[44] increased the use of glass as a building material and resulted in new applications of glass.[45] Multi-story buildings are frequently constructed with curtain walls made almost entirely of glass.[46] Similarly, laminated glass has been widely applied to vehicles for windscreens.[47] Optical glass for spectacles has been used since the Middle Ages.[48] The production of lenses has become increasingly proficient, aiding astronomers[49] as well as having other application in medicine and science.[50] Glass is also employed as the aperture cover in many solar energy collectors.[51]

In the 21st century, scientists observe the properties of ancient stained glass windows, in which suspended nanoparticles prevent UV light from causing chemical reactions that change image colours, are developing photographic techniques that use similar stained glass to capture true colour images of Mars for the 2019 ESA Mars Rover mission.[52]

Physical properties[edit]

Optical properties[edit]

Glass is in widespread use largely due to the production of glass compositions that are transparent to visible light. In contrast, polycrystalline materials do not generally transmit visible light.[53] The individual crystallites may be transparent, but their facets (grain boundaries) reflect or scatter light resulting in diffuse reflection. Glass does not contain the internal subdivisions associated with grain boundaries in polycrystals and hence does not scatter light in the same manner as a polycrystalline material. The surface of a glass is often smooth since during glass formation the molecules of the supercooled liquid are not forced to dispose in rigid crystal geometries and can follow surface tension, which imposes a microscopically smooth surface. These properties, which give glass its clearness, can be retained even if glass is partially light-absorbing, i.e., coloured.[54]

Glass has the ability to refract, reflect, and transmit light following geometrical optics,[55] without scattering it (due to the absence of grain boundaries).[56] As such glass materials are widely used in the manufacture of lenses, mirrors, and windows.[57] Common glass has a refraction index around 1.5,[58], which may be modified by high-density (refractive index increases) or low-density (refractive index decreases) additives.[59]

Other properties[edit]

In the manufacturing process, glasses can be poured, formed, extruded and molded into forms ranging from flat sheets to highly intricate shapes.[60] The finished product is brittle[61] and will fracture, unless laminated or specially treated,[62] but is extremely durable under most conditions.[63] It erodes very slowly[64] and can mostly withstand the action of water.[65] It is mostly resistant to chemical attack,[66] does not react with foods, and is an ideal material for the manufacture of containers for foodstuffs and most chemicals.[67] Glass is also a fairly inert substance.[68]

Although glass is generally corrosion-resistant[69] and more corrosion resistant than other materials, it still can be corroded.[63] The materials that make up a particular glass composition have an effect on how quickly the glass corrodes.[66] A glass containing a high proportion of alkalis[70] or alkali earths is less corrosion-resistant than other kinds of glasses.[71] Glass flakes have applications as anti-corrosive coating.[72]

Glass typically has a tensile strength of 7 megapascals (1,000 psi),[73] however theoretically it can have a strength of 17 gigapascals (2,500,000 psi) due to glass's strong chemical bonds. Several factors such as imperfections like scratches and bubbles[74] and the glass's chemical composition impact the tensile strength of glass.[75] Several processes such as toughening can increase the strength of glass.[76]


Silicate glass[edit]

Quartz sand (silica) is the main raw material in commercial glass production

Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a common fundamental constituent of glass.[77] Fused quartz, also called fused-silica glass,[78] is a glass made from chemically-pure silica.[79] It has very low thermal expansion and excellent resistance to thermal shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot, resists high temperatures (1000–1500 °C) and chemical weathering, and is very hard. Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc.[80] However, its high melting temperature (1723 °C) and viscosity make it difficult to work with.[81] Therefore, normally other substances are added to simplify glass processing. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, "soda") is a common additive and acts to lowers the glass-transition temperature. However, Sodium silicate is water-soluble, so lime (CaO, calcium oxide, generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are other common components added to improve chemical durability. Soda-lime glasses (Na2O) + lime (CaO) + magnesia (MgO) + alumina (Al2O3) account for about 90% of manufactured glass,[82][83] containing about 70 to 74% silica by weight.[84] Soda-lime-silicate glass is transparent, easily formed, and most suitable for window glass (see flat glass) and tableware.[85][86][87][88][89][90] However, it has a high thermal expansion and poor resistance to heat.[85] (500–600 °C)[80] Container glass is a soda-lime glass that is a slight variation on flat glass, with higher alumina and calcium content, and less sodium and magnesium (which are more water-soluble), making it less susceptible to water erosion. Further ingredients may be added to change the properties of silicate glass.

Borosilicate glass[edit]

Borosilicate glasses (e.g. Pyrex, Duran) have as main constituents silica and boron trioxide (B2O3) + soda (Na2O) + alumina (Al2O3).[91][78] Borosilicate glasses have fairly low coefficients of thermal expansion (7740 Pyrex CTE is 3.25×106/°C[92] as compared to about 9×106/°C for a typical soda-lime glass[93]). They are, therefore, less subject to stress caused by thermal expansion and thus less vulnerable to cracking from thermal shock. They are commonly used for e.g. chemical reagent glassware, optical components, household cookware, and car head lamps.

Lead glass[edit]

Lead glass, a glass made by adding lead oxide to glass

The addition of lead(II) oxide into silicate glass lowers melting point, lowers viscosity of the melt, and increases refractive index. The high density of Lead glass (silica + lead oxide (PbO) + potassium oxide (K2O) + soda (Na2O) + zinc oxide (ZnO) + alumina) is more "brilliant" and causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion.[94] results in a high electron density, and hence high refractive index, making the look of glassware more brilliant and causing noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion.[94][95] As a result, it is often referred to as "crystal", although it is a glass and not a crystal. It has a high elasticity, making glassware "ring" and is more workable in the factory, but cannot stand heating very well.[80] This kind of glass is also more fragile than other glasses[96] and is easier to cut.[95] Lead oxide also facilitates solubility of other metal oxides and is used in colored glass. The viscosity decrease of lead glass melt is very significant (roughly 100 times in comparison with soda glass); this allows easier removal of bubbles and working at lower temperatures, hence its frequent use as an additive in vitreous enamels and glass solders. The high ionic radius of the Pb2+ ion renders it highly immobile and hinders the movement of other ions; lead glasses therefore have high electrical resistance, about two orders of magnitude higher than soda-lime glass (108.5 vs 106.5 Ω⋅cm, DC at 250 °C).[97]

Aluminosilicate glass[edit]

Aluminosilicate glass (silica + alumina + lime + magnesia)[98] + barium oxide (BaO)[80] + boric oxide (B2O3).[98] is extensively used for fiberglass,[98] used for making glass-reinforced plastics (boats, fishing rods, etc.) and for halogen bulb glass.[80] Aluminosilicate glasses are resistant to weathering and water erosion.[99]

Other oxide additives[edit]

The addition of barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eyeglasses.[100] Iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared radiation, for example in heat-absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs ultraviolet wavelengths.[101] Fluorine lowers the dielectric constant of glass. Fluorine is highly electronegative and lowers the polarizability of the material. Fluoride silicate glasses are used in manufacture of integrated circuits as an insulator.[102]


A high-strength glass-ceramic cooktop with negligible thermal expansion.

Glass-ceramic materials share many properties with both non-crystalline glass and crystalline ceramics. They are formed as a glass, and then partially crystallized by heat treatment. For example, the microstructure of whiteware ceramics frequently contains both amorphous and crystalline phases. Crystalline grains are often embedded within a non-crystalline intergranular phase of grain boundaries. When applied to whiteware ceramics, vitreous means the material has an extremely low permeability to liquids, often but not always water, when determined by a specified test regime.[103][104]

The term mainly refers to a mix of lithium and aluminosilicates that yields an array of materials with interesting thermomechanical properties. The most commercially important of these have the distinction of being impervious to thermal shock. Thus, glass-ceramics have become extremely useful for countertop cooking. The negative thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the crystalline ceramic phase can be balanced with the positive CTE of the glassy phase. At a certain point (~70% crystalline) the glass-ceramic has a net CTE near zero. This type of glass-ceramic exhibits excellent mechanical properties and can sustain repeated and quick temperature changes up to 1000 °C.[103][104]


Fibreglass (also called glass-reinforced-plastic[105][106]) is a composite material made up of glass fibres (also called fiberglass[107] or glass friller[108]) embedded in a plastic resin.[109][110] It is made by melting glass and stretching the glass into fibres. These fibres are woven together into a cloth and left to set in a plastic resin.[111]

Fibreglass filaments are made through a pultrusion process in which the raw materials (sand, limestone, kaolin clay, fluorspar, colemanite, dolomite and other minerals) are melted in a large furnace into a liquid which is extruded through very small orifices (5–25 micrometres in diameter if the glass is E-glass and 9 micrometers if the glass is S-glass).[112]

Fibreglass has the properties of being lightweight and corrosion resistant.[113][114] Fibreglass is also a good insulator,[115] allowing it to be used to insulate buildings.[116] Most fiberglasses are not alkali resistant.[117] Fibreglass also has the property of becoming stronger as the glass ages.[118]

Silica-free glass[edit]

A CD-RW (CD). Chalcogenide glass form the basis of rewritable CD and DVD solid-state memory technology.[119]

Besides common silica-based glasses many other inorganic and organic materials may also form glasses, including metals, aluminates, phosphates, borates, chalcogenides, fluorides, germanates (glasses based on GeO2), tellurites (glasses based on TeO2), antimonates (glasses based on Sb2O3), arsenates (glasses based on As2O3), titanates (glasses based on TiO2), tantalates (glasses based on Ta2O5), nitrates, carbonates, plastics, acrylic, and many other substances.[120] Some of these glasses (e.g. Germanium dioxide (GeO2, Germania), in many respects a structural analogue of silica, fluoride, aluminate, phosphate, borate, and chalcogenide glasses) have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre-optic waveguides in communication networks and other specialized technological applications. [121][122]

Silica-free glasses may often have poor glass forming tendencies. Novel techniques are used to increase cooling rate, or reduce crystal nucleation triggers. Examples of these techniques include aerodynamic levitation (cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream),[123][124] splat quenching (pressing the melt between two metal anvils)[125] and roller quenching (pouring the melt through rollers).[126]

Amorphous metals[edit]

Samples of amorphous metal, with millimeter scale

In the past, small batches of amorphous metals with high surface area configurations (ribbons, wires, films, etc.) have been produced through the implementation of extremely rapid rates of cooling. Amorphous metal wires have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk. More recently a number of alloys have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimeter. These are known as bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Liquidmetal Technologies sell a number of zirconium-based BMGs. Batches of amorphous steel have also been produced that demonstrate mechanical properties far exceeding those found in conventional steel alloys.[127][128][129]

In 2004, NIST researchers presented evidence that an isotropic non-crystalline metallic phase (dubbed "q-glass") could be grown from the melt. This phase is the first phase, or "primary phase", to form in the Al-Fe-Si system during rapid cooling. Experimental evidence indicates that this phase forms by a first-order transition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the q-glass nucleates from the melt as discrete particles, which grow spherically with a uniform growth rate in all directions. The diffraction pattern shows it to be an isotropic glassy phase. Yet there is a nucleation barrier, which implies an interfacial discontinuity (or internal surface) between the glass and the melt.[130][131]


Important polymer glasses include amorphous and glassy pharmaceutical compounds. These are useful because the solubility of the compound is greatly increased when it is amorphous compared to the same crystalline composition. Many emerging pharmaceuticals are practically insoluble in their crystalline forms.[132] Many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative to traditional glass.

Molecular liquids and molten salts[edit]

Molecular liquids, electrolytes, molten salts, and aqueous solutions are mixtures of different molecules or ions that do not form a covalent network but interact only through weak van der Waals forces or through transient hydrogen bonds. In a mixture of three or more ionic species of dissimilar size and shape, crystallization can be so difficult that the liquid can easily be supercooled into a glass.[133][134] Examples include LiCl:RH2O (a solution of lithium chloride salt and water molecules) in the composition range 4<R<8.[135] sugar glass,[136] or Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4.[137] Glass electrolytes in the form of Ba-doped Li-glass and Ba-doped Na-glass have been proposed as solutions to problems identified with organic liquid electrolytes used in modern lithium-ion battery cells.[138]

Colloidal glasses[edit]

Concentrated colloidal suspensions may exhibit a distinct glass transition as function of particle concentration or density.[139][140][141]

In cell biology, there is recent evidence suggesting that the cytoplasm behaves like a colloidal glass approaching the liquid-glass transition.[142][143] During periods of low metabolic activity, as in dormancy, the cytoplasm vitrifies and prohibits the movement to larger cytoplasmic particles while allowing the diffusion of smaller ones throughout the cell.[142]


Robotized Float Glass Unloading

Following the glass batch preparation and mixing, the raw materials are transported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gas fired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters, pot furnaces, and day tanks.[84] After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles), the glass is formed. Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, who created a continuous ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the influence of gravity. The top surface of the glass is subjected to nitrogen under pressure to obtain a polished finish.[144] Container glass for common bottles and jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods.[145] This glass is often slightly modified chemically (with more alumina and calcium oxide) for greater water resistance.[146]

Glass blowing

Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal of stresses and to increase the glass's hardness and durability.[147][self-published source?] Surface treatments, coatings or lamination may follow to improve the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internal treatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshields[148]), or optical properties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating).[149]

New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali or alkaline earth metal oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that the impurities are quantified (loss on ignition).[150] Evaporation losses during glass melting should be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodium selenite may be preferred over easily evaporating selenium dioxide (SeO2). Also, more readily reacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) over alumina (Al2O3). Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reduce contamination from the crucible material. Glass homogeneity is achieved by homogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and by crushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed to prevent breakage during processing.[150][151]


Colour in glass may be obtained by addition of electrically charged ions (or colour centres) that are homogeneously distributed, and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles (such as in photochromic glasses).[120] Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colourless to the naked eye when it is thin, although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0.1 wt%[152] produce a green tint, which can be viewed in thick pieces or with the aid of scientific instruments. Further FeO and chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) additions may be used for the production of green bottles. Sulphur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to form iron polysulphides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost black.[153] A glass melt can also acquire an amber colour from a reducing combustion atmosphere.[154] Manganese dioxide can be added in small amounts to remove the green tint given by iron.[155]

Glass art[edit]

A glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly, "The Sun" at the "Gardens of Glass" exhibition in Kew Gardens, London. The piece is 4 metres (13 feet) high and made from 1000 separate glass objects.

From the 19th century, various types of fancy glass started to become significant branches of the decorative arts. Cameo glass was revived for the first time since the Romans, initially mostly used for pieces in a neo-classical style. The Art Nouveau movement in particular made great use of glass, with René Lalique, Émile Gallé, and Daum of Nancy important names in the first French wave of the movement, producing coloured vases and similar pieces, often in cameo glass, and also using lustre techniques. Louis Comfort Tiffany in America specialized in secular stained glass, mostly of plant subjects, both in panels and his famous lamps. From the 20th century, some glass artists began to class themselves as in effect sculptors working in glass, and as part of the fine arts.

Several of the most common techniques for producing glass art include: blowing, kiln-casting, fusing, slumping, pate-de-verre, flame-working, hot-sculpting and cold-working. Cold work includes traditional stained glass work as well as other methods of shaping glass at room temperature. Glass can also be cut with a diamond saw, or copper wheels embedded with abrasives, and polished to give gleaming facets; the technique used in creating Waterford crystal.[156] Art is sometimes etched into glass via the use of acid, caustic, or abrasive substances. Traditionally this was done after the glass was blown or cast. In the 1920s a new mould-etch process was invented, in which art was etched directly into the mould, so that each cast piece emerged from the mould with the image already on the surface of the glass. This reduced manufacturing costs and, combined with a wider use of coloured glass, led to cheap glassware in the 1930s, which later became known as Depression glass.[157] As the types of acids used in this process are extremely hazardous, abrasive methods have gained popularity.

Objects made out of glass include not only traditional objects such as vessels (bowls, vases, bottles, and other containers), paperweights, marbles, beads, but also an endless range of sculpture and installation art as well. Coloured glass is often used, though sometimes the glass is painted, innumerable examples exist of the use of stained glass.


Apart from historical collections in general museums, modern works of art in glass can be seen in a variety of museums, including the Chrysler Museum, the Museum of Glass in Tacoma, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Toledo Museum of Art, and Corning Museum of Glass, in Corning, NY, which houses the world's largest collection of glass art and history, with more than 45,000 objects in its collection.[158] The Harvard Museum of Natural History has a collection of extremely detailed models of flowers made of painted glass. These were lampworked by Leopold Blaschka and his son Rudolph, who never revealed the method he used to make them. The Blaschka Glass Flowers are still an inspiration to glassblowers today.[159] The UK's National Glass Centre is located in the city of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear.

Behaviour of antique glass[edit]

The observation that old windows are sometimes found to be thicker at the bottom than at the top is often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a timescale of centuries, the assumption being that the glass has exhibited the liquid property of flowing from one shape to another.[160] This assumption is incorrect, as once solidified, glass stops flowing. The reason for the observation is that in the past, when panes of glass were commonly made by glassblowers, the technique used was to spin molten glass so as to create a round, mostly flat and even plate (the crown glass process). This plate was then cut to fit a window. The pieces were not absolutely flat; the edges of the disk became a different thickness as the glass spun. When installed in a window frame, the glass would be placed with the thicker side down both for the sake of stability and to prevent water accumulating in the lead cames at the bottom of the window.[161] Occasionally, such glass has been found installed with the thicker side at the top, left or right.[162] Modern glass intended for windows is produced as float glass and is very uniform in thickness.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ASTM definition of glass from 1945
  2. ^ a b Zallen, R. (1983). The Physics of Amorphous Solids. New York: John Wiley. pp. 1–32. ISBN 978-0-471-01968-8.
  3. ^ Cusack, N.E. (1987). The physics of structurally disordered matter: an introduction. Adam Hilger in association with the University of Sussex press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-85274-829-9.
  4. ^ a b c Scholze, Horst (1991). Glass – Nature, Structure, and Properties. Springer. p. 3-5. ISBN 978-0-387-97396-8.
  5. ^ a b c Elliot, S.R. (1984). Physics of Amorphous Materials. Longman group ltd. p. 5. ISBN 0-582-44636-8.
  6. ^ Neumann, Florin. "Glass: Liquid or Solid – Science vs. an Urban Legend". Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  7. ^ a b Gibbs, Philip. "Is glass liquid or solid?". Archived from the original on 29 March 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  8. ^ "Philip Gibbs" Glass Worldwide, (May/June 2007), pp. 14–18
  9. ^ Salmon, P.S. (2002). "Order within disorder". Nature Materials. 1 (2): 87–8. doi:10.1038/nmat737. PMID 12618817.
  10. ^ Vannoni, M.; Sordini, A.; Molesini, G. (2011). "Relaxation time and viscosity of fused silica glass at room temperature". Eur. Phys. J. E. 34 (9): 9–14. doi:10.1140/epje/i2011-11092-9. PMID 21947892.
  11. ^ Anderson, P.W. (1995). "Through the Glass Lightly". Science. 267 (5204): 1615–16. doi:10.1126/science.267.5204.1615-e. PMID 17808155.
  12. ^ Phillips, J.C. (1979). "Topology of covalent non-crystalline solids I: Short-range order in chalcogenide alloys". Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 34 (2): 153. Bibcode:1979JNCS...34..153P. doi:10.1016/0022-3093(79)90033-4.
  13. ^ Folmer, J.C.W.; Franzen, Stefan (2003). "Study of polymer glasses by modulated differential scanning calorimetry in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory". Journal of Chemical Education. 80 (7): 813. Bibcode:2003JChEd..80..813F. doi:10.1021/ed080p813.
  14. ^ Loy, Jim. "Glass Is A Liquid?". Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  15. ^ "Obsidian: Igneous Rock - Pictures, Uses, Properties".
  16. ^ "Impactites: Impact Breccia, Tektites, Moldavites, Shattercones".
  17. ^ Klein, Hermann Joseph (1 January 1881). Land, sea and sky; or, Wonders of life and nature, tr. from the Germ. [Die Erde und ihr organisches Leben] of H.J. Klein and dr. Thomé, by J. Minshull. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  18. ^ Giaimo, Cara (June 30, 2017). "The Long, Weird Half-Life of Trinitite". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  19. ^ Roperch, Pierrick; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Valenzuela, Millarca; Devouard, Bertrand; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Arriagada, Cesar; Rochette, Pierre; Latorre, Claudio; Beck, Pierre (2017). "Surface vitrification caused by natural fires in Late Pleistocene wetlands of the Atacama Desert". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 469 (1 July 2017): 15–26. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.04.009.
  20. ^ "Digs Reveal Stone-Age Weapons Industry With Staggering Output". National Geographic News. 13 April 2015.
  21. ^ a b c Julian Henderson (2013). Ancient Glass. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–157. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139021883.006.
  22. ^ "Glass Online: The History of Glass". Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
  23. ^ "All About Glass | Corning Museum of Glass".
  24. ^ "How did Manufactured Glass Develop in the Bronze Age? -".
  25. ^ Wilde, H. "Technologische Innovationen im 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Zur Verwendung und Verbreitung neuer Werkstoffe im ostmediterranen Raum". GOF IV, Bd 44, Wiesbaden 2003, 25–26.
  26. ^ Gowlett, J.A.J. (1997). High Definition Archaeology: Threads Through the Past. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-18429-8. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017.
  27. ^ Douglas, R.W. (1972). A history of glassmaking. Henley-on-Thames: G T Foulis & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85429-117-5.
  28. ^ Whitehouse, David (2003). Roman Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, Volume 3. Hudson Hills. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-87290-155-1.
  29. ^ The Art Journal. Virtue and Company. 1888. p. 365.
  30. ^ Brown, A.L. (November 1921). "The Manufacture of Glass Milk Bottles". The Glass Industry. Ashlee Publishing Company. 2 (11): 259.
  31. ^ Dien, Albert E. (2007). Six Dynasties Civilization. Yale University Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-300-07404-8.
  32. ^ Silberman, Neil Asher; Bauer, Alexander A. (2012). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-19-973578-5.
  33. ^ Stachurski, Zbigniew H. (2015). Fundamentals of Amorphous Solids: Structure and Properties. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-3-527-68219-5.
  34. ^ Walford, Edward; Apperson, George Latimer (1887). The Antiquary: A Magazine Devoted to the Study of the Past. E. Stock.
  35. ^ Keller, Daniel; Price, Jennifer; Jackson, Caroline (2014). Neighbours and Successors of Rome: Traditions of Glass Production and use in Europe and the Middle East in the Later 1st Millennium AD. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-78297-398-0.
  36. ^ Churchill, Lady Randolph Spencer (1900). The Anglo-Saxon Review. John Lane.
  37. ^ Rene Hughe, Byzantine and Medieval Art, Paul Hamlyn, (1963)
  38. ^ John Harvey, English Cathedrals, Batsford, (1961)
  39. ^ Packard, Robert T.; Korab, Balthazar; Hunt, William Dudley (1980). Encyclopedia of American architecture. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-048010-0.
  40. ^ Tutag, Nola Huse; Hamilton, Lucy (1987). Discovering Stained Glass in Detroit. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-1875-1. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017.
  41. ^ Brown, Sarah; O'Connor, David (1991). Glass-painters. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-6917-7.
  42. ^ Miller, Judith (2006). Decorative Arts. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-2349-4.
  43. ^ Cresswell, Lesley (2004). Graphic with Materials Technology. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-435-75768-7.
  44. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1983. ISBN 978-0-85229-400-0.
  45. ^ Freiman, Stephen (2007). Global Roadmap for Ceramic and Glass Technology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-10491-0.
  46. ^ Gelfand, Lisa; Duncan, Chris (2011). Sustainable Renovation: Strategies for Commercial Building Systems and Envelope. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-10217-6.
  47. ^ Lim, Henry W.; Honigsmann, Herbert; Hawk, John L.M. (2007). Photodermatology. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-1996-4.
  48. ^ Bach, Hans; Neuroth, Norbert (2012). The Properties of Optical Glass. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-642-57769-7.
  49. ^ McLean, Ian S. (2008). Electronic Imaging in Astronomy: Detectors and Instrumentation. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-540-76582-0 – via Google Books.
  50. ^ Meyers, Morton A. (2011). Happy Accidents: Serendipity in Major Medical Breakthroughs in the Twentieth Century. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-162-7.
  51. ^ Enteria, Napoleon; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar (2013). Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-203-76205-9.
  52. ^ Zolfagharifard, Ellie (15 October 2013). "How medieval stained-glass is creating the ultimate SPACE camera: Nanoparticles used in church windows will help scientists see Mars' true colours under extreme UV light". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013.
  53. ^ Barsoum, Michel W. (2003). Fundamentals of ceramics (2 ed.). Bristol: IOP. ISBN 978-0-7503-0902-8.
  54. ^ Donald R. Uhlmann; Norbert J. Kreidl, eds. (1991). Optical properties of glass. Westerville, OH: American Ceramic Society. ISBN 978-0-944904-35-0.
  55. ^ Lyle, D.P. (2008). Howdunit Forensics. Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 978-1-58297-474-3.
  56. ^ Khatib, Jamal (12 August 2016). Sustainability of Construction Materials. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-0-08-100391-6.
  57. ^ Ramakrishna, A. (2014). Goyal's I I T Foundation Course Chemistry: For Class- 7. Goyal Brothers Prakashan.
  58. ^ Apodaca, Anthony A.; Gritz, Larry; Barzel, Ronen (2000). Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures. Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN 978-1-55860-618-0.
  59. ^ White, Mary Anne (2011). Physical Properties of Materials, Second Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-9532-0.
  60. ^ Mattox, D.M. (2014). Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-08-094658-0.
  61. ^ Zarzycki, Jerzy (1991). Glasses and the Vitreous State. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35582-7.
  62. ^ Tilstone, William J.; Savage, Kathleen A.; Clark, Leigh A. (2006). Forensic Science: An Encyclopedia of History, Methods, and Techniques. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-194-6.
  63. ^ a b Simmons, H. Leslie (2011). Olin's Construction: Principles, Materials, and Methods. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-06705-5.
  64. ^ Oxley, John (1994). Stained glass in South Africa. William Waterman Publications. ISBN 978-1-874959-09-0.
  65. ^ Ward-Harvey, K. (2009). Fundamental Building Materials. Universal-Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59942-954-0.
  66. ^ a b Gardner, Irvine Clifton; Hahner, Clarence H. (1949). Research and Development in Applied Optics and Optical Glass at the National Bureau of Standards: A Review and Bibliography. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  67. ^ Dudeja, Puja; Gupta, Rajul K.; Minhas, Amarjeet Singh (2016). Food Safety in the 21st Century: Public Health Perspective. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-801846-0.
  68. ^ Aulton, Michael E.; Taylor, Kevin (2013). Aulton's Pharmaceutics: The Design and Manufacture of Medicines. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-7020-4290-4.
  69. ^ Bengisu, M. (2013). Engineering Ceramics. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-662-04350-9.
  70. ^ Batchelor, Andrew W.; Loh, Nee Lam; Chandrasekaran, Margam (2011). Materials Degradation and Its Control by Surface Engineering. World Scientific. ISBN 978-1-908978-14-1.
  71. ^ Chawla, Sohan L. (1993). Materials Selection for Corrosion Control. ASM International. ISBN 978-1-61503-728-5.
  72. ^ Technomic (1998). SPI/CI International Conference and Exposition 1998. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-56676-642-5.
  73. ^ Kasunic, Keith J. (2015). Optomechanical Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-80990-7.
  74. ^ Lehman, Richard (24 November 2017). "The Mechanical Properties of Glass" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  75. ^ The Glass Industry. Ashlee Publishing Company, Incorporated. 1923.
  76. ^ "Glass Strength". Archived from the original on 26 July 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  77. ^ Lewis, Peter Rhys (9 June 2016). Forensic Polymer Engineering: Why Polymer Products Fail in Service. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-0-08-100728-0. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017.
  78. ^ a b Ashby, Michael F.; Johnson, Kara (2013). Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-098282-3. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017.
  79. ^ Chawla, Sohan L. (1993). Materials Selection for Corrosion Control. ASM International. ISBN 978-1-61503-728-5. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  80. ^ a b c d e "Mining the sea sand". Seafriends. 8 February 1994. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  81. ^ "Glass – Chemistry Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  82. ^ "Borosilicate Glass vs. Soda Lime Glass?". 2 August 2016. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  83. ^ Robertson, Gordon L. (2005). Food Packaging: Principles and Practice (Second ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-3775-8. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  84. ^ a b B.H.W.S. de Jong, "Glass"; in "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; 5th edition, vol. A12, VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1989, ISBN 978-3-527-20112-9, pp. 365–432.
  85. ^ a b Hill Jr, Robert H.; Finster, David C. (2016). Laboratory Safety for Chemistry Students. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-119-24338-0. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  86. ^ Spence, William P.; Kultermann, Eva (2016). Construction Materials, Methods and Techniques. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-305-08627-2. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  87. ^ Punmia, B.C.; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Jain, Arun Kr (2003). Basic Civil Engineering. Firewall Media. ISBN 978-81-7008-403-7. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017.
  88. ^ Nema, Sandeep; Ludwig, John D. (2010). Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms – Parenteral Medications, Third Edition: Volume 3: Regulations, Validation and the Future. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-8648-5. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017.
  89. ^ Khatib, Jamal (2016). Sustainability of Construction Materials. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-0-08-100391-6. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017.
  90. ^ Tilstone, William J.; Savage, Kathleen A.; Clark, Leigh A. (2006). Forensic Science: An Encyclopedia of History, Methods, and Techniques. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-194-6. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  91. ^ Worrell, Ernst; Reuter, Markus (2014). Handbook of Recycling: State-of-the-art for Practitioners, Analysts, and Scientists. Newnes. ISBN 978-0-12-396506-6. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  92. ^ "Properties of PYREX®, PYREXPLUS® and Low Actinic PYREX Code 7740 Glasses" (PDF). Corning, Inc. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  93. ^ "AR-GLAS® Technical Data" (PDF). Schott, Inc. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2012.
  94. ^ a b Ericsson, Anne-Marie (1996). The Brilliance of Swedish Glass, 1918–1939: An Alliance of Art and Industry. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07005-7.
  95. ^ a b Schwartz, Mel (2002). Encyclopedia of Materials, Parts and Finishes (Second ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-1716-8. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  96. ^ Shelby, J.E. (2017). Introduction to Glass Science and Technology. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-639-3. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  97. ^ Shackelford, James F.; Doremus, Robert H. (12 April 2008). Ceramic and Glass Materials: Structure, Properties and Processing. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-387-73362-3.
  98. ^ a b c Askeland, Donald R.; Fulay, Pradeep P. (2008). Essentials of Materials Science & Engineering. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-24446-2. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017.
  99. ^ Bradford, S. (2012). Corrosion Control. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4684-8845-6.
  100. ^ "Glass Ingredients – What is Glass Made Of?". Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  101. ^ Pfaender, Heinz G. (1996). Schott guide to glass. Springer. pp. 135, 186. ISBN 978-0-412-62060-7. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  102. ^ Doering, Robert; Nishi, Yoshio (2007). Handbook of semiconductor manufacturing technology. CRC Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-1-57444-675-3.
  103. ^ a b Kingery, W.D.; Uhlmann, H.K. Bowen, D.R. (1976). Introduction to ceramics (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-47860-7.
  104. ^ a b Richerson, David W. (1992). Modern ceramic engineering : properties, processing and use in design (2nd ed.). New York: Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-8634-2.
  105. ^ Woodhouse, Philip (2013). Sea Kayaking: A Guide for Sea Canoeists. Balboa Press. ISBN 978-1-4525-0849-8.
  106. ^ Burrill, Daniel; Zurschmeide, Jeffery (2012). How to Fabricate Automotive Fiberglass & Carbon Fiber Parts. CarTech Inc. ISBN 978-1-934709-98-6.
  107. ^ Bradt, R.C.; Tressler, R.E. (2013). Fractography of Glass. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4899-1325-8.
  108. ^ Bryce, Douglas M. (1997). Plastic Injection Molding: Material Selection and Product Design Fundamentals. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. ISBN 978-0-87263-488-6.
  109. ^ Kamen, Gary (2001). Foundations of Exercise Science. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-683-04498-0.
  110. ^ The Complete Guide to Auto Body Repair. MotorBooks International. ISBN 978-1-61059-206-2.
  111. ^ "Properties of Matter Reading Selection: Perfect Teamwork". Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  112. ^ Bhatnagar, Ashok (2016). Lightweight Ballistic Composites: Military and Law-Enforcement Applications. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-0-08-100425-8.
  113. ^ Certain Steel Grating from China, Invs. 701-TA-465 and 731-TA-1161 (Preliminary). DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4578-1677-2.
  114. ^ "Fiberglass and Composite Material Design Guide". Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  115. ^ Jain, Ravi; Lee, Luke (2012). Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Infrastructure Applications: Focusing on Innovation, Technology Implementation and Sustainability. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-007-2356-6.
  116. ^ Kaviany, Massoud (2002). Principles of Heat Transfer. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-43463-4.
  117. ^ Kogel, Jessica Elzea (2006). Industrial Minerals & Rocks: Commodities, Markets, and Uses. SME. ISBN 978-0-87335-233-8.
  118. ^ Canning, Wayne (2017). Fiberglass Boat Restoration: The Project Planning Guide. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-944824-27-3.
  119. ^ Greer, A. Lindsay; Mathur, N (2005). "Materials science: Changing Face of the Chameleon". Nature. 437 (7063): 1246–1247. Bibcode:2005Natur.437.1246G. doi:10.1038/4371246a. PMID 16251941.
  120. ^ a b Vogel, Werner (1994). Glass Chemistry (2 ed.). Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K. ISBN 978-3-540-57572-6.
  121. ^ Rivera, V. A. G.; Manzani, Danilo (30 March 2017). Technological Advances in Tellurite Glasses: Properties, Processing, and Applications. Springer. p. 214. ISBN 978-3-319-53038-3.
  122. ^ Jiang, Xin; Lousteau, Joris; Richards, Billy; Jha, Animesh (1 September 2009). "Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development". Optical Materials. 31 (11): 1701–1706. Bibcode:2009OptMa..31.1701J. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2009.04.011.
  123. ^ J. W. E. Drewitt; S. Jahn; L. Hennet (2019). "Configurational constraints on glass formation in the liquid calcium aluminate system". Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment: 104012. doi:10.1088/1742-5468/ab47fc.
  124. ^ C. J. Benmore; J. K. R. Weber (2017). "Aerodynamic levitation, supercooled liquids and glass formation". Advances in Physics: X. 2 (3): 717–736. doi:10.1080/23746149.2017.1357498.
  125. ^ Davies, H. A.; Hull J. B. (1976). "The formation, structure and crystallization of non-crystalline nickel produced by splat-quenching". Journal of Materials Science. 11 (2): 707–717. Bibcode:1976JMatS..11..215D. doi:10.1007/BF00551430.
  126. ^ Bennett, T.; Poulikakos D. (1993). "Splat-quench solidification: estimating the maximum spread of a droplet impacting a solid surface". Journal of Materials Science. 28 (4): 2025–2039. Bibcode:1993JMatS..28..963B. doi:10.1007/BF00400880.
  127. ^ Klement, Jr., W.; Willens, R.H.; Duwez, Pol (1960). "Non-crystalline Structure in Solidified Gold-Silicon Alloys". Nature. 187 (4740): 869. Bibcode:1960Natur.187..869K. doi:10.1038/187869b0.
  128. ^ Liebermann, H.; Graham, C. (1976). "Production of Amorphous Alloy Ribbons and Effects of Apparatus Parameters on Ribbon Dimensions". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 12 (6): 921. Bibcode:1976ITM....12..921L. doi:10.1109/TMAG.1976.1059201.
  129. ^ Ponnambalam, V.; Poon, S. Joseph; Shiflet, Gary J. (2004). "Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with diameter thickness larger than one centimeter". Journal of Materials Research. 19 (5): 1320. Bibcode:2004JMatR..19.1320P. doi:10.1557/JMR.2004.0176.
  130. ^ "Metallurgy Division Publications". NIST Interagency Report 7127. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008.
  131. ^ Mendelev, M.I.; Schmalian, J.; Wang, C.Z.; Morris, J.R.; K.M. Ho (2006). "Interface Mobility and the Liquid-Glass Transition in a One-Component System". Physical Review B. 74 (10): 104206. Bibcode:2006PhRvB..74j4206M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.74.104206.
  132. ^ "A main research field: Polymer glasses". Archived from the original on 25 May 2016.
  133. ^ Ruby, S.L.; Pelah, I. (2013). "Crystals, Supercooled Liquids, and Glasses in Frozen Aqueous Solutions". In Gruverman, Irwin J. (ed.). Mössbauer Effect Methodology: Volume 6 Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Mössbauer Effect Methodology New York City, January 25, 1970. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4684-3159-9.
  134. ^ Levine, Harry; Slade, Louise (2013). Water Relationships in Foods: Advances in the 1980s and Trends for the 1990s. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-4899-0664-9.
  135. ^ Dupuy J, Jal J, Prével B, Aouizerat-Elarby A, Chieux P, Dianoux AJ, Legrand J (October 1992). "Vibrational dynamics and structural relaxation in aqueous electrolyte solutions in the liquid, undercooled liquid and glassy states". Journal de Physique IV. 2 (C2): C2-179–C2-184. doi:10.1051/jp4:1992225. European Workshop on Glasses and Gels.
  136. ^ Hartel, Richard W.; Hartel, AnnaKate (2014). Candy Bites: The Science of Sweets. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4614-9383-9.
  137. ^ Charbel Tengroth (2001). "Structure of Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4 from the glass to the liquid state". Phys. Rev. B. 64: 224207. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.64.224207.
  138. ^ "Lithium-Ion Pioneer Introduces New Battery That's Three Times Better". Fortune. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  139. ^ Pusey, P.N.; van Megen, W. (1987). "Observation of a glass transition in suspensions of spherical colloidal particles". Physical Review Letters. 59 (18): 2083–2086. Bibcode:1987PhRvL..59.2083P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.2083. PMID 10035413.
  140. ^ Van Megen, W.; Underwood, S. (1993). "Dynamic-light-scattering study of glasses of hard colloidal spheres". Physical Review E. 47 (1): 248–261. Bibcode:1993PhRvE..47..248V. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.47.248. PMID 9959998.
  141. ^ Löwen, H. (1996). A.K. Arora; B.V.R. Tata (eds.). "Dynamics of charged colloidal suspensions across the freezing and glass transition" (PDF). Ordering and Phase Transitions in Charged Colloids. VCH Series of Textbooks on "Complex Fluids and Fluid Microstructures": 207–234. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2013.
  142. ^ a b Parry, Bradley R.; Surovtsev, Ivan V.; Cabeen, Matthew T.; O’Hern, Corey S.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine (2014). "The Bacterial Cytoplasm Has Glass-like Properties and Is Fluidized by Metabolic Activity". Cell. 156 (1): 183–194. Bibcode:2014APS..MARJ16002P. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.028. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 3956598. PMID 24361104.
  143. ^ Munguira, Ignacio (9 February 2016). "Glasslike Membrane Protein Diffusion in a Crowded Membrane" (PDF). ACS Nano. 10 (2): 2584–2590. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b07595. PMID 26859708.
  144. ^ "PFG Glass". Archived from the original on 6 November 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  145. ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40,: Protection of Environment, Part 60 (Sections 60.1-end), Revised As of July 1, 2011. Government Printing Office. October 2011. ISBN 978-0-16-088907-3.
  146. ^ Ball, Douglas J.; Norwood, Daniel L.; Stults, Cheryl L. M.; Nagao, Lee M. (24 January 2012). Leachables and Extractables Handbook: Safety Evaluation, Qualification, and Best Practices Applied to Inhalation Drug Products. John Wiley & Sons. p. 552. ISBN 978-0-470-17365-7.
  147. ^ Richling, Jeffrey (2017). Scratching the Surface – An Introduction to Photonics – Part 1 Optics, Thin Films, Lasers and Crystals. ISBN 978-1-312-65170-8.
  148. ^ "windshields how they are made". autoglassguru. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  149. ^ Pantano, Carlo. "Glass Surface Treatments: Commercial Processes Used in Glass Manufacture" (PDF).
  150. ^ a b "Glass melting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory". Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  151. ^ Fluegel, Alexander. "Glass melting in the laboratory". Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  152. ^ Thomas P. Seward, ed. (2005). High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling. Westerville, Ohio: American Ceramic Society. ISBN 978-1-57498-225-1.
  153. ^ David M Issitt. Substances Used in the Making of Coloured Glass
  154. ^ Shelby, James E. (2007). Introduction to Glass Science and Technology. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-1-84755-116-0.
  155. ^ McFarland, Ben (7 March 2016). A World From Dust: How the Periodic Table Shaped Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190275037.
  156. ^ "Waterford Crystal Visitors Centre". Retrieved 19 October 2007.
  157. ^ "Depression Glass". Retrieved 19 October 2007.
  158. ^ "Corning Museum of Glass". Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
  159. ^ The Ware Collection of Blaschka Glass Models of Plants. The Harvard Museum of Natural History
  160. ^ Kenneth Chang (29 July 2008). "The Nature of Glass Remains Anything but Clear". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 April 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
  161. ^ "Dr Karl's Homework: Glass Flows". Australia: ABC. 26 January 2000. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  162. ^ Halem, H. "Does Glass Flow". Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2010.

External links[edit]