Glass Chain

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The Glass Chain or Crystal Chain sometimes known as the "Utopian Correspondence" (German: Die Gläserne Kette) was a chain letter that took place between November 1919 and December 1920. It was a correspondence of architects that formed a basis of expressionist architecture in Germany. It was initiated by Bruno Taut.

Names, pen-names, and locations of participants[edit]

Name pen-name location
Wilhelm Brückman Berxback 7 Emden
Hermann Finsterlin Prometh Stuttgart
Paul Gösch Tancred Berlin
Jakobus Göttel Stellarius Cologne
Walter Gropius Maß Weimar
Wenzel Hablik W.H. Itzehoe
Hans Hansen Antischmitz Cologne
Carl Krayl Anfang Tuttlingen
Wassili Luckhardt Zacken Berlin
Hans Luckhardt Angkor Berlin
Hans Scharoun Hannes Insterburg
Bruno Taut Glas Berlin
Max Taut No Name Berlin


  • Sharp, Dennis (1966). Modern Architecture and Expressionism. George Braziller: New York.
  • Whyte, Iain Boyd ed. (1985). Crystal Chain Letters: Architectural Fantasies by Bruno Taut and His Circle. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23121-2
  • Benson, Timothy. O. (et al.); Dimenberg, Edward (2001-09-17). Expressionist Utopias: Paradise, Metropolis, Architectural Fantasy (Weimar and Now: German Cultural Criticism). University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23003-5.