Loch Shiel and memorial to the Jacobites, at Glenfinnan, Lochaber
|Glenfinnan shown within the Lochaber area|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Glenfinnan (Scottish Gaelic: Gleann Fhionghain, [ˈkl̪ˠau̯n̪ˠ ˈʝũːŋɣɛn]) is a village in Lochaber area of the Highlands of Scotland. In 1745 the Jacobite Rising began here when Prince Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charlie") raised his standard on the shores of Loch Shiel. Seventy years later, the 18 m (60 ft) Glenfinnan Monument, at the head of the loch, was erected to commemorate the historic event.
Prince Charles initially landed from France on Eriskay in the Western Isles. He then travelled to the mainland in a small rowing boat, coming ashore at Loch nan Uamh just west of Glenfinnan. On arrival on the Scottish mainland, he was met by a small number of MacDonalds. Stuart waited at Glenfinnan for a number of days as more MacDonalds, Camerons, Macfies and MacDonnells arrived.
On 19 August 1745, after Prince Charles judged he had enough military support, he climbed the hill near Glenfinnan as MacMaster of Glenaladale raised his royal standard. The Young Pretender then announced to all the mustered clans he claimed the Scottish and the English thrones in the name of his father James Stuart ('the Old Pretender'). A MacPhee (Macfie) was one of two pipers with Bonnie Prince Charlie when he raised his banner above Glenfinnan. Afterwards brandy was distributed to the assembled highlanders to celebrate the occasion.
Eight months later, Charles Stuart's claim to the thrones of Scotland and England ended in failure at the Battle of Culloden on the 16 April 1746. Many Macfies, who came from Glenfinnan, followed Donald Cameron of Lochiel on the right flank of the Jacobite Army at the battle.
Charles Stuart returned to the area after Culloden during his flight to evade the government troops of Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. After being hidden by loyal supporters, he boarded a French frigate on the shores of Loch nan Uamh close to where he had landed and raised his standard the previous year. The Young Pretender died in Rome in 1788 without ever setting foot on Scottish soil again. The Prince's Cairn now marks the spot from where he departed into exile.
By 1815, the Jacobite cause was no longer a political threat. Alexander Macdonald of Glenaladale, a minor branch of the Clan Donald, built a memorial tower at Glenfinnan to commemorate the raising of the standard of the Young Pretender. The tower was designed by the Scottish architect James Gillespie Graham. The statue of an anonymous highlander, referred to at the point of commission as Charles Edward Stewart, by John Greenshields, was not added until 1835.
Since 1938, the Glenfinnan Monument has been in the care of the National Trust for Scotland. The Trust have also constructed a visitor centre, which provides tickets, information and exhibitions, and a shop, cafe, and toilets. The tower has also become a monument to Alexander Macdonald, who died before its completion. Hundreds of Jacobite enthusiasts gather at the tower each year on 19 August to remember the Rising of '45.
Glenfinnan lies about halfway between Fort William and Mallaig on the picturesque West Highland Railway. Along with a regular rail service by First ScotRail, the line is used by the Jacobite Steam Train.
Sir Robert McAlpine had the Glenfinnan Viaduct constructed between 1897 and 1898. The structure, which is built entirely out of concrete, has 21 arches with spans of 15 m (49 ft) and reaches a height of 30 m (100 ft) above the valley. To commemorate the viaduct's centenary in 1997, a plaque was unveiled at the base of one of its arches.
The landscape in which the viaduct is located has made it popular with film producers. In 1969, it was used in Ring of Bright Water, starring Bill Travers and Virginia McKenna. It has since come to prominence in the cinematic releases of the Harry Potter series. The Hogwarts Express, which is the Jacobite Steam Train, is filmed crossing the viaduct in several of the films beginning with Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets in 2002.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Glenfinnan.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Glenfinnan.|