Gliese 1

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Gliese 1
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Sculptor
Right ascension 00h 05m 24.4279s[1]
Declination −37° 21′ 26.503″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 8.57[2]
Spectral type M1.5V[2]
U−B color index +1.04[3]
B−V color index +1.46[3]
Variable type BY[4]
Radial velocity (Rv)+23.6±2[5] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: +5,633.95[1] mas/yr
Dec.: −2,336.69[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π)230.1331 ± 0.0600[6] mas
Distance14.173 ± 0.004 ly
(4.345 ± 0.001 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)10.35[7]
Mass0.45[8]–0.48[9] M
Radius0.46–0.48[10] R
Temperature3,567±110[11] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]−0.45±0.09[11] dex
Rotation60.1±5.7 d[12]
Rotational velocity (v sin i)4.8[13] km/s
Age(0.1 ± 0.1)[14] Myr
Other designations
CD -37°15492, CPD−37°9435, G 267-025, GJ 1, GC 49, GCTP 5817.00, HD 225213, HIP 439, LHS 1, LTT 23, NLTT 134, NSV 15017, SAO 192348[2]
Database references

Gliese 1 is a red dwarf in the constellation Sculptor, which is found in the southern celestial hemisphere. It is one of the closest stars to the Sun, at a distance of 14.2 light years. Because of its proximity to the Earth it is a frequent object of study and much is known about its physical properties and composition. However, with an apparent magnitude of about 8.5 it is too faint to be seen with the naked eye.


This star's high proper motion was first documented by Benjamin Gould in 1885. At that time the star was identified as Cordoba Z.C. 23h 1584.[15] As it lies very close to the origin of the astronomical right ascension coordinates during the 1950 epoch, it became the first star in both the Gliese Catalogue of Nearby Stars and the Luyten Half-Second star catalogues.[16][17]


The stellar classification of this star has been rated from M1.5V to M4.0V by various sources.[18] Gliese 1 is estimated to have 45–48%[8][9] of the Sun's mass and 46–48%[10] of the Sun's radius.

This star is suspected of being a BY Draconis-type variable star with the provisional variable star designation NSV 15017.[4] It is also suspected of being a flare star.[10] Like other flare stars, it emits X-rays.[19] The temperatures of the layers of the atmosphere of this star have been measured.[20]

This star has been examined for an orbiting companion using speckle interferometry in the near infrared part of the spectrum. However, no companion was found to a magnitude limit of 10.5 at 1 AU from the primary, out to a magnitude limit of 12.5 at 10 AU.[21] Radial velocity measurements have likewise failed to reveal the presence of a companion orbiting this star. This search excludes a planet with a few Earth masses orbiting in the habitable zone, or a Jupiter-mass planet orbiting at a radius of 1 AU or less. The radial velocity shows little or no variability, with a measurement precision of less than 20 m/s.[8]

The space velocity components of this star are U = +77.2, V = -99.5 and W = -35.6 km/s.[22] It is orbiting through the Milky Way galaxy with an orbital eccentricity of 0.45, and a distance from the galactic core that varies from 3,510 to 9,150 parsecs. By comparison, the Sun is currently 8,500 parsecs from the core.[23] Stars with high peculiar velocities are termed runaway stars. This star has a high peculiar velocity of 111.3 km/s, and the velocity vector for this star may link it with the Tucana-Horologium and/or the AB Doradus stellar associations.[14]


  1. ^ a b c d Perryman, M. A. C.; et al. (1997), "The Hipparcos Catalogue", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 323: L49–L52, Bibcode:1997A&A...323L..49P
  2. ^ a b c "NSV 15017 -- Flare Star". SIMBAD. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2006-06-12.
  3. ^ a b Cousins, A. W. J. (1973). "UBV Photometry of Some Southern Stars (Third List)". Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa. 32 (2): 43&ndash, 48. Bibcode:1973MNSSA..32...43C.
  4. ^ a b "General Catalogue of Variable Stars NSV 15017". Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
  5. ^ Wilson, R. E. (1953). "General Catalogue of Stellar Radial Velocities". Carnegie Institution of Washington: 0. Bibcode:1953GCRV..C......0W.
  6. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051. Gaia DR2 record for this source at VizieR.
  7. ^ Schmitt, JHMM; Liefke, C (April 2004). "NEXXUS: A comprehensive ROSAT survey of coronal X-ray emission among nearby solar-like stars". Astron. Astrophys. 417 (2): 651–65. arXiv:astro-ph/0308510. Bibcode:2004A&A...417..651S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030495.
  8. ^ a b c Zechmeister, M.; Kürster, M.; Endl, M. (October 2009). "The M dwarf planet search programme at the ESO VLT + UVES. A search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 505 (2): 859–871. arXiv:0908.0944. Bibcode:2009A&A...505..859Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912479.
  9. ^ a b "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". RECONS. Georgia State University. 2009-01-01. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
  10. ^ a b c Pasinetti Fracassini, L. E.; Pastori, L.; Covino, S.; Pozzi, A. (February 2001). "Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 367 (2): 521–524. arXiv:astro-ph/0012289. Bibcode:2001A&A...367..521P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20000451. Note: Search the VizieR catalogue II/224 for HD 225213.
  11. ^ a b Neves, V.; et al. (August 2014), "Metallicity of M dwarfs. IV. A high-precision [Fe/H] and Teff technique from high-resolution optical spectra for M dwarfs", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 568: 22, arXiv:1406.6127, Bibcode:2014A&A...568A.121N, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424139, A121.
  12. ^ Suárez Mascareño, A.; et al. (September 2015), "Rotation periods of late-type dwarf stars from time series high-resolution spectroscopy of chromospheric indicators", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 452 (3): 2745–2756, arXiv:1506.08039, Bibcode:2015MNRAS.452.2745S, doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1441.
  13. ^ Schröder, C.; Reiners, A.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M. (January 2009). "Ca II HK emission in rapidly rotating stars. Evidence for an onset of the solar-type dynamo". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 493 (3): 1099–1107. Bibcode:2009A&A...493.1099S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810377.
  14. ^ a b Tetzlaff, N.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M. (January 2011). "A catalogue of young runaway Hipparcos stars within 3 kpc from the Sun". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 410 (1): 190&ndash, 200. arXiv:1007.4883. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.410..190T. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17434.x.
  15. ^ Gould, B. (1885). "Star with large proper motion, in Sculptor". Astronomische Nachrichten. 111 (16): 255. Bibcode:1885AN....111..255G. doi:10.1002/asna.18851111612.
  16. ^ Gliese, W. (1969). "Catalogue of Nearby Stars". Veröffentlichungen des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts Heidelberg. 22: 1. Bibcode:1969VeARI..22....1G.
  17. ^ Luyten, W. J. (1976). LHS (Luyten half-second) Catalogue. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota.
  18. ^ M1.5: SIMBAD. M3: Gautier, Thomas N., III; et al. (2007). M3: Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; et al. (2004). M4: Eggen, Olin J. (1996) M4: Pasinetti-Fracassini, L. E.; et al. (2001).
  19. ^ Schmitt, JHMM; Fleming, TA; Giampapa, MS (September 1995). "The X-ray view of the low-mass stars in the solar neighborhood". Astrophys. J. 450 (9): 392–400. Bibcode:1995ApJ...450..392S. doi:10.1086/176149.
  20. ^ E. Lexen; R. Wehrse; J. Liebert; M. S. Bessell (January 2010). "The outer atmospheric layers of the early M dwarf Gliese 1". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 509: A101. Bibcode:2010A&A...509A.101L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912434.
  21. ^ Leinert, C.; Henry, T.; Glindemann, A.; McCarthy, D. W., Jr. (September 1997). "A search for companions to nearby southern M dwarfs with near-infrared speckle interferometry". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 325: 159–166. Bibcode:1997A&A...325..159L.
  22. ^ Eggen, Olin J. (January 1996). "Distribution and Corrlation of Age, Abundance, and Motion of Lower Main Sequence Stars". Astronomical Journal. 111: 466–475. Bibcode:1996AJ....111..466E. doi:10.1086/117797.
  23. ^ Allen, Christine; Santillan, Alfredo (October 1991). "An improved model of the galactic mass distribution for orbit computations". Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica. 22: 255–263. Bibcode:1991RMxAA..22..255A.