Global 200

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The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF, the global conservation organization, as priorities for conservation. According to WWF, an ecoregion is defined as a "relatively large unit of land or water containing a characteristic set of natural communities that share a large majority of their species dynamics, and environmental conditions".[1][2][3][clarification needed]

The WWF assigns a conservation status to each ecoregion in the Global 200: critical or endangered; vulnerable; and relatively stable or intact. Over half of the ecoregions in the Global 200 are rated endangered.

Contents

Background[edit]

The WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions across the Earth's land surface, as well as freshwater and marine ecoregions. The goal of this classification system is to ensure that the full range of ecosystems will be represented in regional conservation and development strategies. Of these ecoregions, the WWF selected the Global 200 as the ecoregions most crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity. The Global 200 list actually contains 238 ecoregions, made up of 142 terrestrial, 53 freshwater, and 43 marine ecoregions.

Conservationists interested in preserving biodiversity have generally focused on the preservation of tropical moist broadleaf forests (commonly known as tropical rainforests) because it is estimated that they harbor one half of Earth's species. On the other hand, the WWF determined that a more comprehensive strategy for conserving global biodiversity should also consider the other half of species, as well as the ecosystems that support them.

Several habitats, such as Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, were determined to be more threatened than tropical rain forests, and therefore require concerted conservation action. WWF maintains that "although conservation action typically takes place at the country level, patterns of biodiversity and ecological processes (e.g., migration) do not conform to political boundaries", which is why ecoregion-based conservation strategies are deemed essential.

Classification[edit]

Historically, zoologists and botanists have developed various classification systems that take into account the world's plant and animal communities. Two of the worldwide classification systems most commonly used today were summarized by Miklos Udvardy in 1975.

The Earth's land surface can be divided into eight biogeographical realms (formerly called kingdoms, and which the BBC calls ecozones) that represent the major terrestrial communities of animals and plants, and are a synthesis of previous systems of floristic provinces and faunal regions. The biome system classifies the world into ecosystem types (i.e. forests, grasslands, etc.) based on climate and vegetation. Each biogeographical realm contains multiple biomes, and biomes occur across several biogeographical realms. A system of biogeographical provinces was developed to identify specific geographic areas in each biogeographical realm that were of a consistent biome type, and shared distinct plant and animal communities. The WWF system represents a further refinement of the system of biomes (which the WWF calls "major habitat types"), biogeographical realms, and biogeographical provinces (the WWF scheme divides most biogeographical provinces into multiple smaller ecoregions).

Selection process[edit]

Based on a comprehensive list of ecoregions, The Global 200 includes all major habitat types (biomes), all ecosystem types, and species from every major habitat type. It focuses on each major habitat type of every continent (such as tropical forests or coral reefs). It uses ecoregions as the unit of scale for comparison. WWF say ecoregions could be considered as conservation units at regional scale because they meet similar biological communities.

Some ecoregions were selected over other ecoregions of the same major habitat type (biome) or ecozone. Selection of the Global 200 relied on extensive studies of 19 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine major habitat types. Selection of the ecoregions was based on analyses of species richness, species endemism, unique higher taxa, unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena, and global rarity of major habitat type.

Global 200 ecoregion list is most helpful to conservation efforts at a regional scale: local deforestation, destruction of swamp habitats, degradation of soils, etc. However, certain phenomena, such as bird or whale migration, depend on more complex parameters not used to define the current database, such as atmospheric currents and dynamic pelagic ecosystems. These would require gathering more information, and co-ordination of efforts between multiple ecoregions. However, the Global 200 ecoregions can help these efforts by identifying habitat sites and resting sites for migratory animals. It may also help identify the origin of invasive species, and offer insights for slowing down or stopping their intrusion.

Global 200: Terrestrial[edit]

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests[edit]

Main article: Tropical rainforest

Afrotropic[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Temperate coniferous forests[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Boreal forests/taiga[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

  • Llanos savannas
  • Cerrado woodlands and savannas

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Flooded grasslands and savannas[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Montane grasslands and shrublands[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Austral-asian[edit]

  • New Guinea Central Range subalpine grasslands

Indomalaya[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Tundra[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Deserts and xeric shrublands[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Mangroves[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Neartic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Global 200: Freshwater ecoregions[edit]

Large rivers[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

  • Mekong River (Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)

Nearctic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Large river headwaters[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

  • Congo basin piedmont rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Sudan)

Nearctic[edit]

Neotropic[edit]

  • Upper Amazon rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela)
  • Upper Paraná rivers and streams (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay)
  • Brazilian Shield Amazonian rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)

Large river deltas[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

Small rivers[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

  • Upper Guinea rivers and streams (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone)
  • Madagascar freshwater (Madagascar)
  • Gulf of Guinea rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Republic of Congo)
  • Cape rivers and streams (South Africa)

Australasia[edit]

Indomalaya[edit]

Nearctic[edit]

  • Southeastern rivers and streams (United States)
  • Pacific Northwest coastal rivers and streams (United States)
  • Gulf of Alaska coastal rivers and streams (Canada, United States)

Neotropic[edit]

  • Guianan freshwater (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
  • Greater Antillean freshwater (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico)

Palearctic[edit]

  • Balkan rivers and streams (Albania, Bosnia and Herzogovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia)
  • Russian Far East rivers and wetlands (China, Mongolia, Russia)

Large lakes[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

  • Rift Valley lakes (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia)

Neotropic[edit]

  • High Andean lakes (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru)

Palearctic[edit]

Small lakes[edit]

Afrotropic[edit]

  • Cameroon crater lakes (Cameroon)

Australasia[edit]

  • Lakes Kutubu and Sentani (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
  • Central Sulawesi lakes (Indonesia)

Indomalaya[edit]

  • Philippines freshwater (Philippines)
  • Inle Lake (Myanmar)
  • Yunnan lakes and streams (China)

Neotropic[edit]

  • Mexican highland lakes (Mexico)

Xeric basins[edit]

Australasia[edit]

  • Central Australian freshwater (Australia)

Nearctic[edit]

Palearctic[edit]

  • Anatolian freshwater (Syria, Turkey)

Global 200 Marine ecoregions[edit]

Polar[edit]

Antarctic Ocean[edit]

Arctic Ocean[edit]

Temperate shelfs and seas[edit]

Mediterranean[edit]

  • Mediterranean (Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey)

North Temperate Atlantic[edit]

North Temperate Indo-Pacific[edit]

Southern Ocean[edit]

Temperate upwelling[edit]

North Temperate Indo-Pacific[edit]

South Temperate Atlantic[edit]

South Temperate Indo-Pacific[edit]

Tropical upwelling[edit]

Central Indo-Pacific[edit]

Eastern Indo-Pacific[edit]

Eastern Tropical Atlantic[edit]

  • Canary Current (Canary Islands, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara)

Tropical coral[edit]

Central Indo-Pacific[edit]

Eastern Indo-Pacific[edit]

Western Indo-Pacific[edit]

  • Maldives, Chagos, and Lakshadweep atolls (Chagos Archipelago (United Kingdom), India, Maldives, Sri Lanka)
  • Red Sea (Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen)
  • Arabian Sea (Djibouti, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen)
  • East African Marine (Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania)
  • West Madagascar Marine (Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte and Iles Glorieuses (France), Seychelles)

Western Tropical Atlantic[edit]

Priority Places (19)[edit]

  • Amazon - World's largest tropical rain forest and river basin
  • Amur-Heilong - Refuge for the world's great cats
  • The Arctic - Protecting Arctic Environments
  • Borneo and Sumatra - Priceless forests harbor untold species
  • Chihuahuan Desert - Protecting the balance of a desert
  • Coastal East Africa - Improving livelihoods by conserving nature
  • Congo Basin - Protecting Africa's tropical forests
  • Coral Triangle - Home to the world's most abundant variety of corals and sea life
  • Eastern Himalayas - Empowering communities to protect sacred lands
  • The Galápagos - The world's most treasured islands
  • Gulf of California - Protecting the world's aquarium
  • Madagascar - Safeguarding one of Earth's most captivating islands
  • Mekong - Protecting the river of life from source to sea
  • Mesoamerican Reef - The Atlantic Ocean's largest coral reef
  • Namibia - Empowering communities to manage their natural resources
  • Northern Great Plains - Restoring the great American prairie
  • U.S. Southeast Rivers and Streams - Safeguarding America's richest source of freshwater
  • Southern Chile - A land of ancient forests and abundant oceans
  • Yangtze - Sustaining a valley of life

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein. 1998. The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biol. 12:502–515.[1].
  2. ^ Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E. 2002. The Global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89(2):199-224, [2].
  3. ^ The Nature Conservancy. 1997. Designing a geography of hope: guidelines for ecoregion-based conservation in The Nature Conservancy. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia

External links[edit]