Global Compact for Migration
|Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration|
|Drafted||13 July 2018|
|Signed||19 December 2018|
|Location||New York, United States|
|Languages||Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish|
The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) is an intergovernmentally negotiated agreement, prepared under the auspices of the United Nations, that describes itself as covering "all dimensions of international migration in a holistic and comprehensive manner".
The compact was formally endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly on 19 December 2018. As the Compact is not an international treaty, it will be non-binding under international law. The Crown Law Office of New Zealand published an opinion as guidance to the New Zealand Government, affirming the Compact will be non-binding, but will not be legally irrelevant, and "courts may be willing...to refer to the Compact and to take the Compact into account as an aid in interpreting immigration legislation".
On 19 September 2016, the nations of the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants. The Declaration recognized a need for more cooperation between nations to manage migration effectively. The declaration set off a process leading to the negotiation of the Global Compact for Migration.
A resolution was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 6 April 2017, which decided on the modalities and timeline for the compact. The agreed upon process consisted of the following three phases:
- Consultations (April–November 2017): six sessions in Geneva, New York City and Vienna
- Stocktaking (December 2017–January 2018), leading to a first draft ("zero draft")
- Intergovernmental negotiations (February–July 2018) at the UN Headquarters in New York City.
On 9 March 2017, Louise Arbour was appointed by Secretary-General Guterres as his Special Representative for International Migration and was thus tasked with working with the nations and stakeholders to develop the compact.
On 10 December 2018, the document was approved by 164 nations during the Intergovernmental Conference to Adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration.
On 19 December 2018, the United Nations General Assembly endorsed the compact through a vote. 152 countries voted in favor of the resolution to endorse it, while the United States, Hungary, Israel, Czech Republic and Poland voted against it. 12 countries abstained from the vote.
|In favour||Against||Abstention||Didn't vote|
Substance of the agreement
There are 23 objectives and commitments listed in the draft agreement. These include collecting and using accurate and anonymized data to develop evidence-based migration policy, ensuring that all migrants have proof of identity, enhancing availability and flexibility for regular migration, encouraging cooperation for tracking missing migrants and saving lives, ensuring migrants can access basic services, and making provisions for both full inclusion of migrants and social cohesion.
The draft agreement recognises the principles of national sovereignty:
"The Global Compact reaffirms the sovereign right of States to determine their national migration policy and their prerogative to govern migration within their jurisdiction, in conformity with international law. Within their sovereign jurisdiction, States may distinguish between regular and irregular migration status, including as they determine their legislative and policy measures for the implementation of the Global Compact, taking into account different national realities, policies, priorities and requirements for entry, residence and work, in accordance with international law."
The agreement lists actions for governments to draw from, including to "promote independent, objective and quality reporting of media outlets, including internet-based information, including by sensitizing and educating media professionals on migration-related issues and terminology" and to "support multicultural activities through sports, music, arts, culinary festivals, volunteering and other social events".
The agreement makes no distinction between illegal and legal migrants, but does distinguish repeatedly between regular and irregular migrants, affirms the right of states to distinguish between regular and irregular migration status, and commits signatories to "preventing irregular migration". The text does not make a distinction between economic migrants and refugees.
Calling the agreement a “historic moment,” General Assembly President Miroslav Lajčák emphasized “It does not encourage migration, nor does it aim to stop it. It is not legally binding. It does not dictate. It will not impose. And it fully respects the sovereignty of States.”
Austria, Australia, Bulgaria, Chile, the Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Israel, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland did not attend an international conference in the Moroccan city of Marrakesh to adopt the agreement. The United States did not participate in the negotiation of the agreement, at the behest of President Trump.
Australia: The Prime Minister stated that the agreement could "undermine Australia’s strong border protection laws and practices", and would not sign it.
Belgium: In Belgium, government party N-VA, including its Secretary of State for Migration Theo Francken came out against participating, while the three other government parties remained in favour, creating a political deadlock. All the parties (N-VA, OpenVLD, CD&V and MR) did in fact agree on the compact and Charles Michel announced Belgium's favourable position at the General Assembly of the UN on September 27, 2018. Unfavourable election results for N-VA and Austria's position on the compact had the N-VA change its position. On December 4, the Prime Minister of Belgium, Charles Michel, announced that the issue would be taken to parliament for a vote. On 5 December, parliament voted 106 to 36 in favor of backing the agreement. Michel stated that he would endorse the pact on behalf of the parliament, not on behalf of the divided government. Consequently, N-VA quit the government; the other three parties continued as a minority government (Michel II) that lasted 1 week and led to the fall of the Belgian government on 18 December 2018.
Brazil: Affirmed support for the document at the Marrakesh conference, but the Jair Bolsonaro government announced that Brazil would withdraw its support for the document. Citing "immigration must be treated in accordance with the reality and sovereignty of each country", Bolsonaro again confirmed the withdrawal in a ceremony that happened on January 2, 2019. On January 8, 2019, Foreign Minister Ernesto Araújo asked diplomats to inform the UN that Brazil had withdrawn from the Global Compact for Migration.
Bulgaria: On 5 December, the government announced that it would not sign the agreement; its representatives would vote "abstained."
Denmark: On 27 November, the Danish Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen stated that he was supportive of the agreement, but that his government would form a coalition of European countries to create an opt-out.
Dominican Republic: On 4 December 2018, the Dominican government set its position on the Global Migration Pact, stipulating that the Dominican state would not sign the agreement, as reported during a press conference by the legal consultant of the Executive Branch, Flavio Darío Espinal. He also spoke about the participation of the country in the Moroccan summit and announced that the President Danilo Medina would not be in the meeting.
Estonia: The Government of Estonia remained divided on the issue and the country's position was to be decided by the Riigikogu. On November 26, Riigikogu passed a declaration which supported the compact. According to the Estonian Prime Minister, the declaration would provide the basis for the Governments decision to support the Global Compact for Migration. On 27 November 2018, a spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that no Estonian official would be present in Marrakesh. Instead, Estonia's ambassador to the UN would vote in support of the compact on 19 December, during the gathering of the United Nations General Assembly.
Germany: There has been some opposition in the German parliament, led by Alternative for Germany. Merkel's CDU complained the Compact makes no distinction between economic migrants and refugees. However, the parliament voted 372–153 in favour of the compact on 29 November.
Israel: Israel has declined to sign the agreement. Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu stated that "We have a duty to protect our borders against illegal infiltrators. That’s what we’ve done, and that’s what we will continue to do".
Italy: The Italian government has decided to not attend the conference in Marrakesh and let the parliament decide whether to adopt the compact.
Latvia: On 6 December 2018, the Latvian parliament voted for rejecting the compact.
Lithuania: On 4 December 2018, the Lithuanian parliament voted for a resolution which acknowledged the need for international cooperation in dealing with the challenges that migration creates and that no state can solve them alone. It also noted that the compact is not legally binding and that the state itself chooses how to implement the goals of the agreement.
Netherlands: The Migration Pact led to public debate in the Netherlands after Forum for Democracy asked for a parliamentary debate, based on worries about the supposed "encouragement of migration" and the legal consequences of the signing. On 5 December, a clear majority of the parliament approved the backing of the Migration Pact. The cabinet ensured it would add a legal addendum, which would state that the Migration Pact can not be used as a viable juridical document and therefore can not be used as legal support in asylum claims.
New Zealand: On 19 December 2018, the Labour-led coalition government announced that New Zealand would be voting in favor of the compact after seeking advice from the Crown Law Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The Foreign Minister Winston Peters defended his government's decision on the grounds "that the compact was not legally binding and did not restrict New Zealand from setting its own migration policies." The Government's decision was opposed by the opposition National Party leader Simon Bridges who claimed that the compact did not differentiate between legal and illegal migration and could restrict the ability of future governments to set foreign and immigration policy.
Poland: On 9 October 2018, Minister of Interior and Administration Joachim Brudziński spoke against the compact, saying that it went against the priorities of Poland which were security and control over its borders. On November 20, the government of Poland officially announced that it would not sign the compact.
Romania: On 28 November 2018, the Romanian Foreign Minister was authorized by the Romanian president, Klaus Iohannis, to sign the Migration Pact. Sources say that secret negotiations were carried out long before the news broke out.
Russia signed the compact, but issued a statement repudiating certain elements of it:
We reiterate our repudiation of the "shared responsibility" concept that, in its current form, merely implies sharing the burden of hosting forced migrants between the States that frequently have nothing to do with the causes of mass exodus of people. We are not in favor of shifting the burden to others, while the current complicated migration situation is largely a result of irresponsible interference into the internal affairs of sovereign States of Middle East and North Africa. In this context, the countries that were actively involved in such interference should primarily bear the greatest responsibility, including for the migration-related consequences.
Slovakia: After a dispute broke out within the Government of Slovakia on whether to adopt the framework, it was decided that the issue would be moved to parliament for discussion. Following this, the Slovakian Foreign Affairs Minister, Miroslav Lajčák, announced that he would contemplate his resignation if the parliament rejected the compact. On 29 November 2018, after the parliament had voted to refuse the compact, the Foreign Affairs Minister decided to resign, but later withdrew his resignation. On 5 December, following his cabinets approval of the parliamentary resolution, the Prime Minister of Slovakia, Peter Pellegrini, affirmed that Slovakia would not send a representative to the UN meeting.
Switzerland: Switzerland will not attend the conference for the formal adoption of the framework in December 2018. The decision was made because the parliament demanded a final say on whether the country would approve the compact, which would require more time.
The Chancellor of Austria, Sebastian Kurz, stated that the compact would reduce Austria's sovereignty and mix up the difference between illegal and legal immigration as well as that between economic and humanitarian immigration. His vice chancellor, Heinz-Christian Strache, argued that the compact could potentially be interpreted as defining migration as a "human right," which he said "can and must not be the case."
The Australian government has criticized the agreement, claiming that it does not distinguish between legal and illegal migrants, particularly when it comes to welfare. They have also claimed that the compact could impose obligations to support migrants even when they have returned to their country of origin. The Australian government believes that the compact would undermine their current migration policies.
In Finland, while the government and all other parties approved of the treaty, the Finns Party opposed it and demanded a vote in parliament. The provisions disputed by the Finns in parliament are that both legal and illegal immigrants would be bestowed many of the same rights such as rights to basic services, that the treaty would not allow categorical detention of illegal immigrants, and that the treaty would make migration a human right.
Goal 17, which condemns discrimination against migrants, has been criticized due to measures for "shaping the perception of migration". Dutch MEP Marcel de Graaff raised issues with the proposal to defund news outlets espousing anti-migration rhetoric and stated that the pact could be used to criminalize political criticism.
A protest march planned by Flemish nationalist groups, was not granted a permit to protest on the 17th of December by the mayor of Brussels. 5,500 protestors attended the march, notwithstanding the lack of permit. A counter-demonstration of around 1,000 people was organized by NGOs and left-wing groups.
The German newspaper Der Tagesspiegel criticised the German Federal Foreign Office in November 2018 for not explaining why the final version of the compact was different from the last published draft by pointing out that the wording had been changed from migration "could have positive effects" to migration "does have positive effects". The Federal Foreign Office did not give a public explanation at that time. By using the German freedom of information act, the newspaper obtained several documents by May 2019 which revealed that the German diplomats had been put under pressure by nations that insisted on extreme demands, like making the pact binding. The details of those talks had been removed from the documents by the Foreign Office, in a self proclaimed attempt to prevent damage to Germany's reputation as a reliable partner. Additionally the paper revealed that the Foreign Office had made false or misleading statements to the press and the opposition, by claiming that the negotiations for the pact in New York had been open to the "interested public", which was not the case, since according to the obtained documents, parts of the Compact had been negotiated in closed sessions.
- International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, in force since 2003
- "UN to adopt migrant pact hit by withdrawals". 10 December 2018.
- "UN conference adopts migration compact, Estonia to issue approval next week". 10 December 2018.
- "Compact for migration". Refugees and Migrants. 2017-04-05. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
- "General Assembly officially adopts roadmap for migrants to improve safety, ease suffering". 19 December 2018.
- Hardy, Virginia; Hallum, Victoria (17 December 2018). "Advice to Minister regarding Global Compact" (PDF). Crown Law Office; Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- "Global Compact for Migration". 2017-03-06.
- Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 April 2017, International Organization for Migration
- "The Latest: German chancellor lauds migration pack". 10 December 2018. Archived from the original on 10 December 2018.
- Ghani, Faras (10 December 2018). "UN members adopt global migration pact".
- "UN General Assembly endorses global migration accord". The Washington Post. 19 December 2018.[dead link]
- "General Assembly officially adopts roadmap for migrants to improve safety, ease suffering". UN News. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- "Government won't commit to pulling out of controversial UN migration agreement". Refugees and Migrants. 2018-12-01. Retrieved 2018-12-01.
- "Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration - Intergovernmentally Negotiated and Agreed Outcome, 13 July 2018" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
educating media professionals on migration-related issues and terminology
- "European governments in melt-down over an inoffensive migration compact". The Economist. 8 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
The compact is hardly perfect; the drafters should have refrained from urging governments to “educate” journalists on migration, for example, or to hold “culinary festivals” to celebrate multiculturalism.
- Catherine Gouëset (10 December 2018). ""The Migration Pact Can Change the Game"". L'Express (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2018.
Le pacte, en effet, ne fait pas la distinction entre migrants légaux ou non
- Section 15, p.4
- "What makes someone an 'illegal immigrant'?". SBS News. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Section 27, p.18
- Ben Knight (8 November 2018). "German parliament rows over UN Migration Compact". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
members of Angela Merkel's Christian Democratic Union (CDU) had raised the same point earlier in the week, complaining about government secrecy (especially on the part of the Social Democrat-led Foreign Ministry) and the fact that the compact did not distinguish between refugees and economic migrants.
- ‘Historic moment’ for people on the move, as UN agrees first-ever Global Compact on migration, UN News 13 July 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "General Assembly, 60th plenary meeting, 73rd meeting". 19 December 2018.
- "Österreich zieht sich aus globalem UNO-Migrationspakt zurück". apa.at (in German). Austria Presse Agentur. 31 October 2018. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
- Remeikis, Amy; Doherty, Ben (25 July 2018). "Dutton says Australia won't 'surrender our sovereignty' by signing UN migration deal" – via www.theguardian.com.
- Марков, Александър. "Цветан Цветанов: България няма да се присъединява към пакта за миграция на ООН". Новини БНТ.
- Laing, Aislinn (9 December 2018). "Chile declines to sign U.N. pact, says migration not a human right:..." Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
- "Czechs join other EU states rejecting U.N. migration pact". Reuters. 14 November 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
- SIN, Noticias (4 December 2018). "Gobierno dominicano no firmará pacto migratorio". Noticias SIN.
- "Eestist ei lähe Marrakechi keegi, saadik hääletab ränderaamistiku poolt ÜRO peaassambleel". Postimees. 27 November 2018.
- "Hungary Pulls Out of U.N. Global Migration Agreement". www.nytimes.com. 18 July 2018.
- FAZ.net: Salvini „absolut gegen“ UN-Migrationspakt (german)
- "Israel joins U.S. and European countries in pulling out of migration pact - Israel News - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com.
- "Netanyahu: Israel won't sign global migration pact, must protect its borders".
- "Latvia rejects UN migration pact". au.news.yahoo.com.
- "Szef MSWiA na spotkaniu ministrów Grupy G6 w Lyonie". Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administraci. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Slovakia will not support U.N. Migration pact - prime minister". Reuters. 2018-11-25.
- "Swiss delay decision on UN migration pact".
- "UN Pact on Migration Splits Balkan States". Balkan Insight. 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Valentina Pop (10 December 2018). "U.N. Pact on Migration Sows Dissent". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison made similar comments, citing concerns that the pact could “undermine Australia’s strong border protection laws and practices.”
- "Michel heeft verzoeningsvoorstel omtrent Migratiepact". De Standaard. 2 December 2018.
- "Charles Michel speeches at the General Assembly".
- Casert, Raf (4 December 2018). "Dispute over UN migration pact fractures Belgian government". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 December 2018.
- "Belgian PM wins backing for UN migration pact". France 24. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- "Belgian PM Charles Michel wins backing for UN migration pact". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- Brussels, Patrick Smyth in. "Dispute over migration brings down Belgian government". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
- Anne Rovan (19 December 2018). "The Migration Compact makes the Belgian Prime Minister fall". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 19 December 2018.
Le pacte pour les migrations de l'Onu, qu'a soutenu la Commission européenne, a fait une victime parmi les Vingt-huit: Charles Michel.
- Mazui, Guilherme. "89/5000 Bolsonaro reports to Trump's secretary 'intent' to leave UN pact on migrations (In Portuguese)". Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Agência Brasil (10 December 2018). "Future chancellor says Brazil will leave Global Migration Pact (in portuguese)". IstoÉ. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- Lise Alves (19 December 2018). "Brazil's Bolsonaro Vows to Withdraw Country from Migration Pact". The Rio Times. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
President-elect Jair Bolsonaro stated on Tuesday that he will revoke the Global Pact for Migration
- "Bulgaria Won't Sign Global Migration Pact". New York Times. AP. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "Chile no suscribirá pacto migratorio de la ONU: Gobierno rechaza que migrar sea un derecho humano". BioBioChile - La Red de Prensa Más Grande de Chile. 2018-12-09. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
- ULF LAESSING; Andreas Rinke (9 December 2018). "More Than 150 Governments to Adopt U.N. Migration Pact in Morocco". US News & World Report. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
Chile's Interior Ministry Subsecretary Rodrigo Ubilla told El Mercurio newspaper that the country's representatives would not attend the event, saying: "We have said that migration is not a human right. Countries have a right to determine the entry requirements for foreign citizens."
- "Løkke hælder DF af brættet: Forsvarer omstridt FN-pagt" (in Danish). Jyllandsposten. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Ott Ummelas, Dispute Over Migration Sends Estonian Government Into Crisis, Bloomberg News (November 16, 2018)
- Vahtla, Aili (19 November 2018). "To solve government crisis, let Riigikogu decide on UN compact, says SDE". news.err.ee. ERR.
- "Ratas: lähtume ÜRO ränderaamistiku toetamisel riigikogu tänasest avaldusest" (in Estonian). 26 November 2018.
- Cavegn, Dario (28 November 2018). "Estonia not to send representatives to UN Marrakesh conference". ERR.
- "GCM-sopimus hyväksyttiin YK:ssa "ylivoimaisesti" – Vain 5 maata vastusti".
- "Perussuomalaiset kyselytunnilla: GCM-siirtolaissopimus tuotava eduskunnan päätettäväksi". 2018-11-08.
- Knight, Ben (8 November 2018). "German parliament rows over UN Migration Compact".
- Ben Knight (6 November 2018). "German conservatives against UN migration pact". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
Marian Wendt, a CDU lawmaker and member of the Bundestag's home affairs committee, told DW on Tuesday that he was concerned that the compact did not distinguish between economic migrants and asylum-seekers
- "Italy not signing Global Compact-Salvini". 28 November 2018.
- "Saeima rejects UN migration compact". 6 December 2018.
- "Seimas priėmė rezoliuciją "Dėl Jungtinių Tautų Visuotinio susitarimo dėl saugios, tvarkingos ir reguliarios migracijos"". 4 December 2018.
- "ADR urges government to not join pact". RTL Today. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Dutch set to back Marrakesh migration pact next week". DutchNews.nl. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- "Dutch back Marrakesh agreement, but draw up legal addendum". DutchNews.nl. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- Cheng, Derek (19 December 2018). "NZ to vote in favour of UN Migration Compact". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- "Polska nie przystąpi do Paktu ONZ o migracji. Jest oficjalne stanowisko rządu". Rzeczpospolita. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Președintele Iohannis a aprobat propunerea Guvernului pentru susținerea de către România a pactului ONU pentru migrație". B1.ro. B1.ro. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- Lungu, Vasile-Cristian (28 November 2018). "Pactul Global pentru Migraţie sau cum să anulezi Constituţia României". adevarul.ro & V.C. Lungu. adevarul.ro. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Statement of the Russian Federation on the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, Marrakesh, December 11, 2018". www.mid.ru. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
- "Migration compact: Will Slovakia stay out?". The Slovak Spectator. 9 November 2018.
- "UPDATED: Lajčák considers resignation if the migration compact is rejected". The Slovak Spectator. 20 November 2018.
- "Lajčák resigns as foreign affairs minister". The Slovak Spectator. 29 November 2018.
- "Slovak foreign minister withdraws resignation after migrant pact row". 7 December 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Slovakia won't send anyone to Marrakesh". The Slovak Spectator. 5 December 2018.
- "Slovenia to join UN-sponsored migration agreement". sta. 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Swiss backtrack on support for UN migration pact". 21 November 2018.
- "Austria has concerns about U.N. migration pact, might back out". reuters.com. Reuters. 10 October 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- Karp, Paul (2018-11-21). "Australia refuses to sign UN migration pact, citing risks to turnbacks and detention". The Guardian.
- "Scott Morrison refuses to sign United Nations migration pact". MSN. Archived from the original on 2018-12-04. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- "Soini ja Huhtasaari jankkasivat YK:n maahanmuuttosopimuksesta - "Höpö, höpö, ministeri Soini" - Katso video".
- "Poliittinen suunnittelija Purra: GCM-sopimus tulee varmasti vaikuttamaan Suomen maahanmuuttopolitiikkaan". 2018-11-29.
- "Asiantuntija: YK ajaa GCM-sopimuksella eteenpäin radikaalia ajatusta, jonka mukaan siirtolaisuus on ihmisoikeus - "Julkinen keskustelu voisi vaarantaa koko projektin"". 2018-11-12.
- Subramanian, Ramnath (2018-12-03). "Free speech must be guarded with absolute passion". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
- "Anti-Marrakesh group to march on Sunday, despite lack of permit | Flanders Today". www.flanderstoday.eu. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
- "Brussel verbiedt 'Mars tegen Marrakesh'". Het Laatste Nieuws (in Dutch). 2018-12-12. Retrieved 2021-01-02.
- "Tear gas, water cannons fired at anti-immigration protesters in Brussels". ABC News. 2018-12-17. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
- "Regierung verschweigt Zugeständnisse beim Migrationspakt". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). 2018-11-12. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
- "Auswärtiges Amt räumt nichtöffentliche Sitzungen ein". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). 2019-05-17. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
- Media related to Global Compact for Migration at Wikimedia Commons
- "Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration; Final Draft" (PDF). United Nations. 11 July 2018.
- Global Compact for Migration on International Organization for Migration website