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Global Entrepreneurship Monitor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research project is an annual assessment of the national level of entrepreneurial activity in multiple, diverse countries. Today the study counts the participation of 115 countries and with longitudinal data dating back more than 20 years. The continuous expansion of its collaborative role has made GEM data a valuable tool to influence national economic policies[1] and a quality resource trusted by international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Economic Forum,[2] the World Bank[3] and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[4]

GEM Data[edit]

All GEM data collection is centrally coordinated to guarantee quality and reliability. The Adult Population Survey (APS) surveys at least 2000 adults for each country and explores the role of the individual in the lifecycle of the entrepreneurial process. The core of the APS has remained consistent over the years, providing a valuable longitudinal perspective. The National Expert Survey (NES) is administered to a group of at least 36 business and academic experts in each country with the purpose of assessing how the local conditions enhance or hinder entrepreneurial activities.

Each year, the GEM releases an annual report that is downloadable from the official website[5] and also a range of national[6] and special topic reports that differ every year (e.g. women,[7] social, family, senior, youth, high-growth, ethnic and immigrant[8]).

The GEM Model[edit]

The APS offers a number of different indicators, such as perceived opportunities rate, fear of failure rate, entrepreneurial intentions rate, motivational index, and more. GEM's most well-known index is called TEA (Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity), which assesses the percentage of 18-64 population both about to start an entrepreneurial activity (i.e. nascent entrepreneurs), or that have already started one with a lifespan of a maximum of 3 and a half years.[9]

The GEM data from the NES uses nine factors that form the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (EFC) and include entrepreneurial aspirations, technical progress, GDP growth, and other macro economics variables.

The original GEM model was revised in 2008[10] to reflect the different stages of economic development that exist across nations and that arguably influence entrepreneurial activities.[11] This new addition was based on Porter's typology of factor-driven economies, efficiency-driven economies and innovation-driven economies.[12]


  1. ^ "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor". Babson College. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  2. ^ "6 Trends in Global Entrepreneurship". World Economic Forum. Retrieved Mar 3, 2022.
  3. ^ Zoltan, Acs; Desai, Sameeksha; Klapper, Leora F. (2008). "What does "entrepreneurship" data really show?". Small Business Economics. 31 (3): 265–281. doi:10.1007/s11187-008-9137-7. hdl:10419/25693. S2CID 154638046.
  4. ^ "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)". Fundació Universitat Empresa de las Islas Baleares. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  5. ^ "Global Reports".
  6. ^ Heath, Allister (27 May 2016). "Start-up Britain will thrive out of the EU". The Telegraph.
  7. ^ Prosser, David (6 July 2017). "How Women Joined The UK's Startup Party". Forbes.
  8. ^ Waller, David (18 May 2016). "Start-ups help those coming to Britain to start over" (PDF). The Times.
  9. ^ Wong, Poh Kam; Ho, Yuen Ping; Autio, Erkko (2005). "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM data". Small Business Economics. 24 (3): 335–350. doi:10.1007/s11187-005-2000-1. S2CID 153959403.
  10. ^ Bosma, Niels; Acs, Zoltan J.; Erkko, Autio; Alicia, Coduras; Jonathan, Levie (2008). Executive report. Global entrepreneurship monitor. p. 7.
  11. ^ Jones-Evans, Dylan (8 May 2021). "GEM study proves importance of entrepreneurship when there is a decline in the economy". Business Live. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  12. ^ Porter, M.; Sachs, J.; McArthur, J. (2002). Executive Summary: Competitiveness and Stages of Economic Development. New York: The Global Competitiveness Report 2001‐2002, Oxford University Press.

External links[edit]