Global Language Monitor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Global Language Monitor (GLM) is an Austin, Texas-based company that collectively documents, analyzes and tracks trends in language usage worldwide, with a particular emphasis upon the English language. It is particularly known for its Word of the Year,[1] political analysis,[2][3] college and university rankings,[4] High Tech buzzwords,[5][6] and media analytics.[7]


Founded in Silicon Valley in 2003 by Paul J.J. Payack, the GLM describes its role as "a media analytics company that documents, analyzes and tracks cultural trends in language the world over, with a particular emphasis upon Global English". GLM's main services include various products based on the Narrative Tracker technologies for global Internet and social media analysis. NarrativeTracker is based on global discourse, providing a real-time, accurate picture about any topic, at any point in time. NarrativeTracker analyzes the Internet, blogosphere, the top 275,000 print and electronic global media, as well as new social media sources as they emerge.[8] In April 2008, GLM moved its headquarters from San Diego to Austin.[9]

GLM announced "Emoji" as its Top Word of 2014 for Global English along with its complete lists of Top Words, Phrases and Names in December 2014.[10]

Earlier in 2015 GLM has released:

  • The Top Words of the First Fifteen Years of the 21st Century (and what they portend).[11]
  • The Top Words of 2115 (One hundred Years Hence)[12]
  • The AD 2076 Map of the Re-federalised United States (including VanCity and Scot's Land).[13]
  • The Top Trending Words of 2015 at Mid-Year [14]


2013 2012 2011 2010 2009


Apocalypse/Armageddon occupy Spillcam twitter
Fail deficit fracking Vuvuzela Obama-
Hashtag Olympiad drone The Narrative H1N1
@Pontifex Bak'tun Non-veg Refudiate stimulus
The Optic meme Kummerspeck Guido and Guidette vampire
Surveillance MOOC Haboob Deficit 2.0
Drones The Cloud 3Q Snowmagedden/Snowpocalypse deficit
Deficit omnishambles Trustafarians 3-D hadron
Sequestration Frankenstorm (The Other) 99 Shellacking healthcare
Emancipate obesogenic simplexity transparency
Filibuster hen outrage
Nano- derecho bonus
Twerking hashtag unemployed
Deadlock drones foreclosure
Franken- fracking cartel
Meme phobes Twenty-ten
(spoken only)
Stalemate superfood Obamacare
The Cloud The 47
Phony YOLO
Comet adorkable


2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Toxic Politics Gangnam Style Arab Spring Anger and Rage King of Pop
Federal Shutdown Global warming/climate change Royal Wedding Climate change Obamamania
Global warming/climate change Fiscal cliff Anger and rage The Great Recession Climate change
Federal Deficit The Deficit Climate change Teachable moment swine flu
Tread Lightly God particle The Great Recession Tea Party Too Large to Fail
Boston strong Rogue nukes Tahrir Square Ambush Marketing cloud computing
Marathon Bombing Near-Earth Asteroid Linear no-threshold Lady Gaga public option
Chemical Weapons Binders full of women Bunga bunga Man up Jai Ho!
All-time High Arab Spring ‘How’s that working out for you?’ Pass the bill to be able to see what’s in it Mayan calendar
Rogue nukes solar max "Make no mistake about it!" Obamamania God particle
Near-Earth Asteroid big data Don’t Touch My Junk
Arab Spring ethical/sustainable fashion
Solar Maximum toxic politics
big data Citius, Altius, Fortius
Ethical/Sustainable Fashion War on Women


2013 2012 2011
Pope Francis Newtown and Malala Yousafzai
Steve Jobs
ObamaCare Xi Jinping Osama bin-Laden & Seal Team 6
NSA Kate Middleton Fukushima
Edward Snowden Barack Obama Mohamed Bouazizi
Kate Middleton Mitt Romney Hu Jintao
IRS London Olympics Kate Middleton
Ted Cruz Higgs boson Muammar Gaddafi
Chris Christie Europe
Barack Obama
Marathon Bombers Felix Baumgartner PIIGS
Malala Yousafzai Senkaku Islands Yaroslavl Lokomotiv
Xi Jinping John Roberts
Barack Obama Bibi
(Benjamin Netanyahu)
Hassan Rouhani Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Sochi Olympics Christopher Stevens
Angela Merkel

Previous Words of the Year, Previous Phrases of the Year, and Previous Names of the Year include[edit]

2009: Top Words: No. 1: Twitter, No. 2: Obama, No. 3: H1N1 Top Phrases: No. 1: King of Pop, No. 2: Obama-mania, No. 3: Climate Change Top Names: No. 1: Obama, No. 2: Michael Jackson, No. 3: Mobama

2008: Top Words: No. 1: Change, No. 2: Bailout, No. 3: Obama-mania Top Phrases: No. 1: Financial Tsunami, No. 2: Global Warming, No. 3: "Yes, We Can!" Top Names: No. 1: Barack Obama, No. 2: George W. Bush, No. 3: Michael Phelps

2007: Top Words: No. 1 Hybrid (representing all things green), No. 2: Surge Top Phrase: Climate Change Top Name: Al Gore

2006: Top Word: Sustainable Top Phrase: Stay the Course Top Name: Darfur

2005: Top Words: No. 1, Refugee, No. 2: Tsunami, No. 3: Katrina Top Phrase: Outside the Mainstream Top Name: (acts of) God

2004: Top Word: Incivility (for inCivil War) Top Phrase: Red States/Blue States, No. 2: Rush to War Top Name: Dubya/Rove

2003: Top Word: Embedded Top Phrase: Shock and Awe, No. 2: Rush to War Top Name: Saddam Hussein, No. 2: Dubya

2002: Top Word: Misunderestimate Top Phrase: Threat Fatigue Top Name: W (Dubya)

2001: Top Word: Ground Zero Top Phrase: ‘Lets Roll’ Top Name: The Heros

2000: Top Word: Chad Top Phrase: Top Name: W (Dubya)

Top Words, Stories, Phrases and Names of the Decade[edit]

The Top Words of the Decade from 2000 to 2009 were headed by Global Warming.[15]

The Top Words of the Decade from 2000–2009

Word / Year / Comments

1. global warming (2000) Rated highly from Day One of the decade

2. 9/11 (2001) Another inauspicious start to the decade

3. Obama- (2008 ) The US President’s name as a ‘root’ word or ‘word stem’

4. bailout (2008) The Bank Bailout was but Act One of the crisis

5. evacuee/refugee (2005) After Katrina, refugees became evacuees

6. derivative (2007) Financial instrument or analytical tool that engendered the Meltdown

7. google (2007) Founders misspelled actual word ‘googol’

8. surge (2007) The strategy that effectively ended the Iraq War

9. Chinglish (2005) The Chinese-English Hybrid language growing larger as Chinese influence expands

10. tsunami (2004) Southeast Asian Tsunami took 250,000 lives

11. H1N1 (2009) More commonly known as Swine Flu

12. subprime (2007) Subprime mortgages were another bubble to burst

13. (2000) The bubble engendered no lifelines, no bailouts

14. Y2K (2000) The Year 2000: all computers would turn to pumpkins at the strike of midnight

15. misunderestimate (2002) One of the first and most enduring of Bushisms

16. chad (2000) Those Florida voter punched card fragments that the presidency would turn upon

17. twitter (2008) A quarter of a billion references on Google

18. WMD (2002) Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction

19. blog (2003) First called ‘web logs’ which contracted into blogs

20. texting (2004) Sending 140 character text messages over cell phones

21. slumdog (2008) Child inhabitants of Mumba’s slums

22. sustainable (2006) The key to ‘Green’ living where natural resources are never depleted

23. Brokeback (2004) New term for ‘gay’ from the Hollywood film ‘Brokeback Mountain

24. quagmire (2004) Would Iraq War end up like Vietnam, another ‘quagmire’?

25. truthiness (2006) Stephen Colbert’s addition to the language appears to be a keeper

The Top Stories of the decade from 2000-2009

Rank/News Story/Comment

1. Rise of China The biggest story of the decade, outdistancing the No. 2 Internet story by 400%.

2. Iraq War The buildup, the invasion, the hunt for the WMDs, and the Surge were top in print and electronic media outlets.

3. 9/11 Terrorist Attacks The 9/11 Terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, DC seemed to set the tone for the new decade.

4. War on Terror President George W. Bush’s response to 9/11.

5. Death of Michael Jackson A remarkably high ranking considering that MJ’s death occurred in the final year of the decade.

6. Election of Obama to US presidency The rallying cries of ‘hope’ and ‘Yes, we can!’ resulting in the historic election of an African-American to the US presidency.

7. Global Recession of 2008/9 The ongoing world economic restructuring as opposed to the initial ‘economic meltdown’ or ‘financial tsunami’.

8. Hurricane Katrina New Orleans was devastated when the levies collapsed; scenes of death and destruction shocked millions the world over.

9. War in Afghanistan Now in its eighth year with an expansion into neighboring Pakistan.

10. Economic Meltdown/Financial Tsunami The initial shock of witnessing some 25% of the world’s wealth melting away seemingly overnight.

11. Beijing Olympics The formal launch of China onto the world stage.

12. South Asian Tsunami The horror of 230,000 dead or missing, washed away in a matter of minutes was seared into the consciousness the global community.

13. War against the Taliban Lands controlled by the Taliban served as a safe haven from which al Qaeda would launch its terrorist attacks.

14. Death of Pope John Paul II The largest funeral in recent memory with some 2,000,000 pilgrims in attendance.

15. Osama bin-Laden eludes capture Hesitation to attack Tora Bora in 2002 has led to the continuing manhunt.

The Top Phrases of the Decade from 2000–2009


1. climate change (2000) Green words in every form dominant the decade

2. Financial Tsunami (2008) One quarter of the world’s wealth vanishes seemingly overnight

3. ground zero (2001) Site of 9/11terrorist attack in New York City

4. War on Terror (2001) Bush administration’s response to 9/11

5. Weapons of Mass Destruction (2003) Bush’s WMDs never found in Iraq or the Syrian desert

6. swine flu (2008) H1N1, please, so as not to offend the pork industry or religious sensitivities!

7. "Let’s Roll!" (2001) Todd Beamer’s last words before Flight 93 crashed into the PA countryside

8. Red State/Blue State (2004) Republican or Democratic control of states

9. carbon footprint (2007) How much CO² does an activity produce?

10. shock-and-awe (2003) Initial strategy of Iraq War

11. Ponzi scheme (2009) Madoff’s strategy reaped billions & heartache

12. Category 4 (2005) Force of Hurricane Katrina hitting New Orleans’ seawalls and levies

13. King of Pop (2000) Elvis was the King, MJ the King (of Pop)

14. "Stay the course" (2004) Dubya’s oft-stated guidance for Iraq War

15. "Yes, we can!" (2008) Obama’s winning campaign slogan

16. "Jai Ho!" (2008) Shout of joy from ‘Slumdog Millionaire’

17. "Out of the Mainstream" (2003) Complaint about any opposition’s political platform

18. Cloud computing (2007) Using the Internet as a large computational device

19. threat fatigue (2004) One too many terrorist threat alerts

20. same-sex marriage (2003) Marriage of gay couples

High tech terms[edit]

On March 29, 2013 announced The Most Confusing High Tech Buzzwords of the Second Decade of the 21st century, thus far (2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013) with commentary follow:

2013 Rank, Buzzword, Last Year’s rank

  1. Big Data (1) — Soon Human Knowledge will be doubling every second. ’Big’ does not begin to describe what’s coming at us.
  2. Dark Data (New)- Might not have noticed it because … it is ‘Dark Data’ ‘Big Data’ has begun to spin off its own superlatives.
  3. The Cloud (2) — All that data has got to go somewhere. Hint: it’s neither your phone nor your tablet.
  4. Yottabytes (New) – Showing up on lots of technologists’ radar lately: a quadrillion gigabytes.
  5. The Next Big Thing (3) — A cliche rendered ever more meaningless but still on everyone’s tongue.
  6. Heisenbug (New) – A bug that disappears when you try to detect it, finally making the list after a steady ascent over the last decade.
  7. 3-D Printer (New) – Watch this space. This technology has been used in CAD design for years and science fiction for decades — but now they are impinging upon everyday life.
  8. Phablet (New) – The Next Big Thing? The odds are against it since consumer goods tend to evolve into single-purpose appliances.
  9. REST (New) – Representational State transfer is slowly climbing its way up the list.
  10. Web X.0 (5) — Formerly Web 2.0, 3.0, etc.

The study was released in conjunction with Austin's South by Southwest Interactive festival.

On March 17, 2010, the Global Language Monitor presented the Most Confusing High Tech Buzzwords of the first decade of the 21st century (2000–2009).[16]

  1. HTTP — HyperText Transfer Protocol is used for HTML (HyperText Markup Language) files.
  2. Flash — As in Flash Memory. "Flash’ is easier to say than " I brought the report on my EEPROM chip with a thin oxide layer separating a floating gate and control gate utilizing Fowler-Nordheim electron tunneling".
  3. God Particle – The Higgs boson, thought to account for mass. The God Particle has eluded discovery since its existence was first postulated some thirty years ago.
  4. Cloud computing – Distributing or accessing programs and services across the Internet. (The Internet is represented as a cloud.)
  5. Plasma (as in plasma TV) — Refers to a kind of television screen technology that uses matrix of gas plasma cells, which are charged by differing electrical voltages to create an image.
  6. IPOD – Apple maintains that the idea of the iPod was from the film 2001: A Space Odyssey.
  7. Megapixel – One million pixels or picture elements.
  8. Nano – Widely used to describe anything small as in nanotechnology. Like the word ‘mini’ which originally referred to the red hues in Italian miniature paintings, the word nano- is ultimately derived from the ancient Greek word for ‘dwarf’.
  9. Resonate – Not the tendency of a system to oscillate at maximum amplitude, but the ability to relate to (or resonate with) a customer’s desires.
  10. Virtualization – Around since the late ‘70s, virtualization now applies to everything from infrastructures to I/O.

On November 19, 2008 Global Language Monitor announced the most confusing yet frequently cited high tech buzzwords of 2008 to be cloud computing, green washing, and buzzword compliant followed by resonate, de-duping, and virtualization. Rounding out the Top Ten were Web 2.0, versioning, word clouds, and petaflop. The most confusing Acronym for 2008 was SaaS (software as a service).

On 14 October 2007 GLM released a list of the most confusing high tech terms and buzzwords. The words included: iPod, flash, cookie, nano and kernel, followed by megahertz, cell (as in cell phone), plasma, de-duplication and Blu-Ray. Other terms being tracked included terabyte, memory, core, and head crash. The most confusing acronym was found to be SOA, for service-oriented architecture, an acronym which IBM published a book about.[17]

The studies were released each year on the anniversary of the cookie, the invention that made the World Wide Web practical for widespread surfing, communication, and e-commerce.[18]

Counting English words[edit]

GLM announced the 1,000,000th English word on June 10, 2009.[19] This controversial exercise was widely covered in the global media.[20][21] The count itself was widely criticized by a number of prominent members of the linguistic community, including Geoffrey Nunberg,[22] and Jesse Sheidlower[23] and Benjamin Zimmer.[24] on the grounds that since there is no generally accepted definition of a word, there can never be a definitive count.[23][24][25]

The finalists, which met the criteria of a minimum of 25,000 citations with the necessary breadth of geographic distribution and depth of citations, were:

1. Web 2.0. 2. Jai Ho! 3. N00b. 4. Slumdog. 5. Cloud computing. 6. Carbon Neutral. 7. Slow Food. 8. Octomom. 9. Greenwashing. 10. Sexting. 11. Shovel ready. 12. Defriend. 13. Chengguan. 14. Recessionista. 15. Zombie Banks.[26]

Critics noted that the target date had been changed a number of times from late in 2006 to early in 2009.[27][28][29][30][31][32] It was also criticized on grounds that a count is impossible because "word" is not a scientifically valid concept. Google addressed this situation by counting the words in the 15 million scanned texts in their corpus.[33] Global Language Monitor states the general criteria for inclusion on its site, maintaining that it is simply updating the established criteria for printed dictionaries beginning with the works of Samuel Johnson and Noah Webster.[34]

The New York Times quoted Paul JJ Payack as saying that the PQI is "an algorithm that tracks words and phrases in the media and on the Internet in relation to frequency, context and appearance in global media. It is a weighted index that takes into account year-to-year increases and acceleration in the last several months".[35] In general terms, GLM describes its Predictive Quantities Indicator (PQI), used to run its analytics on global language trends and, as a weighted index, factoring in long-term trends, short-term changes, momentum and velocity, using frequency data on words and phrases in the global print and electronic media, on the Internet, and throughout the blogosphere, as well as in proprietary databases (Factiva, Lexis-Nexis, etc.). It can also create "signals" that can be used in a variety of applications.[36]

Obama an English language word[edit]

On 20 February 2008 GLM announced that the latest word to enter the English language was "obama", derived from Barack Obama, in its many variations. GLM described Obama- as a "root" for words including obamanomics, obamican, obamamentum, obamacize, obamarama, obamaNation, Obamafy, obamamania and obamacam.[37] GLM announced it to be an accepted word, once it met the group's published criteria: a minimum of 25,000 citations in the global media, as well as achieving the necessary 'breadth' and 'depth' of citations.[38]

Other analysis and rankings[edit]

The Global Language Monitor publishes other lists relating to the English language including: the TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Guide rankings of the top 425 U.S. colleges and universities according to their internet brand equity.[39]

Top Universities (January 2016): Rank/University/Previous Ranking

Top Universities Last

  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1
  2. University of California at Los Angeles 6
  3. University of California, Berkeley 3
  4. University of California, Davis 7
  5. University of California, San Diego 12
  6. University of Chicago 4
  7. University of Texas, Austin 5
  8. Harvard University 2
  9. University of Washington 13
  10. University of Southern California 27
  11. Stanford University 8
  12. University of Wisconsin, Madison 15
  13. Yale University 21
  14. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 16
  15. University of California, Irvine 37
  16. University of Virginia 19
  17. University of California, Santa Barbara 36
  18. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 20
  19. University of Minnesota 22
  20. Ohio State University, Columbus 28
  21. Columbia University 14
  22. Princeton University 17
  23. University of Pennsylvania 11
  24. Duke University 61
  25. University of California, Santa Cruz 84
  26. New York University 9
  27. Emory University 33
  28. Michigan State University 24
  29. Cornell University 23
  30. Johns Hopkins University 30
  31. Northwestern University 10
  32. University of Florida 67
  33. Florida State 48
  34. University of Missouri, Columbia 51
  35. Virginia Tech 65
  36. University of Arizona 77
  37. University of Iowa 44
  38. Georgia Institute of Technology 26
  39. Washington University in St. Louis 25
  40. Indiana University, Bloomington 32
  41. University of Miami 46
  42. Washington State University 79
  43. University of Pittsburgh 45
  44. University of San Diego 149
  45. University of Oregon 49
  46. American University 58
  47. University of Phoenix 98
  48. Purdue University 31
  49. Iowa State University 47
  50. University of Georgia 43
  51. University of Tennessee 90

Top 50 US Colleges by TrendTopper MediaBuzz 2016[edit]

Rank/College/Previous Ranking

  1. Wesleyan University 54
  2. School of the Art Institute of Chicago 27
  3. College of the Holy Cross 58
  4. Williams College 6
  5. University of Richmond 2
  6. United States Military Academy 1
  7. Smith College 47
  8. United States Naval Academy 20
  9. Middlebury College 7
  10. Pratt Institute 10
  11. Wellesley College 4
  12. University of the Arts, PA 69
  13. Berklee College of Music 72
  14. Babson College 9
  15. Oberlin College 19
  16. Rhode Island School of Design 22
  17. Bucknell University 11
  18. Vassar College 8
  19. Barnard College 21
  20. Colgate University 14
  21. Bowdoin College 15
  22. Pomona College 3
  23. Davidson College 25
  24. Bennington College 96
  25. Lafayette College 13
  26. Swarthmore College 16
  27. United States Air Force Academy 43
  28. Colby College 46
  29. Mount Holyoke College 44
  30. Bard College 18
  31. Amherst College 4
  32. Fashion Institute of Technology 64
  33. Morehouse College 35
  34. Carleton College 36
  35. Occidental College 17
  36. Furman University 66
  37. Bryn Mawr College 31
  38. The Juilliard School 30
  39. Reed College 24
  40. Bates College 48
  41. Washington and Lee University 38
  42. Kenyon College 40
  43. Drew University 45
  44. Dickinson College 23
  45. Skidmore College 39
  46. Colorado College 89
  47. Trinity College, CT 33
  48. DePauw University 49
  49. Gettysburg College 32
  50. Haverford College 50

Top US Colleges and Universities by Category[edit]

  • The 222 Top US Universities 1. MIT, 2. UCLA, 3. Berkeley
  • The 199 Top US Colleges 1. Wesleyan (CT), 2. SAIC, 3. Holy Cross
  • The Top US Private Universities 1. Chicago, 2. Harvard, 3. Stanford
  • The Top US Public Universities 1. UCLA, 2. Berkeley, 3. UC Davis
  • The Top US Private Colleges 1. Wesleyan (CT), 2. SAIC, 3. Holy Cross
  • The Top US Public Colleges 1. West Point, 2. Annapolis, 3. Air Force
  • The Top Engineering Universities 1. MIT, 2. Virginia Tech, 3. Georgia Tech
  • The Top Engineering Collages 1. Harvey Mudd, 2. MSOE, 3. SD School of Mines
  • The Top Catholic Universities 1. U San Diego, 2. Boston College, 3. Notre Dame.
  • The Top Catholic Colleges 1. Holy Cross, 2. Siena College, 3. Willamette
  • Top Denomination-related Colleges 1. St Olaf, 2. High Point, 3. Muhlenberg
  • Top Military and Service Academies 1. West Point, 2. Annapolis, 3. Air Force
  • Top Art, Design, and Music Schools 1. School of the Art Institute AIC, 2. Pratt Institute, 3. School of the Arts, PA
  • Top Women’s Colleges 1. Smith, 2. Wellesley, 3. Barnard
  • Top Historically Black Colleges and Universities 1. Morehouse, 2. Spelman, 3.Rhodes

The Top Global Fashion Capitals (2012).[edit]

Each autumn, the Global Language Monitor releases its rankings of the Top Global Fashion Capitals.[40]

The 2015 Top Global Fashion Capitals, with Rank, Previous Year’s Rank, and commentary follow.[edit]

The Top Global Fashion Capital Rankings are listed below, in the format: Position, City, Change from 2012, and comment.

The Top Global Fashion Capital Rankings are listed below, in the format: Position, City, Change from 2012, and comment.

1. New York (+1) — The Big Apple is back on top of the fashion world by slipping past Paris by .5%. 2. Paris (+2) – The Top Global Fashion Capital for Haute Couture is surprisingly strong in pret-a-porter, also. 3. London (-2) – London has enjoyed a fabulous two-year run and is now secure in its place in the top echelon for global fashion. 4. Los Angeles (+5) – Zut alors! Tinsel Town in the Top Four? The melding of the Red Carpet, the Industry (film, of course), and West Coast cool. 5. Barcelona (-2) – Espana, again, places two Fashion Capitals in the Top Fifteen. Barcelona also wins the Top Fashion Capital for Swimwear. 6. Rome (0) — Rome may have Seven Hills but Italy now has Three Fashion Capitals (and Milan is No. 2). 7. Berlin (+3) – Berlin continues its steady rise moving deeper into the elite ranks. 8. Sydney (+7) – Sydney towers over OZ distancing (and distinguishing) itself, once again, from Melbourne. 9. Antwerp (+2) – Ah Antwerp, reverberations of the avant garde Antwerp Six continues into the 21st century. 10. Shanghai (+12) – As China further emerges onto the world stage, Shanghai leads the fashion charge. 11. Tokyo (+9) – Tokyo made a leap in 2013 that many consider long overdue. 12. Milano (-4) – Milan was the Top Global Fashion Capital back in 2009 and remains a strong contender for the top spot year-after-year. 13. Florence (+3) – Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli — A proud heritage to a thriving fashion industry in 2013. 14. Madrid (-9) – Still strong in 2013, further cementing its place among the elite Fashion Capitals. 15. São Paulo (-8) – Again, the Queen of Latin American Fashion Capitals. 16. St. Petersburg (+35) – Russian comes into 2014 with two Fashion Capitals in the Top Twenty, with Petrograd surprising Moscow. 17. Moscow (+18) – Apparently a rising tide does, indeed, raise all ships as Moscow comes back strong from 2012. 18. Singapore (+1) – Basically standing in place (and a good place to stand) but now trailing both Shanghai and Tokyo. 19. Miami (+20) – Miami is, indeed, more than swimwear; and the fashion world apparently recognizes it. 20. Hong Kong (-8) – Down another eight spots this year but still a strong global presence. 21. Prague (+24) – Prague continues its well-deserved ascension up the Fashion Capital ladder. 22. New Delhi (+26) – A major move for Delhi, the result of ‘sticking to the knitting’ (its traditional strengths) and focusing on them. 23. Kraków (+10) – Kraków continues it curious and continuous expansion of influence. 24. Warsaw (+19) – Warsaw, too, is finding its stride as a major regional player. 25. Dallas (+21) – The Big D is now the top US regional Fashion Capital. 26. Melbourne (-5) – Still solid but falling further behind Sydney in the race for the OZ title. 27. Cape Town (+27) – In a major surprise, Cape Town leaps over Jo-burg or, rather, Jo-burg falls behind the Mother City. 28. Rio de Janeiro (-11) – Rio, which has the upcoming World Cup and Summer Olympics in 2016, needs to keep pace with São Paulo. 29. Chicago (+21) – The City of Big Shoulders continues to reach out as a global fashion contender. 30. Buenos Aires (-17) – Native son, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, wins a major fashion award, as the city flourishes as a regional Fashion Capital. 31. Dubai (-3) – A burgeoning global presence and the No. 1 Fashion Capital in the Middle East. 32. Toronto (+21) – Makes a major move to take the lead in Canada, over Toronto (by one) and Montreal (by 15). 33. Vancouver (-2) – VanCity is developing its own, distinctive fashion sense, finding admirers the world over. 34. Las Vegas (-10) – Las Vegas is attempting to build a brand-new fashion infrastructure. 35. Amsterdam (-8) – Creative impulses continue to flow outward from the Netherlands. 36. Stockholm (-4) – Stockholm is now the Nordic Fashion Capital, with good reason. 37. Johannesburg (-19) – Jo-burg, continues in its role as a major regional center influencer. 38. Vienna (-1) – The ancient imperial citadel continues to exert its classic fashion sense. 39. Bali (-25) – Bali is a serious Fashion Capital for Swimwear, a strong annual contender. 40. Boston ( 4) – Boston brings a classic sense of traditional American design with flashes of innovation.

and 15 Top All-Time Bushisms, and many others.[41]


  1. ^ Spillcam, vuvuzela are top words of 2010
  2. ^ Kristof, Nicholas (2008-10-17). "Obama the Intellectual". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  3. ^ Nicholas D. Kristof: Obama and the war on brains
  4. ^ ANITA B. HOFSCHNEIDER Contributing Writer. "Media Fixates on Harvard". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  5. ^ "Bamboozled By Buzzwords". 2005-04-24. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  6. ^ "10 Most Confusing High Tech Buzzwords". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  7. ^ Michael Jackson's Death Second Biggest Story of the Century[dead link]
  8. ^ "Global Language Monitor". The Times. London: 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  9. ^ [1] / Finally, California sends a business we can support
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ [3]
  12. ^ [4]
  13. ^ [5]
  14. ^ [6]
  15. ^ Goldstein, Katherine (2009-11-19). "Top Words Of The Decade 2000-2009: Most Popular Words". Huffington Post. 
  16. ^ url= Most Confusing Tech Buzzwords
  17. ^ "Hooray! ‘SOA’ voted most ‘confusing acronym of the year’ | Service-Oriented Architecture |". 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  18. ^ "The Global Language Monitor releases global study of top 10 most confusing yet widely used high tech buzzwords for 2007". 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  19. ^ John D. Sutter CNN (2009-06-10). "'English gets millionth word on Wednesday, site says'". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  20. ^ Winchester, Simon (2009-06-06). "1,000,000 Words!". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  21. ^ Millionth English word' declared'
  22. ^ Enumerating English, Geoffrey Nunberg, NPR
  23. ^ a b Word Count, Jesse Sheidlower, Slate, April 10, 2006
  24. ^ a b "Language Log » The "million word" hoax rolls along". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  25. ^ Enumerating English,
  26. ^ ‘One millionth English word’ is ‘Web 2.0’, Philippine Daily Inquirer, June 12, 2009
  27. ^ Harlow, John (2006-02-05). "Chinglish – it's a word in a million". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 2009-01-14. According to Payack, the one millionth word is likely to be formed this summer 
  28. ^ Macintyre, Ben (2006-08-11). "We're all speaking Geek". The Times (London). Retrieved 2009-01-14. According to Paul Payack, who runs the Global Language Monitor, there are currently 988,974 words in the English language, with thousands more emerging every month. By his calculation, English will adopt its one millionth word in late November. 
  29. ^ "From Babel to Babble . . . Everyone is Speaking English". Kensington books. Retrieved 2009-01-14. in the spring of 2007, the English word count surpassed a million—over ten times the number available in French. At the crest of this linguistic tsunami surfs Paul J.J. Payack, aka the WordMan. As president of the Global Language Monitor 
  30. ^ ""A Million Words and Counting" How Global English Is Rewriting the World". Market Wire. May 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-14. according to author Paul J.J. Payack, the founding president of the Global Language Monitor ( ), English will adopt its millionth word in 2008 [dead link]
  31. ^ Walker, Ruth (2009-01-02). "Save the date: English nears a milestone". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2009-01-14. It's April 29, 2009 – plus or minus a few days. That is when the English language is expected to acquire its millionth word. This prediction comes from Global Language Monitor, an organization in Austin, Texas 
  32. ^ "English gets millionth word on Wednesday, site says", CNN
  33. ^ [7], Discover
  34. ^ "GLM Criteria". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  35. ^ The Power of Words
  36. ^ The Predictive Quantities Indicator (PQI), GLM website
  37. ^ English language is Barack 'Obamafied', Catherine Elsworth, Los Angeles,, 26 Feb 2008
  38. ^ "'PQI'". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  39. ^ Trendtopper MediaBuzz 2016 University Rankings
  40. ^ The World's Leading Cities for Fashion, TheAtlanticCities, September 7, 2012
  41. ^ The Morning File: To find the Word of the Year, follow the money, Gary Rottstein, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 12, 2009

External links[edit]