Global marketing

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Global marketing is “marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives".[1][2]

Global marketing is also a field of study in general business management that aims to market products, solutions and services to customers locally, nationally, and internationally.

International marketing is the extension of an organization's product or services into another country. This can be achieved by exporting a company's product into another location, entry through a joint venture with another firm in the target country, or foreign direct investment into the target country. The development of the marketing mix for that country is then required - international marketing. This can include the use of existing marketing strategies, mix and tools for export on the one side, or a relationship strategy including localization, local product offerings, pricing, production and distribution with customized promotions, offers, website, social media and leadership etc.. Internationalization and international marketing meets the needs of selected foreign countries where a company's value can be exported and there is inter-firm and firm learning, optimization, and efficiency in economies of scale and scope.

Evolution to global marketing[edit]

The international marketplace has been transformed by shifts in trading techniques, standards and practices. These changes have been reinforced and retained by new technologies and evolving economic relationships between the companies and organizations involved in international trade. The traditional ethnocentric conceptual view of international marketing trade is being counterbalanced by a more global view of markets.

Domestic marketing[edit]

Domestic marketing is the limited commercialization of goods and services to a single, home country.[3]

The advantages of domestic marketing include familiarity with the extent of political risk, the quality of skilled human resources and of natural resources, and the ramifications of existing and likely legislation in relevant areas such as safety, hygiene, employment, and ownership of capital.[4]

These markets are restrained by the laws and regulations of the country. Domestic marketing is typically organized in the headquarters.

Global marketing[edit]

Global marketing requires a firm to understand the requirements associated with servicing customers locally with global standard solutions or products, and localizes that product as required to maintain an optimal balance of cost, efficiency, customization and localization in a control-customization continuum to meet local, national and global requirements.

Global marketing and global branding are integrated. Branding involves a structured process of analyzing "soft" assets and "hard" assets of a firm's resources. The strategic analysis and development of a brand includes customer analysis (trends, motivation, unmet needs, segmentation), competitive analysis (brand image/brand identity, strengths, strategies, vulnerabilities), and self-analysis (existing brand image, brand heritage, strengths/capabilities, organizational values).[5]

Global brand identity development is the process of establishing brands of products, the firm, and services locally and worldwide with consideration for scope, product attributes, quality, uses, users and country of origin; organizational attributes; personality attributes, and brand customer relationship; and importantly symbols, trademarks metaphors, imagery, mood, photography and the company's brand heritage.

A global marketing and branding implementation system distributes marketing assets, affiliate programs and materials, internal communications, newsletters, investor materials, event promotions and trade shows to deliver an integrated, comprehensive and focused communication, access and value to the customers.

Elements of global marketing[edit]

Product[edit]

The product must deliver a minimum level of performance. [6]

A global company must be able to tweak elements of a product for different markets. For example, Coca-Cola uses two formulas (one with sugar, one with corn syrup) for all markets. The product packaging in every country incorporates the contour bottle design and the dynamic ribbon in some way, shape, or form. The bottle can also include the country's native language and is the same size as other beverage bottles or cans in that same country.

Luxury products, high-tech products, and new innovations are the most common products in the global marketplace[7] because they are easier to market due to a lack of traditional cultural values attached to their meanings.

Price[edit]

The price of a product varies based on factors such as costs of production, target segment, and supply-demand dynamics. There can be several types of pricing strategies, each tied in with an overall business plan. Pricing can also be used as a demarcation, to differentiate and enhance the image of a product.[6]

Price will always vary from market to market.

Place[edit]

Refers to the point of sale.

How the product is distributed is influenced by how the competition is being offered to the target market. With Coca-Cola, not all cultures use vending machines. In the United States, beverages are sold by the pallet via warehouse stores. In India, this is not an option. Placement decisions are also affected by the product's position in the market place. For example, a high-end product would not be distributed via a dollar store in the United States. Conversely, a product promoted as the low-cost option in France would find limited success in a pricey boutique.

Promotion[edit]

Activities undertaken to make the product or service known to the user and trade including advertising, word of mouth, press reports, incentives, commissions and awards to the trade. It can also include consumer schemes, direct marketing, contests and prizes.[6]

Advantages and disadvantages[edit]

Advantages[edit]

The advantages of global marketing include:

  • Economies of scale in production and distribution
  • Lower marketing costs
  • Power and scope
  • Consistency in brand image
  • Ability to leverage ideas quickly and efficiently
  • Uniformity of marketing practices
  • Helps to establish relationships outside of the 'political arena'
  • Helps to encourage ancillary industries to be set up to cater for the needs of the global player
  • Benefits of eMarketing over traditional marketing

Reach[edit]

The internet provides a low-cost means for businesses to expand their reach globally. Global reach was traditionally limited to multinationals with large budgets, but eMarketing opens up new avenues for smaller businesses to access potential consumers from all over the world.[8]

Scope[edit]

Internet marketing provides flexibility to marketers in terms of product offerings and channels to reach consumers. eMarketing includes information management, public relations, customer service and sales.

Interactivity[edit]

eMarketing facilitates conversations between companies and consumers. With a two-way communication channel, companies can adapt to the responses of their consumers.

Immediacy[edit]

Internet marketing is able to provide an immediate impact. eMarketing enables businesses to effectively operate 24/7.

Demographics and targeting[edit]

Internet users can be considered a demographic group skewed towards the middle-classes.

Marketers can also access niche markets through eMarketing more easily.

Cross cultural negotiation[edit]

The dimensions of culture is an area of marketing and social science that is closely related to Global marketing. The ability to discern cultural differences through initial assessment of another market is considered a critical enabler to progress in Global marketing.

Cultural value differences are a factor in the effectiveness of an advertisement campaign as advertising campaigns will be perceived differently in different countries.

Adaptivity and closed loop marketing[edit]

Closed loop marketing requires the constant measurement and analysis of the results of marketing initiatives.

With eMarketing, responses can be analyzed in real-time and campaigns can be tweaked continuously.

Disadvantages[edit]

  • Differences in consumer needs, wants, and usage patterns for products
  • Differences in consumer response to marketing mix elements
  • Differences in brand and product development and the competitive environment
  • Differences in the legal environment, some of which may conflict with those of the home market
  • Differences in the institutions available, some of which may call for the creation of entirely new ones (e.g. infrastructure)
  • Differences in administrative procedures
  • Differences in product placement
  • Differences in the administrative procedures and product placement can occur
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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A Dictionary of Marketing". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  2. ^ "International Marketing vs Global Marketing (10 Differences)". eduCBA. 16 September 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  3. ^ "Difference Between Domestic and International Marketing (with Comparison Chart)". Key Differences. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  4. ^ Paliwoda & Thomas, Stanley J. & Michael J. (1998). International Marketing. London, England: The Chartered Institute of Marketing. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-135-38710-5.
  5. ^ Building Strong Brands, David Aaker, E.T. Grether Professor of Marketing Strategy at the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley
  6. ^ a b c "Definition of Marketing Mix | What is Marketing Mix ? Marketing Mix Meaning". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  7. ^ Gram, M (2007). "Whiteness and western values in global advertisements: An exploratory study". Journal of Marketing Communications.
  8. ^ "Pros & Cons of a Global Marketing Strategy". smallbusiness.chron.com. Retrieved 12 April 2019.

Further reading[edit]

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