Globalization and World Cities Research Network

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The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank based in the Geography department at Loughborough University in England, that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

GaWC was founded by Peter J. Taylor in 1998,[1] Together with Jon Beaverstock and Richard G. Smith, they create the GaWC's bi-annual categorization of world cities into "Alpha", "Beta" and "Gamma" tiers, based upon their international connectedness.[2]

The GaWC examines cities worldwide to narrow them down to a roster of 307 world cities, then ranks these based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law.[3] The GaWC inventory ranks city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. Beyond the categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories) and "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories), the GaWC cities include additional cities at "High sufficiency" and "Sufficiency" level.

The following is a general guide to the rankings as of the most recent (2012) update:[3]

Alpha++ cities are vastly more integrated with the global economy than all other cities.[4]

Alpha+ cities are the eight cities that complement London and New York City by filling advanced service niches for the global economy.[4]

Alpha and Alpha- cities are the 13 and 22 cities, respectively, that link major economic regions into the world economy.[4]

The GaWC global cities according to the 2012 study:

Alpha++ Alpha+ Alpha Alpha-
United Kingdom London China Beijing Netherlands Amsterdam Italy Milan United States Atlanta South Africa Johannesburg Sweden Stockholm
United States New York United Arab Emirates Dubai Belgium Brussels Russia Moscow Thailand Bangkok Australia Melbourne Taiwan Taipei
Hong Kong Hong Kong United States Chicago India Mumbai Spain Barcelona United States Miami Austria Vienna
France Paris Germany Frankfurt Brazil Sao Paulo United States Boston Germany Munich Poland Warsaw
China Shanghai Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Canada Toronto Argentina Buenos Aires India New Delhi United States Washington
Singapore Singapore United States Los Angeles Republic of Ireland Dublin Czech Republic Prague Switzerland Zurich
Australia Sydney Spain Madrid Turkey Istanbul United States San Francisco
Japan Tokyo Mexico Mexico City Indonesia Jakarta South Korea Seoul

Beta level cities are the 78 cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy.[4]

Beta+ Beta Beta-
Greece Athens United States Dallas Philippines Manila New Zealand Auckland Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City Jordan Amman United States Cleveland France Lyon Ecuador Quito
India Bangalore Germany Düsseldorf Canada Montreal Colombia Bogota Pakistan Karachi Belgium Antwerp United States Denver Bahrain Manama Latvia Riga
Hungary Budapest China Guangzhou United States Philadelphia Australia Brisbane United Kingdom Manchester United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi United States Detroit United States Minneapolis Netherlands Rotterdam
Denmark Copenhagen Germany Hamburg Italy Rome Venezuela Caracas Uruguay Montevideo Kazakhstan Almaty United Kingdom Edinburgh Mexico Monterrey United States San Diego
Lebanon Beirut United States Houston Chile Santiago Morocco Casablanca Norway Oslo Serbia Belgrade Guatemala Guatemala City Kenya Nairobi Costa Rica San Jose
Germany Berlin Ukraine Kiev Israel Tel Aviv India Chennai Brazil Rio de Janeiro United Kingdom Birmingham (UK) Vietnam Hanoi Cyprus Nicosia United States Seattle
Romania Bucharest Peru Lima Qatar Doha Saudi Arabia Riyadh Slovakia Bratislava India Hyderabad Australia Perth China Shenzhen
Egypt Cairo Portugal Lisbon Switzerland Geneva Germany Stuttgart India Calcutta Kuwait Kuwait City Mauritius Port Louis Bulgaria Sofia
South Africa Cape Town Luxembourg Luxembourg Finland Helsinki Canada Vancouver Canada Calgary Nigeria Lagos Panama Panama City Tunisia Tunis

Gamma level cities are the 59 cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy.[4]

Gamma+ Gamma Gamma-
Australia Adelaide Japan Osaka Turkey Ankara Oman Muscat Ghana Accra Sweden Malmö
United States Baltimore United States Phoenix Azerbaijan Baku United States Raleigh India Ahmedabad Nicaragua Managua
United Kingdom Bristol El Salvador San Salvador United Kingdom Belfast United States San Jose Algeria Algiers France Nantes
United States Charlotte Dominican Republic Santo Domingo United States Cincinnati Puerto Rico San Juan Paraguay Ascunsión United States Orlando
Germany Cologne United States St Louis Sri Lanka Colombo Estonia Tallinn United States Columbus United States Portland
South Africa Durban Russia St Petersburg United Kingdom Glasgow Spain Valencia Tanzania Dar es Salaam Portugal Porto
Cayman Islands Georgetown United States Tampa Mexico Guadalajara Lithuania Vilnius Sweden Gothenburg India Pune
Ecuador Guayaquil Croatia Zagreb United Kingdom Leeds United States Kansas City Spain Seville
Pakistan Islamabad Slovenia Ljubljana Poland Cracow China Tianjin
Saudi Arabia Jeddah France Marseille Bolivia La Paz Italy Turin
Pakistan Lahore United States Milwaukee Germany Leipzig Netherlands Utrecht

High Sufficiency level cities are the 41 cities that have a high degree of accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law services so as not to be dependent on world cities.[4]

High Sufficiency
Ivory Coast Abidjan Cameroon Douala Switzerland Lausanne Brazil Porto Alegre Honduras Tegucigalpa
United States Austin Germany Dresden France Lille Poland Poznan Mexico Tijuana
Brazil Belo Horizonte Canada Edmonton Zambia Lusaka China Qingdao Albania Tirana
Spain Bilbao Botswana Gaborone China Nanjing Mexico Queretaro New Zealand Wellington
China Chengdu Netherlands The Hague The Bahamas Nassau United States Richmond Poland Wroclaw
China Chongqing China Hangzhou United Kingdom Newcastle United States Salt Lake City
Brazil Curitiba United States Hartford Germany Nürnberg Republic of Macedonia Skopje
Senegal Dakar United States Indianapolis Canada Ottawa United Kingdom Southampton
Bangladesh Dhaka Uganda Kampala United States Pittsburgh France Strasbourg

Sufficiency level cities are the 84 cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be obviously dependent on world cities.[4]

Sufficiency
United Kingdom Aberdeen Philippines Cebu Canada Halifax United Kingdom Liverpool France Nice United States San Antonio
Nigeria Abuja Mexico Ciudad Juarez New Zealand Hamilton Angola Luanda United Kingdom Nottingham Spain Santa Cruz
Egypt Alexandria Moldova Chisinau Germany Hannover Germany Ludwigshafen Malaysia Penang United Kingdom Sheffield
Denmark Arhus New Zealand Christchurch Zimbabwe Harare Macau Macao Cambodia Phnom Penh Indonesia Surabaya
Switzerland Bern Spain Cordoba Turkey Izmir United States Madison (WI) Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Uzbekistan Tashkent
United States Birmingham (AL ) China Dalian United States Jacksonville Mozambique Maputo South Africa Pretoria Georgia (country) Tbilisi
Italy Bologna Saudi Arabia Dammam Israel Jerusalem Colombia Medellin United States Providence (RI) France Toulouse
France Bordeaux United States Des Moines Malaysia Johor Bahru United States Memphis (TN) Mexico Puebla United States Tulsa
Brazil Brasilia Italy Florence Taiwan Kaohsiung Belarus Minsk South Korea Pusan Namibia Windhoek
Germany Bremen Japan Fukuoka Jamaica Kingston France Montpellier Brazil Recife Canada Winnipeg
Colombia Cali Italy Genoa Malaysia Labuan Japan Nagoya Iceland Reykjavik China Wuhan
Brazil Campinas Austria Graz United States Las Vegas Italy Naples United States Rochester (NY) China Xiamen
Australia Canberra United States Greensboro Spain Leon United States Nashville (TN) United States Sacramento China Xi'an
United Kingdom Cardiff Israel Haifa Austria Linz United States New Orleans Brazil Salvador Armenia Yerevan

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor, Peter J. (2004). World city network: a global urban analysis. Routledge. p. ix. ISBN 0-415-30249-8. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  2. ^ Donald, Stephanie; Gammack, John G. (2007). Tourism and the branded city. London: Ashgate Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 0-7546-4829-X. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  3. ^ a b "The World According to GaWC". GaWC. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "The World According to GaWC 2012". GaWC. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 

External links[edit]