Gloria Ray Karlmark
Gloria Cecelia Ray Karlmark was born on September 26, 1942, in Little Rock, one of the three children of Harvey C. and Julia Miller Ray. She made history as a member of the Little Rock Nine, the nine African-American students who desegregated Central High School in Little Rock (Pulaski County) in 1957. She was 15 when she attempted to enter Little Rock Central High School.In 1965, she graduated from the Illinois Institute of Technology with a bachelor's degree in Chemistry and Mathematics.Following high school, Ray attended Illinois Institute of Technology and received a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry and mathematics. She worked briefly as a public school teacher and research assistant at the University of Chicago Research Medical Center. Ray married Krister Karlmark in 1966, and in 1970, she joined International Business Machine’s (IBM) Nordic Laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden, where she worked as a systems analyst and technical writer.
Karlmark graduated from Kungliga Patent & Registreringsverket in Sweden as a patent attorney, and from 1977 until 1981, she worked for IBM International Patent Operations. From 1976 to 1994, Karlmark founded and was editor-in-chief ofComputers in Industry, an international journal of computer applications in industry. In 1994, Karlmark went to work in the Netherlands for Philips Telecommunications in Hilversum and, later, for Philips Lighting in Eindhoven. She and her husband have two children. In 1998, Karlmark and the other members of the Little Rock Nine were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in recognition of "selfless heroism."
In 1958, Karlmark and the Little Rock Nine received the Spingarn Medal by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by an African American.
- "Gloria Cecelia Ray Karlmark (1942–)", Encyclopedia of Arkansas.
- Little Rock nine, USA: NPS.
- Glassman, Matthew (2011). Congressional Gold Medals 1776-2010. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. p. 30.
- "Gloria Ray Karlmark". America.gov. 30 August 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2009-03-25..
- "Religion", NWA News http://www.nwanews.com/adg/Religion/202186/ Missing or empty
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