Glosa

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Glosa
Glosa symbol - A.D. 2007.PNG
Created by Ronald Clark and Wendy Ashby, based on the Interglossa of Lancelot Hogben
Date 1972–1992
Setting and usage international auxiliary language
Purpose
Sources Interglossa
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
Glottolog None
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Glosa is an international auxiliary language based on a previous draft auxiliary called Interglossa. As an isolating language, there are no inflections, so that words always remain in their dictionary form, no matter what function they have in the sentence. Consequently, grammatical functions, when not clear from the context, are taken over by a small number of operator words and by the use of word order (syntax).

History[edit]

Glosa is based on the draft auxiliary language Interglossa[1] devised by the scientist Lancelot Hogben in the empty hours of fire-watching in Aberdeen during World War II. Interglossa was published in 1943 as a draft of an auxiliary.

Ron Clark came across the handbook of Interglossa: a draft of an auxiliary about 1960. Then he met Professor Hogben with the aim of developing the language. They worked to refine it, in order to make it more easily usable in all possible forms of communication. Wendy Ashby joined the project in 1972. When Hogben died in 1975, most changes had already been discussed. Hogben and Clark had agreed that the language should have a phonetic spelling (that is: each letter representing a single sound). This principle implied that the Greek CH, TH and PH now should be spelt K, T and F.

Finally a few further changes were introduced by Ron Clark and Wendy Ashby, who then gave the language the new name Glosa (from the Greek word for tongue, language [glossa being the English transliteration]), and thus founded a new auxiliary language.[2]

Until about 1979, Ashby and Clark tested the use of Glosa using local volunteers in the town in which they were living. During this period, the vocabulary and some details of sentence formation were developed and revised. They had moved to another town by the time they had published the first Glosa dictionary.

From 1987, the charity-status organisation GEO (Glosa Education Organisation) has promoted the teaching of Glosa as a second language in schools worldwide.

GEO’s official website was set up by Paul O. Bartlett in 1996, and it is managed at present by Marcel Springer. It provides the Glosa Internet Dictionary (Glosa Inter-reti Diktionaria),[3] as well as an introductory course,[4] and other resources.

Unclear history[edit]

According to History behind Glosa,[2] after Hogben’s death “a few further and trivial changes were introduced”. But there is no precise information about them, so it's not clear exactly which changes were made by Hogben and Clark, and which was made by Clark and Ashby.

Overview[edit]

In Glosa, words always retain their original form, regardless of their function in a sentence. Thus, the same word can function as a verb, noun, adjective or preposition. Glosa is thereby a completely analytic language: there are no inflections for noun plurals, verb tenses, genders, and so on – the words never change.

Grammatical functions are taken over by a limited number of operator words and by the word order (syntax). Subject–Verb–Object order is the standard word order, and "adjectives" usually precede "nouns", and the "verbs" follow the tense particles and the "adverbs".

Glosa is usually compared to two natural languages which are analytical in different degrees, Chinese and English.[5] It is also similar to the auxilary Lingua sistemfrater, also known as Frater, published in 1957 by the Vietnamese Phạm Xuân Thái. Frater is also isolating, has a similar vocabulary base, but a slightly different syntactical structure, and has no articles – where Glosa uses u/un for both “the” and “a”/“an”, or gendered pronouns.

Glosa is written with the Latin alphabet without special characters. There are no double vowels or consonants and pronunciation rules are simple and regular.

Most words in Glosa are taken from Latin and Greek roots. Glosa is thus an a posteriori language.

While aspects of Hogben’s Interglossa were explicitly inspired by the auxiliary Basic English, Glosa tends to work like normal English. Interglossa works with a small number of essential light verbs (up to 20), which Hogben calls “verboids” or “verbal operators”, like the 18 verb operators of Basic English. In Glosa words from this special class can be elided if the context is clear.

Spelling and pronounciation[edit]

Glosa spelling is completely regular and phonetic: one spelling always represents one sound, and one sound is always represented by one spelling. With the sole exception of SC which represents the sound ʃ (as “sh” in short), every letter just represents one sound, and vice versa. Glosa is written with the latin letters. The alphabet consists of the following letters (and digraph), and their upper case equivalents:

Glosa alphabet (and the digraph sc)
Letter a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x z (sc)
IPA phoneme a b t͡ʃ d e f g h i j k l m n o p kw r s t u v w ks z ʃ

Unlike several other auxiliary languages, Glosa uses the letters Q and X. C makes the “ch” sound in church. The “sh” sound in short is represented by the letter combination SC – the only digraph. Like in many languages, J makes the “y”-sound found in yell or yak. G and S are always "hard" (goat and, respectively, hiss/snake). R should be trilled or "tapped" (the tongue lightly taps the pallate of one's mouth), never uvularized.

The practice of pronouncing N before a velar sound (g or k) as ŋ is generally non-preferred but is used commonly in order to simplify pronunciation. X may be pronounced z at the start of a word but this is non-preferred.[4]

Some foreign names may include non-Glosa letters in order to retain original spelling.

Vowels[edit]

The first pronunciation is the preferred one:

a – /a/ or /æ/
o – /ɔ/ or /o/
e – /e/ or /ɛ/
u – /u/ or /ʌ/
i – /i/ or /ɪ/

There are no diphthongs in Glosa. Where two or more vowels occur together they are pronounced separately.

Stress[edit]

The stress or accent should be placed gently on the vowel before the last consonant.[4]

Word classes[edit]

Glosa contains two major groups of words:

Primitives[edit]

Primitives are the small number of basic function words present in most languages—these allow us to describe the relationships between the major concepts we convey. These are basically prepositions and conjunctions, such as: de [of], e [and], pre [before], supra [above], sub [under; below; lower; beneath; lesser; somewhat].

Substantives[edit]

Substantives here are the group of words that represents the more complex things, actions and descriptions (sometimes usable for all three) present in a language, such as: via [road], kurso [run], hedo [happy], vide [see], celera [swift], tako [fast; quick; swift; brisk; hasty; prompt; hurry; nimble; rapid; rapidity; rate; speed; haste; sprint; quick; speedy; velocity]; oku [eye]. Please note that many of these words have multiple meanings, based on how they are used in a sentence (verb, adjective, etc.), exempli gratia: "oku" can mean "eye", "optical", "to notice with the eyes", "see (look)", "perceive (with the eyes)", or "to peep".

Phrases and clauses[edit]

Phrases, the basic unit of recognizable meaning in Glosa, follow a "Subject+Verb+(Object)" order and noun phrases are "Substantive Final", which means that they start with the least important word, and are followed by additional words combining progressively to extend the meaning of the substantive, which comes last.

Parts of speech[edit]

Glosa words can often serve as more than one part of speech. Thus part of speech is a role that the word plays in a sentence, not a tightly-bound property of a word.

Personal pronouns[edit]

Personal Pronouns
Person English Glosa English Glosa
1 I, me mi we, us na
2 you (s.) tu you (pl.) vi
3 she, her an they,
them
mu
he, him fe
it id
he/she/one pe

Do note that Glosa, unlike English, distinguishes between "you" about one person, which is tu, and about several people, which is vi.[6]

The reflexive pronoun ”oneself” is se, the reciprocal pronoun alelo means ”each other”,[7] and the emphatic auto[clarification needed] is used for “self, own“.

Verbs[edit]

Most words can act as verbs, depending on their places in the sentence (usually in the medial position).

Example of Verb Tenses
Tense Prior Word Glosa Text English Translation
Infinitive de/te(nde) de lekto To read
Simple Past pa Mi pa lekto u bibli. I (did) read the book.
Imperfect pa du Mi pa du lekto u bibli. I was reading the book.
Past Participle ge- U ge-lekto bibli The read book / The book that has been read
Simple Present (nu) Mi (nu) lekto u bibli. I (do) read the book / I am reading the book.
Continuous Present du Mi du lekto u bibli. I am reading the book.
Present Perfect nu pa Mi nu pa lekto u bibli. I have (just) read the book.
Future-in-Present nu fu Mi nu fu lekto u bibli. I am just about to read the book / I am just going to read the book.
Future-in-Past pa fu Mi pa fu lekto u bibli. I was about to read the book / I was going to read the book.
Simple Future fu Mi fu lekto u bibli. I shall/will read the book.
Future Perfect fu pa Mi fu pa lekto u bibli. I shall/will have read the book (by tomorrow).
Conditional sio Mi sio lekto u bibli... I would read the book...
Imperative -! Lekto! Read!
Negative ne Mi ne lekto u bibli. I do not read the book/I am not reading the book.
Interrogative qe Qe mi lekto u bibli? Am I reading the book? / Do I read the book?
Passive gene U bibli gene lekto ex mi. The book is/gets read by me.
Gerund - (U) lekto (de bibli). (The) reading (of the book...)

"Prior Word" here means a word used immediately prior to the verb of the sentence or clause in order to demonstrate or affect its tense. For example:

  • To show that a verb is in the past tense, add pa before the verb.
  • To indicate the future tense, add fu before the verb.
  • To indicate the conditional, add sio before the verb.

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives, like the rest of the language, are not inflected. They do not change to fit the tense, number, gender, formality, or etc. of the nouns that they modify. They generally precede the word that they modify. Sometimes an adjective's place determines its meaning:

  • Mi fu lektu mo bibli – I will read one book
  • Mi fu lektu bibli mo – I will read the first book

To create "opposites", one just places "no-" as a prefix to the adjective. This usage is similar to that of the prefix "mal-" in Esperanto which gives the word the exact opposite meaning. So the Glosa usage below means "not beautiful". It is the equivalent of some of the uses on in- or un- in English

  • kali – beautiful
  • no-kali – ugly
  • termo – hot, heat
  • meso-termo – warm
  • no-termo – cold

Conjunctions[edit]

  • akorda-co – accordingly
  • alo – or
  • alo...alo – either...or
  • alora – in that case...
  • anti-co – however
  • e – and
  • fini-co – finally
  • hetero-co – otherwise
  • jam – already
  • kaso – case...
  • ko-co – also
  • klu – even...
  • ni....ni – neither...nor
  • pene – almost
  • po-co – after that
  • posi – perhaps
  • plus-co – moreover
  • qasi – as if...
  • sed – but
  • si ne... – unless
  • vice – instead of...

Question and answer words[edit]

Words used to ask or answer a question of who, where, what, when, why, how or how much. These words form a set in a semi-systematic manner with a particle of the compound indicating abstract quantity (what person or thing, what place, what time, for what reason, in what manner, what is the amount) and the prefix/other particle indicating the specific function of the word (exactly which, all, some, negating, etc.).

Here are some examples. There are other ways to say the following correlatives, the table just shows the most basic and systematic of these:

Question
(what)
Indefinite
(some)
Very indefinite
(any)
Universal
(every)
Negative
(no)
qo– uno– ali– panto– nuli–
–ra (thing) qo-ra?
(what thing?)
uno-ra
(something)
ali-ra
(anything)
panto-ra
(everything)
nuli-ra
(nothing)
–pe (individual) qo-pe?
(who?)
uno-pe
(someone)
ali-pe
(anyone)
panto-pe
(everyone; all)
nuli-pe
(no one)
Individual qo?
(what [horse]? which [horse]?)
uno
(some [horse])
ali
(any [horse])
panto
(every [horse])
nuli, zero
(no [horse])
–lo (place) qo-lo?
(where)
uno-lo
(somewhere)
ali-lo
(anywhere)
panto-lo
(everywhere)
nuli-lo
(nowhere)
–mode (manner) qo-mode?, komo?
(how, in what way)
uno-mode
(somehow)
ali-mode
(in any way)
panto-mode
(in every way)
nuli-mode
(in no way, no-how)
–ka (cause) qo-ka?
(why; for what cause)
uno-ka
(for some cause)
ali-ka
(for any cause)
panto-ka
(for all causes)
nuli-ka
(for no cause)
–te (intention) qo-te?
(why; with what intention)
uno-te
(with some intention)
ali-te
(with any intention)
panto-te
(with all intentions)
nuli-te
(with no intention)
–metri (quantity) qo-metri?, qanto?
(how much)
uno-metri
(some)
ali-metri
(any)
panto-metri
(all)
nuli-metri
(none)

In addition to the above, there is the prefix/beginning singu- (each), and the suffixes/endings -numera (amount/number), -speci (quality/kind of) and -kron (time), which can be used in the same way as the above.

Demonstratives[edit]

The basic demonstratives used for indication (this, that, etc) are:

  • ci, la, “here” and “there”
  • u-ci, this thing, this one, this [horse]
  • u-la, that thing, that one, that [horse]
  • plu-la, those
  • plu-ci, these

To change a statement into an interrogative, qe is placed at the beginning of the sentence. What is the time? – Qo horo?.

Prepositions[edit]

Prepositions: Glosa-English Comparison
Glosa Word English Word English Example Words
ab away from abduct
ad to / towards advance
ana up anabolic
anti against antibiotic
de of / about / pertaining to describe
dextro (on the) right ambidextrous
dia through diagonal
epi on epicentre
ex out (of) / by (agent) exterior
infra below / under /lesser infrared / inferior
intra inside intracloud
kata down catastrophe
ko with coöperate
kontra counter / opposite counter / contrast
laevo left levorotation
margina edge / side margin
meso middle Mesopotamia
minus without / lacking minus
para beside parallel
per by (instrumental) per
peri around pericarp
po after post (scriptum)
pre before previous
pro for pro (or con)
proxi near proximity
supra over / above supranational
te in order to... tendency
tem for a period of time temporary
tele far telephone
to(po) at place topology
trans across transition
ultra beyond ultrasophisticated
vice instead of vice-president

Numbers[edit]

Numerals
Numeral Glosa Name Exact Glosa-English Translation
0 nuli/ze(ro) null; nullify; nothing; abolish; cancel;
eliminate; naught; nil; no; repeal; zero
1 mo(no) one; single
2 bi two; double
3 tri three; triple
4 tet(ra) four
5 pen(ta) five
6 six(a) six
7 septi/seti seven
8 ok(to) eight
9 nona nine
10 deka ten
11 mo-mo [6] one-one
12 mo-bi [7] one-two
20 bi-ze two-zero
22 bi-bi two-two
100 hekto (mo-ze-ze) (one) hundred (one-zero-zero)
101 mo-ze-mo one-zero-one
1.000 (mo-)kilo (one) thousand
1.000.000 (mo-)miliona (one) million

Note: Some use centi the older form of hekto for "hundred". Centi is now used as "hundredth" in accordance with the ISO standard usage.

Vocabulary[edit]

Compound words[edit]

In order to form a composite word in Glosa, one just combines existing words. For example:

pe – person who does/person (short form of persona)
an – male (from andros)
fe – female (from femina)
do – building where (from domo meaning house)
lo – location, place of (from loko)

Therefore, a student is stude-pe (one who studies), a male student is stude-an, a female student is stude-fe and a building where students study (school, college, etc.) is a stude-do. Likewise a hospital is pato-do (from the word pathology but meaning sickness), literally meaning a house/building for the sick.

  • tegu – cover; ceiling; (to)shutter; deck; lid (cover); eclipse; (to) shelter; casing
  • oku-tegu – eyelid
  • agri – field, countryside
  • agri-lo – farm
  • a-nu – until now

Meals can also be formed by noun-compounding:

  • evening – vespera
  • to eat, to devour – vora
  • dinner, supper – vespera-vora

Sample words and expressions[edit]

Phrases and expressions[edit]

  • Hello, greetings, saltutations – Saluta!, Ave!
  • Welcome – Bene-veni
  • Please! – Place!
  • Sorry! – Pardo!, Penite!
  • What is your name? – Tu habe qo nomina/nima?
(literally ”You have what name?”)
  • My name is... – Mi nomina/nima es...
  • Where am I – Qo-lo es mi?
  • How much? – Qanto?
  • Do you speak Glosa – Qe tu dice Glosa?
  • I don't understand you – Mi ne logi/kompreni tu.
  • Thank you – Gratia
  • You're welcome – Es nuli.
(literally ”It's nothing”)
  • Here's to your health – A tu eu-sani.
  • Bless you!/Gesundheit! – (Eu-)sani (a tu)!
  • It is a nice day – Es u bene di.
  • I love you – Mi amo tu.
  • Goodbye – Vale.
  • What is that? – Qo-ra es u-la?
  • That is...? – U-la es...?
  • How are you? – Komo tu?
  • Good morning! – Boni matina/mana!
  • Good evening! – Boni po-meso-di! Boni di!
(literally ”Good after mid-day”, ”Good day”)
  • Good night! – Boni noktu!
  • Good night, sweet dreams – Boni somni! Plu boni sonia!
  • I can't find an error – Mi ne pote detekti u defekti.

Words[edit]

  • well – bene
  • be well – vale
  • good/well – boni/bene/eu
  • well (healthy) – sani
  • ki – movement, to go, to move
  • a/an/the (singular) – u before all consonants but h; un before vowels and h
  • the/some (plural) – plu
  • a cat, the cat – u feli(s)
  • cats – plu feli(s)
  • dog – kanis
  • pig – sui
  • bovine (cow/bull) – bovi (fe-bovi, an-bovi)
  • horse – equs
  • frog – rana
  • bird – avi
  • bee – apis
  • spider – aranea
  • fish – piski

Word derivation[edit]

Generally, the following derivation rules apply when creating new words for Glosa. [8] Some basic words (often that act as specificational prefixes) are shortened (such as "an", "fe", or "pe").

Indefinite words remain as they are (ad, de, si, kata).

Derivational Rules (from Latin origin)
Latin Ending Glosa Ending Example
-a, -ae (from genitive) -a silva (forest)
-us, -us -u manu (hand)
-is, -is -i turi (tower, turret)
adjectives: -us/-a/-um -o karo (dear)
verbs: -ere -e face (to make, build, commit)
verbs: -are -a lauda (to praise, esteem, applause)
verbs: -ire -i veni (to arrive)
  • Latin o-declination-words become the nominative plural. Therefore:
-us, -i ending are adapted to -i ending (rami, soni, tubi)
-er, -ri become -ri (libri)
-um, -i are -a ending in Glosa (exempla)
  • Words built from the perfect-tense-radix become -i (cepti, fluxi, komposi)
  • Latin -io, -ionis are not changed to the ablative-ending (-ione) but keep the nominatives -io (natio, okasio, petitio, religio, tensio).
  • The same occurs when deriving from Greek (however, Greek lacks an ablative so the dative is used instead):
-os, -u become -o (fobo, orto).
  • Occasionally the Greek aorist-root is taken instead of present-tense-root (gene).
  • Greek verbs become -o (1st person singular) such as: skizo.
  • Species names keep nominative (equs, ursus).

Any time Greek CH, Y, RH, TH and PH occur they become K, I, R, T and F respectively in Glosa.

Sample texts[edit]

Language planning[edit]

The following is taken from a text on language planning by Lancelot Hogben, author of Glosas precursor Interglossa. First a sample with Glosa and English side by side:

Glosa English
U logika ge-face verba-lista sio
apo multi sinonima alo
proxi-sinonima, de qi
Anglo-Amerika lingua es ple.
Ex. little–small, big–large,
begin–commence. Id ne nece
tolera funktio imbrika
homo band – ribbon – strip.
A rationally constructed word-list would
discard many synonyms or
near-synonyms, of which
the Anglo-American language is full.
For example, little–small, big–large,
begin–commence. It need not
tolerate functional overlap
as with band – ribbon – strip.

And here continued as regular text, first in Glosa:

Plus, id sio evita excesi specializa per face mo verba akti qod in Plu Palaeo Lingua gene face per tri alo ma. Exempla, u France demo nima un extra tegu de homi soma la peau, u-la de cepa la pelure; e u-la de botuli la cotte.

And the English translation of the last paragraph:

Also, it would avoid over-specialization by making one word do what in natural languages is often done by three or more. For example, the French call the outer cover of the human body la peau, that of the onion la pelure, and that of the sausage la cotte.[8]

The Lord's Prayer[edit]

The following is the Lord's Prayer in Glosa, compared with an Esperanto and English version, respectively:

Glosa version Esperanto version English[9]

Na patri in urani:
na volu; tu nomina gene honora,
tu krati veni e
tu tende gene akti epi geo homo in urani.
Place don a na nu-di na di-pani
e tu pardo na plu Mali akti;
metri na pardo mu; qi akti Mali a na.
E ne direkti na a u proba;
sed libe na ab Mali.
Ka tu tena u krati, u dina
e un eufamo pan tem.
Amen.

Patro nia, kiu estas en la ĉielo,
Via nomo estu sanktigita.
Venu Via regno, plenumiĝu Via volo,
kiel en la ĉielo,
tiel ankaŭ sur la tero.
Nian panon ĉiutagan donu al ni hodiaŭ.
Kaj pardonu al ni niajn ŝuldojn,
kiel ankaŭ ni pardonas al niaj ŝuldantoj.
Kaj ne konduku nin en tenton,
sed liberigu nin de la malbono.
Amen.

Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name,
your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as in heaven.
Give us today our daily bread.
Forgive us our sins
as we forgive those who sin against us.
Save us from the time of trial
and deliver us from evil.
For the kingdom, the power,
and the glory are yours
now and for ever.
Amen.

Notice that in Glosa the word ”sky” is derived from Greek (“Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς”, Ουρανός, God of the sky → Urani, sky) while Esperanto uses a Latin derived word (caelum, caeli).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hogben, Lancelot (1943). Interglossa. A draft of an auxiliary for a democratic world order, being an attempt to apply semantic principles to language design. [1] Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng. / New York: Penguin Books. OCLC 1265553.
  2. ^ a b Glosa Education Organisation (GEO) (2006). History behind Glosa. (pdf) [2], p. 7.
  3. ^ W. Ashby, P. Bartlett, R. Clark, C. Ganson, R. Gaskell, N. Hempshall, G. Miller, W. Patterson, K. Smith, M. Springer. "Glosa Inter-reti Diktionaria. Glosa Internet Dictionary. Glosa-English and English-Glossa. (pdf) [3] Updated: 2009-11-05.
  4. ^ a b c W. Ashby & R. Clark (1985-1992). 18 Steps to Fluency in Euro-Glosa. Richmond, UK: Glosa Education Organization, ISBN 0-946540-15-2. HTML-version by Marcel Springer (2001-2006) [4]
  5. ^

    Glosa is interesting among conlangs in that it is a completely analytic language: there are no inflections for noun plurals, verb tenses, genders, and what-not. Somewhat as in English, a word may be used as more than one part of speech.

    — Paul Bartlett, Critiques of individual planned languages, Bartlett, Paul O. «Critiques of individual planned languages» [5]. Updated: 2005-11-30.
  6. ^ http://glosa.org/en/gramm.htm
  7. ^ http://glosa.org/en/gref.htm
  8. ^ Paraleli textu on Kafejo.com, ”From Prof. Hogben's Language Planning”
  9. ^ Praying Together (ELLC – 1988)

External links[edit]