Glossary of Russian and USSR aviation acronyms: Aircraft designations

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This is a Glossary of acronyms used for aircraft designations in the Russian federation and formerly the USSR. The Latin-alphabet names are phonetic representations of the Cyrillic originals, and variations are inevitable.

Aircraft designations[edit]

2I-N1
2 Istrebitel – N1 – two-seat fighter with Napier engine[1] see DI-1
2MG
2 Motor Gelikopter – twin-engined helicopter[1]
AK
Artilleriskii Korrektirovshchik – artillery correction[1]
AO
Aeroopylitel – air duster[1] Po-2
AP
Aeropyl – air dust[1] Po-2
ARK
ARKtichyeskii - arctic[1]
ARK-Z
-[1]
ASh
Arkadiy Shvetsov-led engine design bureau prefix, coming from the OKB-19 bureau
ASK
Amfibiya Severnogo Kraya – amphibian for northern territory[1]
BB
Blizhnii Bombardirovshchik – short-range bomber[2]
BDD
Bombardirovshchik D D -[1] Bolkhovitnov
BDP
Boyevoi Desantnyi Planer – troops assault glider[1]
BI
Blizhniy Istrebitel – short-range fighter[1]
BMP
- towed mine glider
BOK
-
BOP
-
BPB
Blizhniy Pikiruyushchiy Bombardirovshchik – short-range dive bomber[3]
BS
-
BSB
-
BskhS
-[1]
BSh
Bronirovannyy Shturmovik – armoured ground attack aircraft[1]
CCB
see TsKB
D
1. - two-seat fighter[1]
2. Dalnost - distance/range
DB
1. Dal'niy Bombardirovshchik – long-range bomber[2]
2. Dnevnoi Bombardirovshchik – day bomber
DB-A
Dauhl'niy Bombardirovshchik-A – long-range bomber, academy[1]
DB-LK
Dauhl'niy Bombardirovshchik-LK -[1]
DBSh
-[1]
DD
suffix Dauhl'niy Deystviya - long-range[3]
DDBSh
Dauhl'niy Dvuhkmestny Bronirovannyi Shturmovik - long-range two-seat close support aircraft[2]
DDI
-[1]
DG
-[1]
DI
Dvukhmesnyy Istrebitel' - two-seat fighter[1]
DIP
Dvukhmyestnyi Istrebitel Pushechny – two-seat cannon fighter[2]
DIS
1. Dvukhmotortnyi Istrebitel Soprovozhdyenyia – twin-engined escort fighter[1]
2. Dalnyi Istrebitel Soprovozhdyeniya – (ДИС, Дальний истребитель сопровождения – long-range escort fighter)[1]
DIT
Dvukhmyestnyi Istrebitel T - two-seat fughter -[1] 2-seat shturmovik version of I-152
DKL
Dvukhmotornyi Krayenoi Linyeinyi - regional airliner[1]
DKPV
-
DP
Dal'niy Perekhvahtchik – long-range interceptor[4]
DPT
- long-range glider torpedo
DR
Dvigatel' [izdeliye] R [Tu-4] – engine test-bed [product] R [Tu-4][5] Myasischev inhouse designation for engine test aircraft.
DSB
Dnevnoy Skorosnoy Bombardirovshchik - fast day bomber[1]
DVB
Dalnyi Vysotnyi Bombardirovshchik – long-range high-altitude bomber[1]
E
Eksperimentalnyi - experimental[1]
EA
Eksperimentalnyi Apparat – experimental apparatus – usually prefixed by a number
ED
Eksperimental Dvigatyel – experimental engine[1]
EG
Eksperimentalnyi Gelikopter – experimental helicopter[1]
EI
Eksperimentalyni Istribetel – experimental fighter[1]
EOI
Eksperimentalyni Odnomyestnyi Istribetel – experimental single-seat fighter[1]
FI
Frontovoy Istrebitel – frontal fighter
FS
Foto Samolyet – Photographic aircraft
G
Gelikopter – helicopter
GASN
Gidro-Aeroplan Spetsialno Naznachyeniya – seaplane special destination
GLL
Giperzvukovya letayuschchaya Laboratoriya – hypersonic flying laboratory[6]
GM
-[1]
GST
Gidro Samolyet Transportnaya – hydro aircraft transport[1] – pby-1 Catalina
I
1. Izdeliye - product or article[1]
2. Istrebitel' – fighter[1]
IB
-[1]
Istrebitel-Bombardirovschik - fighter bomber / strike fighter
IDD
Istrebitel' Dahl'nevo Deystviya – long-range fighter[7]
IgA
-[1]
IKh
-
IL
Istrebitel' [s dvigatelem] Liberty [moschnost'yu] 400 [loshadinykh sil] - fighter with a 400hp Liberty engine[8] Polikarpov IL-400
IOP
Istrebitel' odnomestny Pushechnyi – single-seat cannon fighter[2]
IP
Istrebitel' Pushyechnii – fighter, cannon[1]
IS
1. Istrebitel' Skladnoi – folding fighter[1]
2. Istrebitel' Soprovozhdyeniya – escort fighter
3. Istrebitel' Sylvanskii – fighter Sylvanskii[1]
ISh
Istrebitel' Shturmovik – fighter attack
IT
Istrebitel' Tyazhelyi – heavy fighter[1]
ITP
Istrebitel' Tyazhelyi Pushechnyi – heavy fighter with cannon
IVS
Istrebitel' VyisokoSkorostnyi – high speed fighter[1]
I-Z
Izdeliye Z - project Z[1]
K
1. -[1]
2. Koor'yerskiy - courier[3]
KhB
Khimichyevskii Boyevik – chemical fighter[1]
KOR
Korabelnii O Razvedchik – shipboard catapult reconnaissance[1]
KPIR
-[1]
KR
1. Korabelniy Razvedchik – (корабельный разведчик - Shipboard Reconnaissance)[1]
2. Katapul'tiruyemoye Kreslo [izdeliye] R [Tu-4] – ejection seat test-bed [product] R [Tu-4][5] Myasischev inhouse designation for ejection seat test aircraft.
3. Kreiser Razvyedchik - cruiser reconnaissance)
KSM
-[1] Avietka non OKB designed light aircraft
KT
Kr'lya Tank – flying tank[1]
LAKM
-[1]
LAL
Летающая Атомная Лаборатория - letayuschchaya ahtomnaya laboratoriya - flying nuclear laboratory[9]
LB
Legkii Bombardirovshchik – light bomber
LB-2LD
Legkii Bombardirovshchik-2LD – light bomber with 2 lorraine-Dietrich engines[1]
LBS
Legkii Bombardirovshchik Sparka – light bomber, two seater
LBSh
Legkii Bronirovannyi Shturmovik – (ЛБШ, Легкий бронированный штурмовик – light armored attack aircraft)[1]
LEM
Lev Pavlovich Malinovski- 1930s director of NTU-GVF[1]
LIG
Leningradskii Institoot Grazdahnskovo Vozdooshnovo Flota- Leningrad Institute civil air fleet[1]
LK
1. Legkii Kreiser – light cruiser[1]
2. Leningradskii Kombinat – Leningrad combine[1]
LKhS
- light utility transport[1] 1994
LL
Letayuschchaya Laboratoriya - flying laboratory[3]
LM
-[1]
LNB
-[1]
LR
Legkii Razvedchik – (ЛР, Легкий разведчик – light reconnaissance)[1]
LS
Laminarnyi Sloi – laminar layer[1]
LSh
Lyegkii Shturmovik – (ЛШ, Легкий штурмовик – light attack)[1]
LT
Letayushchiy Tank – flying tank
LTDD
-long-range flying torpedo
M
Mishen – [radio-controlled] target[6] radio-controlled versions of production aircraft had the OKB designation replaced with M, thus the RC target Il-28 became the M-28
MA
Mestnaya Amfibiya – regional amphibian[1]
MAK
-[1]
MB
-[1]
MBR
Morskoi Blizhnii Razvedchik – marine short-range reconnaissance[1]
MDR
Morskoi Dalnii Razvedchik – marine long-range reconnaissance[1]
MDRT
Morskoi Dalnii Razvedchik Torpedonosyets – (МДРТ, Морской дальний разведчик-торпедоносец – long-range sea recon/torpedo bomber)
MER
-[1]
MG
-[1]
MGS
Mnogotselevoy Gruzovoy Samolet - multi-role cargo aircraft[6]
MI
-[1]
MIIT
-[1]
MK
Morskoi Kreiser – sea cruiser[1]
MM
Morskoi Minonosyets – marine mine carrier[1]
MMN
-[1]
MMSh
Malya Mod Shturmovik – experimental engine attacker
MP
1. Motor Planer – motor glider[1]
2. Morskoi Passazhirskii – naval passenger transport[1]
3. Morskoi Podvesnoi – marine suspended
MPI
1. Mnogomestnyi Pushyechnyi Istrebitel – (МПИ, Многоместный пушечный истребитель – multi-seat cannon fighter)[1]
2. Morskoi Poplavkovyi Istrebitel – sea floatplane fighter[1]
MR
Morskoi Razvedchik – naval reconnaissance[1]
MRL
Morskoi Razvedchik Liberty – naval reconnaissance, Liberty engine[1]
MS
Morskoi Samolyet – naval aircraft[1]
MSh
-[6]
MT
Morskoi Torpedonosyets – naval torpedo carrier[1]
MTB
Morskoi Torpedonosyets-Bombardirovshchik – naval torpedo carrier-bomber
MTBT
Morskoi тяжелый Torpedonosyets-Bombardirovshchik – (МТБТ, Морской тяжелый бомбардировщик-торпедоносец – Heavy sea bomber/torpedo bomber)
MU
Morskoi Uchyebnii – naval trainer[1]
MUR
Morskoi Uchyebnii Rhone – naval trainer, Rhone engine[1]
N
-[1]
NAK
Nochno-artillerisykyi Korrektirovshchik – night artillery observer
NB
Nochnoi Bombardirovshchik – night bomber[1]
NBB
Nochnoy Blizhniy Bombardirovshchik – short-range night bomber[3]
NK
-[1]
OBSh
Odnomestnyi Bronirovanny Shturmovik (ОБШ, Одноместный бронированный штурмовик – single-seat armored attack aircraft)
ODB
-[1]
ODBSh
Odnomestnyi Dvukhmotorny Bronirovanny Shturmovik – single-seat twin-engined armoured attack aircraft[2]
OKB
-[1]
OKO
-[1]
OPB
Odnomestnyi Pikiryushchyi Bombardirovshchik - (ОПБ, Одноместный пикирующий бомбардировщик – single-seat dive bomber)[1]
OPO
-[1]
OSGA
- deck based aircraft[1]
OSh
Odnomotornyi Shturmovik – single-engined attack
OSO
-[1]
P
1. Perekhodnyi Pyervyi - intermediate[1]
2. Passazheerskiy – passenger[1]
P-Z
-[1]
PB
1. Planer Bombardirovshchik – glider bomber
2. Pikiriyushchii Bombardirovshchik – dive bomber[1]
PBSh
Pushechnyy Bronirovannyi Shturmovik (ПБШ, Пикирующий бронированный штурмовик – cannon-armed armoured assault aircraft)[10]
PD
Perekhvatchik [s ToorboKompressorom] Dollezhalya – interceptor with a dollezhal' designed supercharger[3]
PI
Pushechnii Istrebitel – cannon fighter[1]
PL
Passazhirskii Leningrad – passenger transport Leningrad[1]
PM
Passazhirskii Maybach – passenger transport Maybach engine[1]
PR
-[1]
PS
1. Passazheerskiy Samolyot – airliner / passenger aircraft[1]
2. Proxrachnyy Samolyot – transparent aircraft[3]
PSN
Planer Spetsial'no Naznachenaya – glider for special purposes
PT
-[1]
PVRD
-
R
1. Razvedchik – reconnaissance[1]
2. Reaktivnii - jet
RB
'Razvedchik-Bombardirovshchik – reconnaissance-bomber[7]
RD
Rekord Dalnosti – long distance record aircraft[1]
RDD
Rekord Dalnost Diesel'nyi – diesel-engined long-range record aircraft[1]
RD-VV
-[1]
RF
Rot front – Red Front[1]
RG
-[1]
RGP
-[1]
RK
1. Razreznoye Krylo – slotted wing[1]
2. Razdvizhnoye Krylo – extending wing[1]
RK-I '
'Razdvizhnoye Krylo - Istrebitel – extending wing fighter[1]
RM
-[1]
RMK
-[1]
ROM
Razvedchik Otkrytogo Morya – reconnaissance open sea[1]
RP
1. -[1]
2.Raketnyy Plahner – rocket-powered glider[1]
RShR
-[1]
RSR
-[1]
RV
Rekord Vysoty – record height[1]
RVZ
-[1]
R-Z
-[1]
S
1. Skorostnoi - speedy[1]
2. Sparka – twin / coupled[1]
3. Samolet - aircraft
4. Strelovidnoye [krylo] – swept wings[11]
SB
Russian: Скоростной бомбардировщик - Skorostnoi Bombardirovschik - high speed bomber,
SBB
-[1]
SB-RK
-[1]
SDB
1. Skorostnyi Dnyevnoi Bombardirovshchik – high-speed day bomber[1]
2. Strategicheskiy Dal'niy Bombardirovshchik – strategic long-range bomber[5]
SE
-[1]
SEN
Samolyot Yefremova i Nadiradze – Yefremova and Nadiradze's aircraft[3] UT-2N
SG
Samolet Gonochnii - Racing Aeroplane[1]
Sh
Shturmovik – attack[1]
ShB
1. Shturmovik Bombardirovshchik – ShB (ШБ, Штурмовик-бомбардировщик – attack/bomber)[1]
2. Shturmovik Brovirovanny – armoured attack aircraft[2]
ShBM
-[1]
ShM
-[1]
Sh-MAI
-[1]
ShON
Shturmovik Osobogo Naznachyeniya – (ШОН, Штурмовик особого назначения – special purpose attack aircraft)[1]
ShR
Shassi [izdeliye] R – undercarriage [product] R [Tu-4][5] Myasischev inhouse designation for bicycle u/c test aircraft.
ShS
Shtabnoi Samolet – staff aeroplane[1]
SI
-[1]
SK
Skorostnii Krylo – high-speed wing[1]
SKB
-[1] Avietka non OKB designed light aircraft
SKF
Sanitarnyi Kabina Filatov – ambulance cabin[1]
SKh
Syel'skolkhozyaistyennyi - agricultural[1]
SKIP
Samoletnyy Komandno-Izmeritel'nyy Punkt – airborne measuring and control point[6] Beriev Samolyot 976
SL
-[1]
SM
-[1]
SON
Samolet Osobogo Naznachyeniya – aircraft special/personal assignment
SP
1. Spetzprimeneniya or Spetsialno Primeneniya – special purposes[1]
2. Stratosfernyi Plane – stratospheric glider
SPB
Skorostnoi Pikiruyushchnyi Bombardirovshchik – (СПБ, Скоростной пикирующий бомбардировщик – high-speed dive bomber)[1]
SPB/D
Skorostnoi Pikiruyushchnyi Bombardirovshchik / D – fast dive bomber / D[1]
SPBP
Skorostnoi Pikiruyushchnyi BombardirovshchikPoplavkii – fast dive bomberfloat
SPBBSB
Skorostnoi Pikiruyushchnyi BombardirovshchikBSB – fast dive bomber -
SPD
Samolet Passazheerskiy Dal'niy - long-range passenger aircraft???? - (Ilyushin Il-18)
SPL
1. Svyazno Passazhirskii L – liaison passenger
2. Samolyet dlya Podvodnikh Lodok – aeroplane for submarine boats[1]
SPS
Skorostnoi Passazhirskii Samolet – high-speed passenger aircraft[1]
SR
skorstnoi Razvedchik – (СР, Скоростной разведчик – high-speed reconnaissance)[1]
SRB
Skorostnoi Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik – high-speed reconnaissance-bomber[1]
SS
Stratosfernii Samolyet – stratospheric aircraft[1]
SSS
Skoropodyemnyi Skorotrelnyi – speedster, high-speed lift, fast-shooter[1]
STI
-[1]
SUVP
Samolyet UrkVozdukhPut – aircraft Ukrainian civil aviation authority[1]
SVB
Samolet Vozdushnogo Boya – aircraft for air combat[1]
T
1. Torpedonosyets – torpedo carrier[1]
2. Treugol'noye(треугольный) [krylo] - triangular wing
TA
Transportnaya Amfibiya – transport amphibian[1]
TAF
Transportnaya Amfibiya Fotografichyeskii – transport amphibian, photographic[1]
TB
Tyazholyy Bombardirovshchik – heavy bomber[1]
TI
Treneirovochni Istrebitel (ТИ, Тренировочный истребитель – trainer fighter)[1]
TIS
Tyazhelyi Istrebitel Soprovozhdeniya – heavy escort fighter[1]
TISMA
Tyazhelyi Istrebitel Soprovozhdeniya Mnogotsyelevoi -A – heavy escort fighter, multirole A
TK
Tjazholij Krejser - heavy cruiser[1]
TOM
Torpedonosyets Otkrytogo Morya – (Торпедоносец открытого моря – Torpedo bomber for open seas)[1]
TPK
- thick wing section
TRD
-[1]
TS
Transportnyi Samolet – transport aircraft[1]
TSh
Tyazheli Shturmovik – heavy attacker[1]
TShB
-[1]
TSK
-[1] Avietka non OKB designed light aircraft - Pissarenko
U
uchebnyy - trainer[2]
ULK
Universal'noye letayushchyeye Krylo – universal flying wing[1] Grokhovskii G-37
UPB
Uchyebno-erekhodnoi Bombardirovshchik – training transitional bomber[1]
UPO
-[1]
UPS
Upravleniye Pogranichnym Sloyem – boundary layer control
UR
[sistema] oopravleniya [izdeliye] R – control [system] [product] R[Tu-4][5] Myasischev inhouse designation forpowered flying control system test aircraft.
USB
-[1]
UT
Uchebno Trenirovochnyy - trainer[1]
UTB
Uchebno Trenirovochnyy Bombardirovshchik – bomber trainer[1]
UTI
Uchebno-trenirovochnyy Istrebitel' - fighter trainer[1]
UTPB
Uchebno-trenirovochnyy Pikeeruyushchiy Bombardirovshchik – dive bomber trainer[3]
VAT
-[1] Avietka non OKB designed light aircraft
VB
-[1]
VEK
-[1]
VI
Vysotnyi Istrebitel – high altitude fighter[1]
VIGR
-[1]
VIT
Vozdushnyi Istrebitel Tankov – aerial tank fighter[1]
VM
-[1]
VM-T
Vladimir Myasischev-Transportnaya - Vladimir Myasischev - Transport[5]
VNP
Vozdushnii Nabludatyelnii Punkt - aerial observation point[1]
VO
-[1]
VOP
-[1]
VP
Vysotnyi Perekhvatchik – high altitude interceptor[1]
VS
Vystavlyaet Samolyet – demonstration aircraft[1]
VSI
VysokoSkorostnyi Istrebitel – high speed fighter[1]
VT
-[1]
VVA
-[1]
Ye
Yedinitsa - one-off / single unit[12]
Z
Zveno-link/flight[1]
ZIG
-[1]

OKB / Constructor Prefixes[edit]

ACh
Charomskii engines[1]
AIR
Yakovlev[1] in-house designations
An
Antonov[1]
Ar
Arkhangyelskii[1]
Be
Beriev[1]
BI
Beresnyak - Isayev[1]
-
Chelomey[13]
Chye
Chyetverikov[1]
DG
Grigorovich[1] in-house designations
Gu
Gudkov[1]
Il
Ilyushin[1]
KTs
Koleznikov-Tsybin[1]
La
Lavochkin[1]
LaGG
Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov[1]
Li
Lisunov[1]
MiG
Mikoyan i Guryevich[1]
Mi
Mil[1]
Mya
Myasischev[1]
NK
Kuznetsov engines[1]
NV
Nikitin[1] in-house designations
Pe
Petlyakov[1]
Po
Polikarpov[1]
RAF
Rafaelyants[1] in-house designations
Sh
Shavrov[1]
Shchye
Shchyerbakov[1]
Su
Sukhoi[1]
Ts
Tsybin[1]
Tu
Tupolev[1]
Ya
Yakovlev[1] in-house designations
Yak
Yakovlev[1]
Yer
Yermolayev[1]

Designation suffixes & prefixes[edit]

A
1. (suffix) Ahtomnyy – atomic, i.e. nuclear capable[6]
2. (suffix) - assault
AK
1. (suffix) Artilleriskii Korrektirovshchik – artillery correction
2. (suffix) A [dlya podgotovki] Kosmonahvtov – A for cosmonaut training[6]
AKS
(suffix) Apparatoora Kosmicheskoy Svyazi – space communications equipment[6]
ALK
(suffix) Avtomatizeerovannaya [sistema] Lyotnovo Kontrolya – automatic flight check system[14]
AS
(suffix) AS – Slovakian upgrade[10] MiG-29AS
AT
(suffix) A Trahnsportnyy – A transport[6] Il-18
AT-RD
(suffix) A Trahnsportnyy Reaktivnyye Dvigateli – A transport Jet engine[14]
AT-U
(suffix) A Trahnsportnyy Ooskoriteli - A transport boosters[14]
B
1. (suffix) Bombardirovshchik – bomber[2]
2. (suffix) Biplahn - biplane[3]
3. (suffix) B – second version[10] MiG-31B
BI
(suffix) -[3]
BK
(suffix) -[10] MiG-23
BM
1. (suffix) B Modernizeerovannyy – B modernised[10] MiG-31
2. (suffix) Beloroosskaya Modernizahtsiya – Belorussian upgrade[10] MiG-29BM
3. (suffix) Booksirovshchik Misheney – target tug[6]
BN
(suffix) -
BS
(suffix) B Stroyevaya [modernizahtsiya] – B in-service up-grade[10]
BT
1. (suffix) BuksirTralshchik – towing minesweeper
2. (suffix) B Trahnsportnyy – B transport[6] Il-18
B/R
(suffix) Bombardirovshchik-Razvedchik – bomber / reconnaissance
D
1. (suffix) Dahl'nomer - rangefinder[10]
2. (suffix) - MiG-27
3. (suffix) -[10] MiG-31D ASAT launcher
4. (suffix) Derevyannyy - wooden
5. (suffix) Dahl'niy - long-range[3]
6. (suffix) Dorabotannya - revised[10]
7. (suffix) Dvookhmesnyy - two-seat[10]
DB
(suffix) Dahl'niy Bombardirovshchik - long-range bomber
DI
(suffix) Dahl'niy Istrebitel' - long-range[3]
DM
(suffix) Dopolnitel'nyye Motor – supplementary engine[8]
DORR
(suffix) [Samolyto] Dahl'niy Okeahnskiy Razvedchik Ryby – long-range ocean fishery reconnaissance aircraft[6]
DP
(suffix) Dvukmestnyi Polutoplan – two-seat sesquiplane
DSR
(suffix) Dahl'niy Strategicheskiy Razvedchik – long-range strategic reconnaissance aircraft[6]
DTS
(suffix) Desahntno-Trahnsportnyy i Sanitarnyy – assault transport/ambulance[3]
DU
(suffix) Dvoinyi Upravlenii – war control
DV
(suffix) - Pe-2DV
DZ
(suffix) DoZaprahvka – in-flight refuelling[10]
E
1. (suffix) Ekranoplan – wing in ground effect[15]
2. (suffix) Eksportnyy - export[10]
3. (suffix) Eksperimentahl'nyy - experimental[10]
F
1. (suffix) Forseerovannyy - uprated
2. (suffix) Fonar – canopy
3. (suffix) Fotograficheskiy – photo[6]
4. (suffix) Fotorazvedchik - Photo-reconnaissance[15]
FE
(suffix) Frontovoy Eksportnyy – frontal/tactical export[10] MiG-31
FG
(suffix) FotokartGraficheskiy – photo survey / mapping
FK
(suffix) FotoKartgraficheskiy – photo mapping[6]
FKM
(suffix) FotoKartgraficheskiy Modernizeerovannyy – photo mapping, modified[6]
FKP
(suffix) FotoKartgraficheskiy Modernizeerovannyy Passazheerskiy – photo mapping, passenger[6]
FL
(suffix) -
FN
(suffix) -
FT
(suffix) Frontovoye Trebovaniye – front-line request
FZ
(suffix) Frontovoye Zadaniye
GGO
(suffix) Glavnaya Gheofizicheskaya Observatoriya – geophysical observatory[6]
G
1. (suffix) Gak – hook[2] arrestor hook equipped
2. (suffix) G - Germany[10] MiG-29G German upgraded
3. (suffix) Ghidrosamolyot - floatplane[3]
4. (suffix) Groozovoy – cargo[6]
GK
1. (suffix) Gruzovymi Kassetami – underwing cargo container
2. (suffix) Germetichyeskoi Kabine – hermetic pressure cabin
Gr
(suffix) Groozovoy – cargo[6]
GrM
(suffix) Groozovoy, Modernizeerovannyy – cargo, modified[6]
GN
(suffix) Golos Nyeba – voice from the sky
GT
(suffix) GT – Germany upgraded trainer[10] MiG-29GT German upgraded
I
1. (suffix) Indeeskiy - Indian[10]
2. (suffix) Issledovatel'skiy – research[6]
3. (suffix) Istrebitel – fighter[2]
4. (suffix) Izrail'skoye [obroodovaniye] – Israeli [equipment][6]
IB
(suffix) Istrebitel Bombardirovshchik – fighter bomber[2]
IS
(suffix) Istrebitel soprovozhdeniya – escort fighter[3]
ISh
(suffix) Istrebitel' Shtoormovik – attack fighter[10]
K
1. (suffix) -[10] MiG-27
2. (suffix) Kabina – cabin
3. (suffix) Kommerchesky – commercial for export[2]
4. (suffix) Kompleks [vo'oruzheniya – weapons [system][10]
5. (suffix) Konverteeruyennyy - convertible[3]
6. (suffix) Korabelnyi – ship based[10]
7. (suffix) Korotkonogii – short legged
8. (suffix) Korrektovovshchik – correction[15]
9. (suffix) [dlya podgotovki] Kosmonahvtov – for cosmonaut training[6]
KABB
(suffix) Kombineerovnannaya Artillerisko Bombardirovochnaya Batareya Mozharovskovo i Venevidova – combined gun/bomb battery spotter designed by Mozharovskiy and Venevidova[3]
Kh
(suffix) Kholod - cold[6] cryogenic fuel testbed
KR
1. (suffix) - MiG-27KR
2. (suffix) KorrektiRovschchik – artillery spotter[6]
KU
(suffix) Korabel'nyy Oochebnyy – shipboard trainer[10]
KUB
(suffix) Korabel'nyy Oochebno-Boyevoy – shipboard combat trainer[10] MiG-29KUB
KVP
(suffix) Korotkiy Vzlyot Posahdka – short landing/STOL[10]
L
1. (suffix) Laborotoriya – laboratory[16]
2. (suffix) Lesozashchita – forestry protection[15]
3. (suffix) Limuzin – cabin transport
4. (suffix) Lyuks – de Luxe
LIK
(suffix) Lytno-Ispytatel'nyy Kompleks – flight test complex[6]
LL
(suffix) Letyushchaya Laborotoriya – flying laboratory[14]
LL-PLO
(suffix) Letyushchaya Laborotoriya - Protivolodochnoy Obrony – flying laboratory – [ASW] anti submarine warfare[14]
LNB
(suffix) Lyegkii Nochnoi Bomardirovshchik – light night bomber
LP
(suffix) LesopPozharnyy - forest patrol[6]
LPL
(suffix) Lyezhachi Polozheni Lyetchik – prone position pilot
LR
(suffix) Ledovyy Razvedchik – ice reconnaissance[6]
LS
(suffix)0 Limuzin Svyarznoi -
LSh
1. (suffix) Lyzhnoye Shassee – ski undercarriage[3]
2. (suffix) Lyokhkiy Shtoormovik – light attack aircraft[3]
MF
(suffix) -
M
1. (suffix) Manevreeruyushchaya - manoeuvering[10]
2. (suffix) Mishen - target[10]
3. (prefix) Mishen – [radio-controlled] target[10]
4. (suffix) Morskoi - marine[8]
5. (suffix) Modernizeerovannyy – up-dated/modernised[10]
6. (suffix) Modifikatsirovanni - modified[2]
7. (suffix) Modifitseerovannyy – modified[3]
8. (suffix) Morskoi - marine
9. (suffix) - meteorological
MD
1. (suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Dorabotannyy - modified, upgraded[10]
2. (suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Dahl'niy - modified, long-range[6]
ME
(suffix) Modernizeerovannyy Eksportnyy – up-dated/modernised export[10] MiG-29ME
MF
(suffix) Modifikahtsya dlya Filipin – Philippines export version[10] MiG-29MF
MGA
(suffix) Ministerstvo Grazhdahnskoy Aviahtsii – ministry of civil aviation[6] Il-76MGA
MK
1. (suffix) Modifitseerovannyy Konverteeruyemyy – modified, convertible[6] Il-76MK
2. (suffix) Mekhanizeerovannoye Krylo – mechanised wings[3] fitted with high lift devices
ML
(suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Lyohkiy - modified lightweight[10]
MLA
(suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Lyohkiy, Ametist - modified lightweight fitted with Amethyst RADAR[10]
MLD
(suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Lyohkiy, Dorabotannyy - modified lightweight, upgraded[10]
MLDG
(suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Lyohkiy, Dorabotannyy, Gardeniya - modified lightweight, upgraded, [fitted with] Gardenia radar[10]
MLG
(suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Lyohkiy, Gardeniya - modified lightweight, [fitted with] Gardenia radar[10]
MLS
(suffix) Modifitseerovannyy, Lyohkiy, S - modified lightweight, S[10]
MM
(suffix) Mahlovysotnaya Mishen - low-altitude target[10]
MMSh
(suffix) Malya Mod Shturmovik – experimental engine attacker
MP
(suffix) - electronic countermeasures[2]
MR
(suffix) MeteoRazvedchik – weather reconnaissance[10]
MS
(suffix) -
MSh
(suffix) MiShen - target[3]
MT
(suffix) -
MV
(suffix) Modifitseerovannyy Vo'oruzhonnyy – modified armed[3]
MZ
(suffix) Modernizeerovannyy/Zaprahvshchik – modernised/tanker[6]
N
1. (suffix) Nositel' [yadernovo oroozhiya] – [nuclear weapons] carrier[10]
2. (suffix) Nositel' [spetsboyepripasa] – [special weapons] carrier[10]
3. (suffix) N – [Malaysian export][10] MiG-29
4. (suffix) Nit – [fitted with] Nit'-S1[SLAR][6]
NAK
(suffix) NochnoArtilleriskyi Korrektovovshchik – night artillery correction
NUB
(suffix) N Uchebno-Boevoy –[Malaysian export] combat trainer[10] MiG-29
OB
(suffix) Odnomestnyi Biplan – single-seat biplane
OES
(suffix) Opytnny Experimental'nyy Samolyot – prototype experimental aircraft
ON
1. (suffix) Odnomestnyi Nizkoplan – single-seat low-wing monoplane
2. (suffix) Osobogo Naznachyeniya – special/personal assignment
OP
(suffix) OPerahtorskiy [samolyot] – [camera] operators [aircraft]
ORR
(suffix) Okeahnskiy Razvedchik Ryby – ocean / fishery reconnaissance aircraft[6]
OS
(suffix) Opyshyennyi Stabilizator – trimmed stabiliser
OVT
(suffix) Otklonyayemyy Vektor Tyaghi – thrust vector control[10]
P
1. (suffix) Passazheerskiy – passenger[6]
2. (suffix) Perkhvatchik' – interceptor
3. (suffix) Pushechnyy – cannon armed[8]
4. (suffix) Pochtovyy [samolyot] – mailplane
5. (suffix) Poplavkii – floats
6. (suffix) Poolsa – stripe
7. (suffix) Pozharnyy – forestry protection[15]
8. (suffix) Pererabotannyy - re-worked
PA
(suffix) Perkhvatchik' Aerostahtov – balloon interceptor
PB
(suffix) Planer Bombardirovshchik – glider bomber
PD
1. (suffix) Perkhvatchik' Dorabotanny – interceptor modified[3]
2. (suffix) Podyomnyye Dvigateli – lift engines[10]
PDS
(suffix) Perkhvatchik' Dorabotanny v Stroyoo – interceptor modified field-modified[10]
PDZ
(suffix) Perkhvatchik' Dorabotanny Zaprahvka – interceptor modified re-fuelling[10]
PF
(suffix) - photo mapping[15]
PFS
(suffix) -
PFU
(suffix) -
PFV
(suffix) -
PL
(suffix) ProtivoLodochnyy - Anti-submarine[6]
PLO
(suffix) Protivolodochnoy Obrony – [ASW] anti submarine warfare[14]
PM
1. (suffix) Pilotazhnyy Modifitseerovannyy – aerobatic modified[3]
2. (suffix) Perekhvatchik' Modernizeerovannyy – interceptor modified[10]
PMU
(suffix) Perekhvatchik' Modernizeerovannyy U – interceptor modified boosted[10]
Polyarnyi
(suffix) polar
PP
1. (suffix) Postanovshchik Pomekh – ECM aircraft[10]
2. (suffix) Protivopozharnyy – fire fighting[6]
PPA
(suffix) Patanovchik Pamech Aktivni'i – comint and jamming platform
PRT
Poikovo-spasahtel'nyy Reaktivnyy [Ooskoritel'] Trahnsportnyy – SAR boosted transport[14]
PS
1. (suffix) Pilotazhnyy Spetsiahl'nyy – aerobatic special[3]
2. (suffix) Pilotazhnyy Samolyot – aerobatic aircraft[3]
3. (suffix) Poiskovo-Spahtel'nyy – search and rescue[6]
PT
(suffix) Perkhvatchik' Teplvaya golovka samonavedeniya – interceptor with IR seeker head
PVO
(suffix) Protivovozdushnaya Oborona – air defence[3]
PVRD
(suffix) Pryamototchnyye Vozdooshno Reaktivnyye Dvigatel - ramjets[3]
PU
(suffix) Perekhvatchik' Oochebnyy – interceptor trainer[10]
PU-SOTN
(suffix) Perekhvatchik' Oochebnyy – Samolyot Optiko-Televizionnovo Nablyudeniya – interceptor trainer – optical/TV surveillance aircraft[10]
PuVRD
(suffix) -
R
1. (suffix) - Mi-10
2. (suffix) Razvedchik – reconnaissance[2]
3. (suffix) Reaktivnyy – jet propelled[3] reaction engines
4. (suffix) Rekordnyi - record
RB
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik – reconnaissance bomber[10]
RBK
RBF (suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik [izdeliye 02]F – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance [fitted with 'Shar' sigint package in izdeliye02]F[10]
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik s apparatooroy Koob – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance fitted with 'Koob' sigint package[10]
RBN
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik Nochnoy – night reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance[10]
RBS
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik s apparatooroy Sablya – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance fitted with 'Sablya' SLAR[10]
RBSh
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik s apparatooroy Shompol – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance fitted with 'Shompol' sigint package[10]
RBT
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik s apparatooroy Tangazh – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance fitted with 'Tangazh' sigint package[10]
RBV
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik s apparatooroy Virazh – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance fitted with 'Virazh' sigint package[10]
RBVDZ
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik s apparatooroy Virazh Dorabotannyy dlya Zapravki – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance fitted with 'Virazh' sigint package and in flight refuelling[10]
RBShDZ
(suffix) Razvedchik Bombardirovshchik s apparatooroy Shompol Dorabotannyy dlya Zapravki – reconnaissance/bomber/electronic reconnaissance fitted with 'Shompol' sigint packageand in flight refuelling[10]
RR
(suffix) Razvedchik Ryby – fisheries reconnaissance[6]
RD
(suffix) Reaktivnyy Dvigatel – jet propelled engine[3]
REB
(suffix) [Samolyot] RahdioElektronnoy Bor'byy – electronic countermeasures aircraft[6]
REO
(suffix) [Samolyot] RahdioElektronnoye Oboroodovaniye – electronic equipment test-bed [aircraft][3]
REP
(suffix) RahdioElektronnoye Protivodeystviye - ECM Electronic Counter-Measures [aircraft][14]
RLD
(suffix) Rahdio Lokatsionnyy Dozor – radar picket[6]
RM
(suffix) [samolyot] Razvedchik, Modifitseerovannyy – modified reconnaissance aircraft[6]
RP
(suffix) - fisheries reconnaissance
RR
(suffix) [samolyot] Radiotsionnyy Razvedchik – radiation intelligence [aircraft][3]
RRV
(suffix) Radiotsionnyy Razvedchik Vysotnyy – radiation intelligence [aircraft], high altitude[3]
RT
1. (suffix) Reaktivnyy [ooskoritel'] Trahnsportnyy - jet booster transport[14]
2. (suffix) ReTranslyator – relay installation[6]
RTL
(suffix) ReTranslyator Laborotoriya – relay installation laboratory[6]
RTR
(suffix) [Samolyot] RahdioTekhnicheskoy Razvedki – electronic reconnaissance aircraft[6]
RU
(suffix) Razvedchik Oochebnyy – reconnaissance aircraft, trainer[10]
RV
1. (suffix) Razvedchik Vysotnyy – reconnaissance aircraft, high altitude[3]
2. (suffix) Reaktivnyy [Ooskoritel'] V – boosted V[14] An-24RV
S
1. (suffix) -[10] MiG-29S
2. (suffix) Salon – vip aircraft[3]
3. (suffix) Sanitarnyy - medical[3]
4. (suffix) Sapfeer – [fitted with] Sapfeer [radar][10]
5. (suffix) Sereeynyy / Serinyi -series / production
6. (suffix) Stabilizator - stabiliser[10]
7. (suffix) Strelovidnoye [krylo] – swept wings[6]
SAU
(suffix) Sistema Avtomaticheskovo Oopravleniya – [fitted with] automatic control system[10]
SD
(suffix) S Dozaprahvka – S in-flight refuelling[10] MiG-29SD
SDB
(suffix) Skorostnyi Dnyevnoi Bombardirovshchik – high-speed day bomber
SDK
(suffix) Samolyot-Dooblyor Komety – Kometa missilemanned analogue[10] MiG-17SDK
SE
(suffix) S Eksportnyy – S export[10] MiG-29SE
Sh
(suffix) Shturmovik - attack
ShS
(suffix) Shatbnoi Samolyet – staff aeroplane
ShT
(suffix) Shtabnoy Trahnsportnyy – Staff/HQ transport[14]
SIP
(suffix) Samolyotnyy Izmeritel'nyy Poonkt – airborne measuring station[6]
SK
1. (suffix) Spetsiahl'nyy Komahndnyy [samolyot] – special command [aircraft][6]
2. (suffix) Samolyotnyy Komahndno-[izmeritel'nyy poonkt] – airborne [measuring and] control [point][6] ULL-76 / ULL-76-02
SKh
(suffix) Sel'skoKhozyaistvennyy - agricultural sprayer/duster[3]
SL
(prefix) Samolyot-Laboratoriya – laboratory aircraft[6] Leninets re-designated their research aircraft with the prefix SL, thus the Il-18SL was probably more correctly designated the SL-18A
SM
(suffix) S Modernizeerovannyy - S modernised[10] MiG-29SM
SMT
(suffix) S Modernizeerovannyy Toplivo – up-dated/modernised, fuel[10] Mig-29SMT
SMV
(suffix) - border surveillance Mi-8
SO
Salon Obslooga – VIP service personnel[6]
SOLF
(suffix) Spetsializeerovannyy Oftal'mologicheskiy Letayushchiy Filiahl – specialised ophthalmic [surgery] flying branch office[6]
SP
(suffix) SpetzPrimeneniya or Spetsialno Primeneniya – special purposes
(СР, Скоростной разведчик – high-speed reconnaissance)
SSS
(suffix) Skoropodyemnyi SkoroStrelnyi – speedster, high-speed lift, fast-shooter
stk
(suffix) [izdeliye S] trenirov-ochnoy Katapool'toy – training ejection system UTI-MiG-15stk[10]
SU
(suffix) Spahrennoye Oopravleniye – dual controls
T
1. (suffix) Tankovyi – tank buster[2]
2. (suffix) Tahksi - taxi[3]
3. (suffix) Teplovaya [glovka Samonavedeniya] – Infra-Red seeker[10]
4. (suffix) Toplivo - fuel[10]
5. (suffix) Torpedonosyets – torpedo carrier[6]
6. (suffix) Trahnsportnyy – transport[6]
7. (suffix) Trenirovochnyy – proficiency trainer[3]
8. (suffix) Tryokhkolyosnoye Shasee – tri-cycle undercarriage[3]
9. (suffix) Tyazhelovo'oruzhonny – heavily armed[3]
10. (suffix) Treugol'noye(треугольный) [krylo] - triangular wing[11]
TB
1. (suffix) Trahnsportno-Booksirovshchik – transport / glider tug[6]
2. (suffix) - Mil Mi-8TB
TBK
(suffix) - Mil Mi-8TBK
TD
(suffix) Trahnsportno-Desahntnyy – transport / assault aircraft[6]
TG
1. (suffix) Trahnsportno-Groozovoy – transport / cargo[6]
2. (suffix) - LPG powered Mi-8
TK
1. (suffix) – anti-tank[2]
2. (suffix) - thin wing
3. (suffix) Trahnsportnyy, Konverteeruyemyy – convertible passenger/cargo[15]
4. (suffix) ToorboKompressorom - turbo-charged[8]
TKGK
(suffix) ToorboKompressorom Ghermeticheskoy Kabinoy - turbo-charged [engine], hermetically sealed cabin[8]
TM
(suffix) Torpedonosets Modifitseerovannyy – modified torpedo bomber[6]
TS
(suffix) Trahnsportno-Sanitarnyy – transport / medical[6]
TP
1. (suffix) Torpedonosets Poplavkovyy – Torpedo carrier floatplane
2. (suffix) Trahnsportno-Paasazheerskiy – cargo / passenger[15]
TV
(suffix) Trahnsportnyy V – transport V[14]
U
1. (suffix) Uchebnyi (Учебный - "Trainer")[2]
2. (suffix) Uloochshennyy – improved[3]
UD
(suffix) Oosovershenstvovannyy, Dereviannyy - improved, wooden[8]
UF
(suffix) Oochebnyy Fotosoprovozhdeniye – trainer-photographic support
UB
(suffix) Uchebno-Boevoy – combat trainer[2]
UBT
(suffix) Uchebno-Boevoy Toplivo – combat trainer, fuel[10] MiG-29UBT
UBM
(suffix) Uchebno-Boevoy Modernizeerovannyy – combat trainer, modernised[10] MiG-29UBM
US
(suffix) oochebnyy Sdoov [Pogranichnovo Sloya] – trainer with BLC[10]
USh
1. (suffix) Oochebno Shtoormanskiy [Samolyot] – navigator trainer aircraft[6]
2. (suffix) U Shtoormanskiy [Samolyot] – U trainer aircraft[8] I-153USh
ULL
(prefix) Ooniversahl'naya letyuschchaya Laboratoriya – universal flying laboratory
UM
1. (suffix) Oochebnyy, Modernizeerovannyy – upgraded trainer[10]
2 (suffix) Uloochshennyy M – improved M[3] new build Yak-9U's
US
(suffix) -
UT
(suffix) Uchyebno Trenirovochnyi – conversion/proficiency/educational training[2]
UTG
(suffix) Uchyebno Trenirovochnyi Gak – educational training with arrestor hook[2]
UTI
(suffix) oochebno Trenirovochnyy Istrebitel' - fighter trainer[16]
UV
(suffix) Uloochshennyy Vyvoznoy – improved familiarisation training[3]
UVP
(suffix) Ookorochennyy Vzlyot i Posahdka - STOL[10]
V
1. (suffix) - floatplane[15] An-2 floatplane
2. (suffix) -[6] Il-18
3. (suffix) Vysotnyy – height/high-altitude[3]
4. (suffix) Vyvoznoy – familiarisation training[3]
V-TKGK
(suffix) Vysotnyi ToorboKompressorom Germetichyeskoi Kabine – high-altitude turbo-charged hermetic pressure cabin
VB
(suffix) Visotnyi Bombardirovshchik – high altitude bomber
VI
(suffix) Visotnyi Istrebitel – (ВИ, Высотный истребитель – high-altitude fighter)
VK
(suffix) Vozdooshno-Kosmicheskiy – air/space [satellite launcher][10]
VKP
(suffix) Vozdooshnyy Komahndnyy Poonkt – Airborne command post[6]
VP
(suffix) -
VPU
(suffix) Vozdooshnyy Poonkt Oopravleniya – airborne command post[6]
VRD
(suffix) Vozdooshno Reaktivnyye Dvigatel - ramjets[3]
VRDK
(suffix) Vozdooshno-Reaktivnyy Dvigatel' Kompressornovo Tipa – compressor-type air-breathing engine[3]
VS
(suffix) Voiskovoi Seriya – military series
VT
1. (suffix) V Trahnsportnyy – V transport[6] Il-18
2. (suffix) Voyenno-Trahnsportnyy [samolyot] – military transport aircraft[6] Il-114VT
VV (suffix) Vertikahl'nyy Vzlyot – vertical take-off[3]
VZPU
(suffix) Vozduzhni'i Zapasdnoi Punkt Upravlenya – aerial emergency command post
ZA
(suffix) Zondirovshchik Atmosfery – atmosphere sampler[6]
Zh
(suffix) Zhidkosnyy[reaktivnyy dvigatel] – liquid fuelled [rocket motor][10]
ZIG
(suffix) Zavod Imyennyi Goltsman – Works named for Goltsman[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr Gunston, Bill. The Osprey Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875 – 1995. London, Osprey. 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Antonov,Vladimir & Gordon, Yefim & others. OKB Sukhoi. Leicester. Midland. 1996. ISBN 1-85780-012-5
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. OKB Yakovlev. Hinkley. Midland. 2005. ISBN 1-85780-203-9
  4. ^ Gordon,Yefim & Rigmant, Vladimir. Tupolev Tu-144. Midland. Hinkley. 2005. ISBN 1-85780-216-0 ISBN 978 185780 216 0
  5. ^ a b c d e f Gordon, Yefim. Myasischev M-4 and 3M. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1-85780-152-0
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. OKB Ilyushin. Hinkley. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-187-3
  7. ^ a b Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Bombers. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Gordon,Yefim. & Dexter, Keith. Polikarpov's Biplane Fighters. Hinkley. Midland Publishing. 2002. ISBN 1-85780-141-5
  9. ^ Gordon, Yefim; Peter Davison (2006). Tupolev Tu-95 Bear. Warbird Tech. 43. USA: Speciality Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-102-4.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce Gordon, Yefim & Komissarov, Dmitry. OKB Mikoyan. Hinkley, Midland. 2009. ISBN 978-1-85780-307-5
  11. ^ a b Gordon, Yefim. Sukhoi Interceptors. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-180-6
  12. ^ Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Heavy Interceptors. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-191-1
  13. ^ Gordon, Yefim. Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. Antonov's Turboprop Twins. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1-85780-153-9
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gordon,Yefim & Komissarov, Dmitry. Antonov An-2. Midland. Hinkley. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-162-8
  16. ^ a b Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. 2002. ISBN 1-85780-139-3

Gordon, Yefim; Peter Davison (2006). Tupolev Tu-95 Bear. Warbird Tech. 43. USA: Speciality Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-102-4.