Glossary of computer science

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This glossary of computer science terms is a list of definitions about computer science, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.

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  • Hard problemComputational complexity theory focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating these classes to each other. A computational problem is a task solved by a computer. A computation problem is solvable by mechanical application of mathematical steps, such as an algorithm.
  • Hash function – is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size. The values returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash codes, digests, or simply hashes. Hash functions are often used in combination with a hash table, a common data structure used in computer software for rapid data lookup. Hash functions accelerate table or database lookup by detecting duplicated records in a large file.
  • Hash table – In computing, a hash table (hash map) is a data structure that implements an associative array abstract data type, a structure that can map keys to values. A hash table uses a hash function to compute an index into an array of buckets or slots, from which the desired value can be found.
  • Heap – is a specialized tree-based data structure which is essentially an almost complete[79] tree that satisfies the heap property: if P is a parent node of C, then the key (the value) of P is either greater than or equal to (in a max heap) or less than or equal to (in a min heap) the key of C.[80] The node at the "top" of the heap (with no parents) is called the root node.
  • Heapsort – is a comparison-based sorting algorithm. Heapsort can be thought of as an improved selection sort: like that algorithm, it divides its input into a sorted and an unsorted region, and it iteratively shrinks the unsorted region by extracting the largest element and moving that to the sorted region. The improvement consists of the use of a heap data structure rather than a linear-time search to find the maximum.[81]
  • Human-computer interaction – (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that let humans interact with computers in novel ways. As a field of research, human–computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, design, media studies, and several other fields of study.

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References[edit]

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  12. ^ Definition of AI as the study of intelligent agents:
  13. ^ Russell & Norvig 2009, p. 2.
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  22. ^ Landau, Edmund (1909). Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen [Handbook on the theory of the distribution of the primes] (in German). Leipzig: B. G. Teubner. p. 883.
  23. ^ Williams, Jr., Louis F. (22 April 1976). A modification to the half-interval search (binary search) method. Proceedings of the 14th ACM Southeast Conference. ACM. pp. 95–101. doi:10.1145/503561.503582. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  24. ^ Knuth 1998, §6.2.1 ("Searching an ordered table"), subsection "Binary search".
  25. ^ Butterfield & Ngondi 2016, p. 46.
  26. ^ Cormen et al. 2009, p. 39.
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  29. ^ Steven S Skiena (2009). The Algorithm Design Manual. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-84800-070-4.
  30. ^ Mackenzie, Charles E. (1980). Coded Character Sets, History and Development. The Systems Programming Series (1 ed.). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. p. x. ISBN 978-0-201-14460-4. LCCN 77-90165. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016. [1]
  31. ^ Gupta, Prakash C (2006). Data Communications and Computer Networks. PHI Learning. ISBN 9788120328464. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
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  33. ^ James D. Murray; William vanRyper (April 1996). "Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats" (Second ed.). O'Reilly. os2bmp. ISBN 1-56592-161-5. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  34. ^ Gries, David; Schneider, Fred B. (1993), "Chapter 2. Boolean Expressions", A Logical Approach to Discrete Math, Monographs in Computer Science, Springer, p. 25ff, ISBN 9780387941158.
  35. ^ Blaauw, Gerrit Anne; Brooks, Jr., Frederick Phillips; Buchholz, Werner (1962), "4: Natural Data Units", in Buchholz, Werner, Planning a Computer System – Project Stretch (PDF), McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. / The Maple Press Company, York, PA., pp. 39–40, LCCN 61-10466, archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-04-03, retrieved 2017-04-03, […] Terms used here to describe the structure imposed by the machine design, in addition to bit, are listed below.
    Byte denotes a group of bits used to encode a character, or the number of bits transmitted in parallel to and from input-output units. A term other than character is used here because a given character may be represented in different applications by more than one code, and different codes may use different numbers of bits (i.e., different byte sizes). In input-output transmission the grouping of bits may be completely arbitrary and have no relation to actual characters. (The term is coined from bite, but respelled to avoid accidental mutation to bit.)
    A word consists of the number of data bits transmitted in parallel from or to memory in one memory cycle. Word size is thus defined as a structural property of the memory. (The term catena was coined for this purpose by the designers of the Bull GAMMA 60 [fr] computer.)
    Block refers to the number of words transmitted to or from an input-output unit in response to a single input-output instruction. Block size is a structural property of an input-output unit; it may have been fixed by the design or left to be varied by the program. […]
  36. ^ Bemer, Robert William (1959), "A proposal for a generalized card code of 256 characters", Communications of the ACM, 2 (9): 19–23, doi:10.1145/368424.368435
  37. ^ "What is a callback function?". Stack Overflow. Retrieved 2018-05-16.
  38. ^ Weik, Martin H. (1961). "A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems". Ballistic Research Laboratory.
  39. ^ Kuck, David (1978). Computers and Computations, Vol 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 12. ISBN 0471027162.
  40. ^ "Definition of CHARACTER". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  41. ^ Gamma et al. 1995, p. 14.
  42. ^ a b Bruce 2002, 2.1 Objects, classes, and object types, https://books.google.com/books?id=9NGWq3K1RwUC&pg=PA18.
  43. ^ Sadoski, Darleen. Client/Server Software Architectures – An Overview, Software Technology Roadmap, 1997-08-02. Retrieved on 2008-09-16.
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  45. ^ Sussman and Steele. "Scheme: An interpreter for extended lambda calculus". "... a data structure containing a lambda expression, and an environment to be used when that lambda expression is applied to arguments." (Wikisource)
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  47. ^ Shaun Bebbington (2014). "What is programming". Retrieved 2014-03-03.
  48. ^ Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field of researchers from Linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science, and anthropology that seek to understand the mind. How We Learn: Ask the Cognitive Scientist
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  51. ^ Computation from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
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  58. ^ Clements, Alan. Principles of Computer Hardware (Fourth ed.). p. 1. Architecture describes the internal organization of a computer in an abstract way; that is, it defines the capabilities of the computer and its programming model. You can have two computers that have been constructed in different ways with different technologies but with the same architecture.
  59. ^ Hennessy, John; Patterson, David. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach (Fifth ed.). p. 11. This task has many aspects, including instruction set design, functional organization, logic design,and implementation.
  60. ^ Patterson, David A.; Hennessy, John L. (2005). Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN 1-55860-604-1. OCLC 56213091.
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  63. ^ Shaun Bebbington (2014). "What is programming". Retrieved 2014-03-03.
  64. ^ "WordNet Search—3.1". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
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  66. ^ James Glanz (September 22, 2012). "Power, Pollution and the Internet". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
  67. ^ Sparsh, Mittal,. "Power Management Techniques for Data Centers: A Survey".
  68. ^ Dhar, V. (2013). "Data science and prediction". Communications of the ACM. 56 (12): 64. doi:10.1145/2500499.
  69. ^ Jeff Leek (2013-12-12). "The key word in "Data Science" is not Data, it is Science". Simply Statistics.
  70. ^ Hayashi, Chikio (1998-01-01). "What is Data Science? Fundamental Concepts and a Heuristic Example". In Hayashi, Chikio; Yajima, Keiji; Bock, Hans-Hermann; Ohsumi, Noboru; Tanaka, Yutaka; Baba, Yasumasa. Data Science, Classification, and Related Methods. Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization. Springer Japan. pp. 40–51. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-65950-1_3. ISBN 9784431702085.
  71. ^ Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford (2009). Introduction to Algorithms, Third Edition (3rd ed.). The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262033848.
  72. ^ Black, Paul E. (15 December 2004). "data structure". In Pieterse, Vreda; Black, Paul E. Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures [online]. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  73. ^ "Data structure". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 17 April 2017. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  74. ^ Wegner, Peter; Reilly, Edwin D. (2003-08-29). Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 507–512. ISBN 978-0470864128.
  75. ^ type at the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing
  76. ^ Shaffer, C. A. (2011). Data Structures & Algorithm Analysis in C++ (3rd ed.). Mineola, NY: Dover. 1.2. ISBN 978-0-486-48582-9.
  77. ^ a b c "A declaration specifies the interpretation and attributes of a set of identifiers. A definition of an identifier is a declaration for that identifier that:
    • for an object [variable or constant], causes storage to be reserved for that object;
    • for a function, includes the function body;
    • for an enumeration constant, is the (only) declaration of the identifier;
    • for a typedef name, is the first (or only) declaration of the identifier."
    C11 specification, 6.7: Declarations, paragraph 5.
  78. ^ Mike Banahan. "2.5. Declaration of variables". http://publications.gbdirect.co.uk/c_book/: GBdirect. Retrieved 2011-06-08. [A] declaration [...] introduces just the name and type of something but allocates no storage[...].
  79. ^ CORMEN, THOMAS H. (2009). INTRODUCTION TO ALGORITHMS. United States of America: The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-262-03384-8.
  80. ^ Black (ed.), Paul E. (2004-12-14). Entry for heap in Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures. Online version. U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, 14 December 2004. Retrieved on 2017-10-08 from https://xlinux.nist.gov/dads/HTML/heap.html.
  81. ^ Skiena, Steven (2008). "Searching and Sorting". The Algorithm Design Manual. Springer. p. 109. doi:10.1007/978-1-84800-070-4_4. ISBN 978-1-84800-069-8. [H]eapsort is nothing but an implementation of selection sort using the right data structure.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The function may be stored as a reference to a function, such as a function pointer.