The two rows of hairs or bristles lying one on either side of the mid-line of the thorax of a true fly.
The space within which the concentration of a pheromone or other behaviorally active substance is concentrated enough to generate the required response, remembering that like light and sound pheromones become more dilute the further they radiate out from their source.
(common name). A synthetic insecticide; a chlorinated hydrocarbon of not less than 95 per cent 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene; moderately toxic to mammals, acute oral LD,, for rats 44 mg/kg; phytotoxicity: none when properly formulated, but some crops are sensitive to solvents in certain formulations.
A segment of an antenna. The term antennomere is used in particular when the segments are fairly uniform, as in filiform antennae, but it also may be used in referring to segments of odd sizes, shapes and functions, such as the scape and pedicel. More specific terms may be used where there are distinct antennal regions; for example flagellomeres are the antennomeres comprising the flagellum.
A crossvein between the radius and cubitus near the base of the wing in certain insects.
A small ring of color
A pad-like median lobe between the tarsal claws.
base / basal area of wing
Region close to the point of attachment to the thorax.
Raised area on the wing surface, circular, ovate, or elongated, which is covered with special scent scales or androconia, found in males of some species. Also called sex mark.
feeding on moss.
Distinction between clavate and capitate anatomy of insect antennae
Mainly referring to antennae, but occasionally to other anatomical features such as palps: having a clubbed shape with a relatively long, slender stem, but with an abruptly bulkier, thicker, possibly globular distal head, the capitulum. The term capitate is not strictly distinguished from clavate, but where a distinction is desired, it is that the club of a capitate antenna is abruptly distinct from the shaft, and the head tends to be short and more or less globular. The club of a clavate antenna generally is a more or less tapered thickening, sometimes hardly distinct from the shaft.
The head of a capitate structure, such as a capitate antenna, or of a capitate haltere
a keel-like elevation (or ridge) on the body-wall of an insect.
feeding on fruits and seeds.
Markings consisting of rings connected together like a chain.
Antennae with ringed appearance.
The central area surrounded by veins. It can be closed by veins or open.
The vein forming the boundary of the cell along the costal margin is known as the subcostal vein q.v.
The vein forming the lower boundary towards the dorsum is called the median vein.
In the case of butterflies, the cell is closed by a vein connecting the origins of veins 6 to 4 along the top of the cell which is known as discocellular vein.
A structure in male insects that is used to hold the female during copulation.
Clavate antenna of a beetle in the family Erotylidae. In this specimen the clavus comprises three segments
Same as clavus.
Mainly referring to antennae, but occasionally to other anatomical features such as palps: having a clubbed shape with a relatively long, slender stem, but with a bulkier, thicker distal end, the clava. The term clavate is not strictly distinguished from capitate, but in general, where a distinction is desired, the club of a capitate antenna is abruptly distinct, even globular, whereas the club of a clavate antennae is generally a more or less tapered thickening
specifically, in Noctuidae (moths)- an elongate spot or mark extending from the anterior transverse anterior line through the submedian interspace, toward and sometimes to the posterior transverse line.
Same as clavus or club
1. The thicker distal end of a clavate anatomical structure such as an antenna. Usually comprising more than one joint. Also called clava, clavola, or club
(largely in Heteroptera and similarly dorsoventrally flattened insects) the edge of the abdomen, containing the connection between the tergite and sternite. May be visible from above in species such as many of the Reduviidae.
inhabiting feces and consuming mycetes growing inside or cultivating them for feeding.
Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation. weakenings of the costa (one to three in number). They are flexing points for the wings during flight
Cremaster of pupa of the oak owl moth, Griposia aprilina
A general term for a structure by which an object hangs (from Greek language kremastos, meaning "hung up"); for example in entomology:
in some Lepidoptera, including most butterflies, the pupa attaches to a surface by the cremaster, a structure at the tip of the pupal abdomen. The cremaster is the homologue of the anal plate of the caterpillar. It takes various forms in different species, ranging from a simple point, to various arrangements of hooks that catch Velcro-like in a silken pad that the caterpillar spins on the surface before it enters the prepupal phase.
Adjective = scalloped. Describes the outer edge of a wing that is convex at the end of each vein and concave in between.
Noun = wedge. Particularly in mirid bugs, a wedge-shaped section of the hemelytra (forewings), located at the apex of the thick, leathery part of the wings.
The trailing edge or hind-margin of the wing, extending from the base to the tornus. Dorsal alternately, also refers to the back, i.e. the upper part of the body, from above.
(Anatomical feature) having exterior mouthparts, or exposed. A defining feature of insects.
(Anatomical feature) the modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and some of the true bugs (Hemiptera).
Beetle in the family Cerambycidae with conspicuous emargination of the compound eye (black) where it extends partway round the base of the antenna
(Anatomical feature) Describing a margin, such as the edge of an eye or sclerite, where the outline includes a concave section as if a part of the region had been "cut out" or displaced. It might take the form of a notch, or a rounded or possibly quadrate hollow, such as where a compound eye is distorted in fitting around the base of the antenna.
(Anatomical feature) either a bristle-like or pad-like structure between the tarsal claws of various insects, notably Diptera.
the immuno response by plasmatocytes to the presence of parasitoid egg or larvae which results in the formation of a multilayered capsule that causes the parasitoid to sufficate or starve.
(Anatomical feature) a plate or projection dorsal to the anus in certain insects, generally on abdominal segment X or XI. For example in Archaeognatha and Zygentoma it takes the form of a long, rearwardly directed organ resembling the two cerci that flank it. In the Odonata epiprocts have various functions, both in larvae, in which they may have respiratory roles, and in adults, in which they may have reproductive roles. Not all epiprocts in all insect species are homologous. Note that the term is used in other groups than insects as well, for instance Myriapoda.
The palpi when vertical, i.e. the axis of the palpi is at right angles to the axis of the body.
Pupae with their legs and other appendages free and extended.
Larva of a species in the family Sphingidae. The large eyespots on the back have no function concerning vision at all; when threatened, the caterpillar retracts its head, leaving the spots resembling either a threat, or as a more tempting target than the vulnerable head. The stemmata are visible as an arc of about four tiny spots slightly lateral to, and above the mouthparts. They are inconspicuous and do have a visual function.
1. Spots or other patterns resembling vertebrate eyes on the skin, such as on larvae of some Sphingidae or the wings of moths such as many Saturniidae. Such eyespots have no visual function, but act variously to misdirect or discourage attacks from predators.
(Anatomical feature) The frontal area of an insect's head. It covers the upper part of the face above the clypeus and below and between the antennae. It supports the pharyngeal dilator muscles and usually bears an ocellus.
(Anatomical feature) suture lines that meet with the coroanl sutures to form an inverted Y.
A "true" bug, order Hemiptera, with geniculate antennae
(Anatomical feature) the area below the compound eyes, the insect equivalent to human cheeks.
Elbowed. From the Latin for a bended knee, referring to an organ of a type not always expected to be kinked, but having a definite angular bend or hinge. In entomology the term typically refers to an elbowed antenna. For instance, many species of Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera have markedly geniculate antennae
a strand of silk used to prop up the pupa. Found especially in the Papilionidae.
smooth, without hairs or scales.
ventral head sclerite which supports the submentum
feeding on worms classified with helminths (including parasitoids of helminths).
The prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also, more loosely, called stigma.
The meso- and metathorax of winged insects, that carries the two pairs of wings.
pulmonarium (plural pulmonaria)
A membranous instead of a sclerotised connection or pleurite between the abdominal tergites and sternites of certain groups of insects; in such species the pulmonaria bear the spiracles. The term also refers to an abdomen in which the connection between the tergal and sternal sclerites takes the form of a pulmonarial membrane. (Compare: pleurite)
an oval or kidney-shaped mark on the forewing at the disc (Lepidoptera)
(generally in combination as in: "repugnatorial glands"): defensive, or "fighting back", in particular as applied to an ozadene, a gland that can release irritant, poisonous, alarming or distasteful fluids or gases when an organism is under threat. Examples of repugnatorial glands include the osmeterium of larvae of the Papilionidae, the stink glands of most Heteroptera, the ozadenes of Opiliones, the odoriferous glands of Diplopoda, and others.
The process of animals accumulating poisonous compounds from the food they are eating in order to become poisonous themselves for their predators. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration refers to the sequestration of one such class of poisonous compounds.
A stiff chitinous or sclerotised hair or bristle. Also chaeta, cheta
being like or having the nature of a seta or of setae
bearing, or covered in setae.
Diminutive of seta. A small chitinous hair or bristle.
Prominent cells on the forewings of some moths. Their size, shape and colour can be useful in identifying some species. Also the prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also called pterostigma.
Patterns with thin lines.
Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation.The second longitudinal wing vein, posterior to the costa. It may reach the costa, fade before the costa or join R1 before it reaches the costa. see  (= auxiliary vein of many authors)