Roots that develop in areas of the grapevine where there previously was no root system, such as the roots that develop from the nodes of a newly planted cutting. While grapevines have adventitious roots, they do not have adventitious buds and requiring pre-existing buds for future growth.
French term for the period of ripening when the vine's shoot stop growing and the plant shifts it carbohydrate production into reserves as it prepares for dormancy and next years growth. During this time the leaves may begin to change color as the shoots also change color, usually from a green to a brown wood color.
The tendency of the central mid-section region of a grapevine shoot up to the apex to exhibit the most growth and development of foliage, tendrils and grape clusters. The apical dominance of the grapevine also inhibits the growth of lateral buds.
A topographical feature of a vineyard including the angle and direction of a slope as well as its altitude.
Frost protection technique where overhead sprinklers are used to spray the grapevines with water, allowing the water to freeze and coat the young buds with ice at 0°C with the latent heat of freezing protecting them from damage from further temperature drops
A method of pruning based on the amount of growth that the vine experienced the previous growing season. This is often determined by weighing the one-year-old that is pruned during the winter dormancy period and using a formula to determine how many buds should be left for the next season's crop.
The shoot, fruit or flower offspring that arise from bud that has experienced a spontaneous genetic mutation in at least one gene in one of the buds cells. This offspring will be genetically different from the rest of the bud offspring on the plant and maybe the source of new clonal material.
Vine training system where the vines are kept as individual, free-standing vines not supported by or joined together by a trellising system. Also known as Goblet training. Common training system in the Rhone Valley and in parts of California with old vineZinfandel.
The undifferentiated mass of tissue that grows over grafting or pruning wounds that protects the tissue from drying out or suffering further injury. In the case of grafting, the callus eventually hardens into the bulging graft union of the vine.
A range of viticultural techniques applied in vineyards to manipulate the vine canopy. This is performed for vine shape, limiting direct sunlight and disease control, in order to create an optimal growing environment.
Vineyard soil type made up of extremely fine-grained particles that can retain water, sometimes to excess, with usually low soil temperatures. Associated with several wine regions such as the Pomerol AOC located on the right bank of Bordeaux
A vine that has developed differently from other vines of the same grape variety. The clone may have developed through natural selection by adapting to its environment or was artificially bred and developed in a control environment in order to advance favorable characteristics.
Propagation method where individual grapevines from a particular variety that have demonstrated desirable features (disease resistance, reliable yields, smaller berry size, etc) are selected for propagation. This is opposed to massal selection where several grapevines within a vineyard that have produced well are selected for propagation each generation.
A physiological ailment afflicting the grapevine during bud break. If the vine is subjected to alternating conditions of dry/wet or hot/cold during this period, the vine begins to move sap past the embryonic grape clusters to the shoot-tips. This increases the foliage but at the expense of the grape cluster receiving vital nutrients that it needs to develop. The partially formed berries eventually dry up and drop to the ground.
The portion of a grapevine's canopy that holds the current year's growth of fruit and foliage. Depending on the vine training system used, the current may be closed or split and oriented to grow upwards or downwards.
A measurement based on the sum of the average daily temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) used to classify climates in wine growing regions. In California winemaking this is associated with the Winkler Scale.
A grapevine that produces either male or female flowers. Many wild grapevines are dioecious while many domesticated vines used for wine production are hermaphroditic with flowers containing both the male staminate and female pistillate features.
The period during a grapevine's growing season where there is no photosynthetic and very little metabolic activity going on. In grapevine this usually occurs after harvest and leaf fall when daily air temperatures stay below 50°F.
A controlled system of irrigation where water is provided to the grape vine drip by drip in precise amounts by a system of pipes and metered valves. Modern vineyards equipped with sensor technology may have their irrigation pattern computerized with the amount of water being adjusted depending on the data received from the soil sensors.
Vineyard soils that include two contrasting soil textures layered, one on top of the other. An example is the vineyards of Western Australia where coarse sand is commonly found over fine grained clay. Duplex soils are categorized based on the color of the sub soil.
The miniature green berries that form in the spring time during the annual cycle of the grapevine. The bunches will eventually bloom during the flowering period and, if fertilized, will develop into fully formed grape clusters. The number of embryonic bunches can be an indicator of potential crop yields.
A vineyard that is not planted homogeneously to a single grape variety but, rather, to several grape varieties growing interspersed among each other. In some cases, such as the Merlot and Carménère field blends widely found through Chile in the late 20th century, this is due to misidentification of both vines being the same variety. In other areas, such as the Sauternes field blends of Semillon and Sauvignon blanc, this may be intentional.
The main component of the wine, usually grape but other fruits are also used to make wine, such as pear, plum, etc. Often mentioned when the fruit isn't grown in the same site as the winery, such as "the wine is produced here on-site, but the fruit is purchased from a vineyard upstate."
A measurement, usually expressed in "degree days", of the environmental conditions and suitability of an area for viticultural activity. The measurement is derived by a formula using the number of days in a year with daily temperature average above 50°F (10°C) and average daily temperature during that period.
A vineyard management plan that incorporates planting a high number of vines per acre/hectare in order to improve fruit quality. This is achieved by making more vines compete for a limited amount of resources, which subsequently reduces the yields of the individual vines. Smaller yields produce more concentrated flavors in the grapes.
An element found in vineyard soils with substantial ferrous deposits. Trace amounts are found grapes and the wines produced from those grapes though that amount can be lessen through fining. An excessive amount of iron can cause a wine to taste medicinal or become cloudy.
The supplementation of water in the vineyard either by drip-systems, overhead sprinklers or canals. While commonly used in New World wine regions, the practice was, until recently, banned in most wine-regions in the European Union
The loss of certain qualities of the soil, such as pH, when rainwater removes or "leaches out" carbonates from the soil. The winemaking term refers to a process of oak barrel production during which some tannins are deliberately removed from the wood by steaming.
Vineyard soil type made up of sedimentary rock containing calcium carbonate which has desirable drainage and water-retention for grape growing. Limestone soils tend to produce grapes with high potential acidity levels due to inhibiting the vines from up-taking potassium ions that neutralize acids in the wine grapes.
A system of vineyard irrigation to where only a section of a vine's root system received measured amounts of water. The side not receiving the water will go through a mild water stress and starts diverting metabolic energy from the leaves to the grape cluster. The process alternates between irrigating the two sides in a manner that conserves water and improves grape quality. Sometimes abbreviated as "PRD".
French term for leaving grapes on the vine past normal harvest so that they dry up and concentrate their flavors. Passerillage is distinct from noble rot in that these grapes are not exposed to the botrytis fungus. The Italian equivalent is passito though in Italy the grapes maybe harvested to dehydrate off the vine in special rooms.
Compounds found in the seeds, skins and stalks of grapes that contribute vital characteristics to the color, texture and flavor of wine. Two of the most notable phenols in wine include anthocyanins which impart color and tannins which add texture and aging potential.
Also known as Oidium. Fungal infection that attacks the leaves and grapes of vines, appearing as a powdery white dust, that will ultimately cause the grapes to split and be vulnerable to other infections
The cultivation of grapes using an approach that applies appropriate vineyard management practices according to variation in environmental factors (soil, topography, microclimate, etc.). Typically the approach uses technological tools (GPS, GIS, remote sensing, etc.) to measure local variation, and manages different vineyard areas accordingly to maximize yield and quality, while minimizing risk and environmental impact.
The removal of unwanted or unneeded parts of the grapevines. In winter this usually involved removing the canes and wood that is less is less than year old, leaving on the necessary buds or spur desired for next year's production
A group of aromatic compounds in grapes that contribute to some of the green herbaceous notes in wine from the green bell pepper notes in some Cabernet Sauvignon to the grassy notes of some Sauvignon blanc. In red wines, the abundance of pyrazines can be a sign that the grapes came from vines with vigorous leaf canopy that impeded the ripening process of the grapes.
The point when a grape has achieved a sufficient balance of sugars and acids. In recent years there has been an emphasis on developing the physiological ripeness of phenolic compounds in the grape such as tannin. Unlike sugar/acid ripeness, "physiological ripeness" does not lend itself to a straight scale of measurement but rather is a complex concept that is not yet fully understood.
Grapes with a high proportion of fruity and fresh tasting tartaric acid in contrast to the harsher tasting malic acid.
The lower part of a grafted vine that consists of the root structure of the plant. Since the phylloxera epidemic of the 19th century, emphasis has been on using phylloxera resistant rootstock but rootstock selection can also control vigor and yields.
A chemical application that is used to combat fungal infections by spraying the chemical on the vine and allowing it to be absorbed by plant tissue and transported through the xylem system. This is in contrast to a contact fungicide which works only on the surface of grapevine in spaces where the fungus comes into contact with the fungicide.
A man-made support system used in vine-training where shoots and cordons of grapevines are held along wires attached to posts
Plural of Tri. A French term meaning a "sweep" or tries through the vineyard picking grapes. In the harvesting of botrytized grapes, a team will go through the vineyard several times (several tries) over a couple weeks picking only the individual grapes that have been sufficiently rotted.
Loosely translated as "thumb and stick". Vine training system used in the Jerez region of Spain for Sherry wine grapes. This involves pruning the vine to two branches with one short "thumb" branch that only has a couple buds and one long "stick" branch with around 8 buds that alternate each year between which side is the "thumb" and which is the "stick". This system was developed to lessen the stress on the vine in the hot heat of the Jerez region and high yield expectations needed for the production of Sherry
The growth potential of a grapevine's canopy. To ripen fully a grapevine needs to produce around 8 square inches (50 square centimeters) of leaf surface for every gram of fruit. A vine that is too vigorous will produce an excessive amount of foliage that will impart an herbaceous character to the resulting wine.
The number of vines per a define area of land (acres, hectare, etc). This can be influenced by many factors including appellation law, the availability of water and soil fertility and the need for mechanization in the vineyard. In many wine regions vine density will vary from 3000 to 10000 vines per hectare
The year in which a particular wine's grapes were harvested. When a vintage year is indicated on a label, it signifies that all the grapes used to make the wine in the bottle were harvested in that year.
In any farming capacity, the quantity of quality fruit that a parcel of land render after a harvest. In terms of wine making it is the quantity of grapes that a vineyard can produce per hectare (2.47 acres) of land to produce the level of quality desired.