Anionic form of α-D-glucose 1-phosphate
Neutral form of α-D-glucose 1-phosphate
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||g·mol−1 260.135|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Reactions of α-glucose 1-phosphate
In glycogenolysis, it is the direct product of the reaction in which glycogen phosphorylase cleaves off a molecule of glucose from a greater glycogen structure. A deficiency muscle glycogen phosphorylase is known as glycogen storage disease type V (McArdle Disease).
To be utilized in cellular catabolism it must first be converted to glucose 6-phosphate by the enzyme phosphoglucomutase. One reason that cells form glucose 1-phosphate instead of glucose during glycogen breakdown is that the very polar phosphorylated glucose cannot leave the cell membrane and so is marked for intracellular catabolism. Phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency is known as glycogen storage disease type 14 (GSD XIV).
In glycogenesis, free glucose 1-phosphate can also react with UTP to form UDP-glucose, by using the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. It can then return to the greater glycogen structure via glycogen synthase.
β-Glucose 1-phosphate is found in some microbes. It is produced by inverting α-glucan phosphorylases including maltose phosphorylase, kojibiose phosphorylase and trehalose phosphorylase and is then converted into glucose 6-phosphate by β-phosphoglucomutase.