Glycerol (data page)

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This page provides supplementary chemical data on glycerol.

Material Safety Data Sheet[edit]

The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety precautions. It is highly recommended that you seek the Material Safety Datasheet (MSDS) for this chemical from a reliable source and follow its directions.

Structure and properties[edit]

Structure and properties
Index of refraction, nD 1.4729 at 20°C
Abbe number ?
Dielectric constant, εr 42.5 ε0 at 25 °C
Bond strength ?
Bond length ?
Bond angle ?
Magnetic susceptibility ?
Surface tension[1] 63.4 mN/m at 20°C
58.6 mN/m at 90°C
51.9 mN/m at 150°C
Viscosity[2] 1.412 Pa·s at 20°C

Thermodynamic properties[edit]

Phase behavior
Triple point 291.8 K (18.7 °C), ~99500 Pa
Critical point 850 K (577 °C), 7500 kPa
Std enthalpy change
of fusion
, ΔfusHo
18.28 kJ/mol
Std entropy change
of fusion
, ΔfusSo
62.7 J/(mol·K)
Std enthalpy change
of vaporization
, ΔvapHo
91.7 kJ/mol
Std entropy change
of vaporization
, ΔvapSo
201 J/(mol·K)
Solid properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHosolid
? kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Sosolid
37.87 J/(mol K)[3]
Heat capacity, cp 150. J/(mol K) 6°C - 11°C
Liquid properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHoliquid
–669.6 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Soliquid
206.3 J/(mol K)[4]
Enthalpy of combustion, ΔcHo –1654.3 kJ/mol
Heat capacity, cp 221.9 J/(mol K) at 25°C
Gas properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHogas
–577.9 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Sogas
? J/(mol K)
Heat capacity, cp ? J/(mol K)

Vapor pressure of liquid[edit]

P in mm Hg 1 10 40 100 400 760
T in °C 125.5 167.2 198.0 220.1 263.0 290.0

Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th ed.

LogGlycerolVaporPressure.png

log10 of Glycerol vapor pressure. Uses formula: obtained from CHERIC[5]

Freezing point of aqueous solutions[edit]

% glycerol
by weight
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Freezing point
°C
–1.6 –4.8 –9.5 –15.5 –22.0 –33.6 –37.8 –19.2 –1.6 17.0
Specific gravity
d15°
1.02415 1.04935 1.07560 1.10255 1.12985 1.15770 1.18540 1.21290 1.23950 1.26557

Table data obtained from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. Specific gravity is at 15°C, referenced to water at 15°C.

See details on: Freezing Points of Glycerine-Water Solutions Dow Chemical [6] or Freezing Points of Glycerol and Its Aqueous Solutions.[7]

Distillation data[edit]

Vapor-liquid Equilibrium of Glycerol/water[8]
P = 760 mmHg
BP
Temp.
°C
% by mole water
liquid vapor
278.8 2.75 93.15
247.0 4.67 94.73
224.0 6.90 95.63
219.2 7.67 97.43
210.0 9.01 97.83
202.5 10.31 97.24
196.5 11.59 98.39
175.2 17.56 98.99
149.3 30.04 99.64
137.2 38.47 99.76
136.8 38.95 98.78
131.8 43.58 99.76
121.5 56.33 99.84
112.8 70.68 99.93
111.3 73.86 99.94
106.3 84.42 99.96

Spectral data[edit]

UV-Vis
λmax ? nm
Extinction coefficient, ε ?
IR
Major absorption bands ? cm−1
NMR
Proton NMR  
Carbon-13 NMR  
Other NMR data  
MS
Masses of
main fragments
 


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References[edit]

  1. ^ "Physical Properties of Glycerine and its solutions" (PDF). Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  2. ^ Segur, J. B.; Oberstar, H. E. (1951). "Viscosity of Glycerol and Its Aqueous Solutions". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 43 (9): 2117–2120. doi:10.1021/ie50501a040.
  3. ^ "Glycerin".
  4. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 17th Ed., 2017, McGraw-Hill Education, Table 2.54.
  5. ^ "Pure Component Properties" (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  6. ^ Freezing Points of Glycerine-Water Solutions Dow Chemical
  7. ^ Lane, Leonard B. (September 1925). "Freezing Points of Glycerol and Its Aqueous Solutions". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 17 (9): 924. doi:10.1021/ie50189a017.
  8. ^ "Binary Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data" (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center. Retrieved 7 June 2007.