Gnevny-class destroyer

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Aerial view of Razumny A 22471.jpg
Aerial view of Razumny, March 1944
Class overview
Operators:
Succeeded by: Ognevoy class
Subclasses: Soobrazitelnyy class
Built: 1935–1942
In service: 1938–1990
Planned: 36
Completed: 30
Cancelled: 6
Lost: 7
Retired: 23
General characteristics (Gnevnyi as completed, 1938)
Type: Destroyer
Displacement:
Length: 112.8 m (370 ft 1 in)
Beam: 10.2 m (33 ft 6 in)
Draught: 4.8 m (15 ft 9 in)
Installed power:
Propulsion: 2 shafts; 2 geared steam turbines
Speed: 38.3 knots (70.9 km/h; 44.1 mph)
Range: 2,640 nmi (4,890 km; 3,040 mi) at 19.83 knots (36.73 km/h; 22.82 mph)
Complement: 197 (236 wartime)
Sensors and
processing systems:
Arktur hydrophone
Armament:

The Gnevny class were a group of 29 destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the late 1930s. They are sometimes known as the Gremyashchiy class and the official Soviet designation was Project 7. These ships fought in World War II.

In the early 1930s the Soviets felt able to restart construction of fleet destroyers and forty-eight ships were ordered under the Second Five-Year Plan.

The design was produced with Italian assistance despite ideological differences between the Soviets and Fascist Italy. They resembled contemporary destroyers built in Italy for the Greek and Turkish navies.

They suffered from some of the same weaknesses of contemporary Italian ships with structural weakness and limited seaworthiness. There were also significant machinery problems in the earliest ships. The design flaws were apparent after trials of the first units in 1936/37 and production stopped after 30 ships. A modified design was then placed into production as the Type 7U.

Four surviving ships from the Pacific Fleet were transferred to the People's Liberation Army Navy and served as the Anshan-class destroyers.

Design and description[edit]

Having decided on the specifications of the large 40-knot (74 km/h; 46 mph) Leningrad-class destroyer leaders, the Soviet Navy sought Italian assistance in designing smaller and cheaper destroyers. They licensed the plans for the Folgore class and, in modifying it for their purposes, overloaded a design that was already somewhat marginally stable.[1]

The Gnevnys had an overall length of 112.8 meters (370 ft 1 in), a beam of 10.2 meters (33 ft 6 in), and a draft of 4.8 meters (15 ft 9 in) at deep load. The ships were significantly overweight, almost 200 metric tons (197 long tons) heavier than designed, displacing 1,612 metric tons (1,587 long tons) at standard load and 2,039 metric tons (2,007 long tons) at deep load. Their crew numbered 197 officers and sailors in peacetime and 236 in wartime.[2] The ships had a pair of geared steam turbines, each driving one propeller, rated to produce 48,000 shaft horsepower (36,000 kW) using steam from three water-tube boilers which was intended to give them a maximum speed of 37 knots (69 km/h; 43 mph).[3] The designers had been conservative in rating the turbines and many, but not all, of the ships handily exceeded their designed speed during their sea trials. Others fell considerably short of it. Rastoropny reached 38 knots (70 km/h; 44 mph) during her trials in 1940. Variations in fuel oil capacity meant that the range of the Gnevnys varied between 1,670 to 3,145 nautical miles (3,093 to 5,825 km; 1,922 to 3,619 mi) at 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph). Rastoropny herself demonstrated a range of 2,970 nmi (5,500 km; 3,420 mi) at that speed.[4]

As built, the Gnevny-class ships mounted four 130-millimeter (5.1 in) B-13 guns in two pairs of superfiring single mounts fore and aft of the superstructure. Anti-aircraft defense was provided by a pair of 76.2-millimeter (3.0 in) 34-K AA guns in single mounts and a pair of 45-millimeter (1.8 in) 21-K AA guns[5] as well as two 12.7-millimeter (0.50 in) DK or DShK machine guns. They carried six 533 mm (21.0 in) torpedo tubes in two rotating triple mounts; each tube was provided with a reload. The ships could also carry a maximum of either 60 or 95 mines and 25 depth charges. They were fitted with a set of Mars hydrophones for anti-submarine work, although they were useless at speeds over 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph).[6]

Ships[edit]

Black Sea Fleet[edit]

Ship Builder Launched Completed Fate
BodryБодрый (Brisk) Marti Yard, Nikolaev 1936 1938 scrapped 1950s [7]
BystryБыстрый (Rapid) Marti Yard, Nikolaev 1936 Nov 1938 sunk 1 July 1941 by magnetic mine
BezuprechnyБезупречный (Irreproachable) 61 Kommunar yard, Nikolaev 1936 1938 sunk 26 June 1942[8]
BditelnyБдительный (Watchful) 61 Kommunar yard, Nikolaev 1936 1938 sunk 2 July 1942[9] by KG 76
BoikyБойкий (Spry / bold) Marti Yard, Nikolaev 29 Oct 1936 1 May 1939 scrapped 1958[10]
BezposhchadnyБеспощадный (Merciless) Sevastopol Navy Yard 1937 Sept 1939 sunk 6 October 1943, bombing by Stukas[11]

Baltic Fleet[edit]

Ship Builder Launched Completed Fate
Gnevny (Wrathful) Zhdanov Yard, Leningrad 13 June 1936 31 jan 1939 sunk 23 June 1941 by mines
Gordy (Proud) Baltic yard, Leningrad 1936 1938 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941, scrapped 1950s
Gromky (Loud) Baltic yard, Leningrad 6 Dec 1937 23 Feb 1939 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941, scrapped 1960
Grozny (Terrible) Zhdanov yard, Leningrad 31 July 1936 1939 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941, used as a target for nuclear testing 1957, near Novaya Zemlya
Gremyashchiy (Thunderous) Zhdanov yard, Leningrad 12 March 1937 1939 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941, used as a target for nuclear testing 1957, near Novaya Zemlya
Grozyashtchi (Menacing) Zhdanov yard, Leningrad 18 Aug 1936 1939 During the first day of the Winter War, captured small Finnish steamer Auvo and took it as prize to Paldiski.[12] Damaged by bombing near Leningrad, scrapped 1950s
Sokrushitel'nyy (Destructive) Zhdanov yard, Leningrad 15 Aug 1936 1939 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941 sunk in a storm 22 November 1942, after stern broke off, 35 dead
Steregushchy (Alert) Zhdanov yard, Leningrad 1937 1939 bombed and sunk 21 September 1941 near Kronstadt, salvaged in 1944 and returned to service 1948, Scrapped 1959
Stremitelny (Impetuous) Zhdanov yard, Leningrad 1936 1938 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941 sunk 20 July 1941 by German Bombers in Ekatirinskaya Bay, Murmansk, partially raised in 1942 and cannibalised for spare parts to repair Raz'yaryonny

Pacific Fleet[edit]

All the Pacific Fleet ships were built by Dalzavod, Komsomolsk na Amure and towed to Vladivostok for fitting out due to the shallow depth of the Amur River. One unit, Reshitelny (i), was lost by stranding on passage 7 November 1938, being damaged beyond repair. The material for these ships was assembled in Nikolayev and then shipped east via the Trans-Siberian railway.

Ship Launched Completed Fate
Reshitelnyy Решительнвй (decisive) 1937 Not completed Lost while being towed between Sovetskaya Gavan and Vladivostok for final fitting out
Rezvyy Резвый (Frisky) 1937 Dec 1939 Scrapped 1950s
Ryanyy Рьяный (Spirited) Oct 1937 1940 Sunk as target 8 January 1961 in the Sea of Japan
Rastoropnyy Расторопный (prompt) 1939 1941 Scrapped 1950s
Redkiy Редкий (rare) 1941 Scrapped 1962
Razyashchyy Разящий (furious) 1938 1941 sunk as target ship 1961
Reshitelnyy (ii) Решительный (decisive) 1939 1941 sold to China 1955 first as ChangChun
Retivyy Ретивый (ardent) 1940 1941 sold to China 1955 as Chi Lin(Jilin) and then renamed to TaiYuan
Revnostnyy Ревностный (fervent) 1940 1941 scrapped 1950s
Razyaryonnyy Разъяренный (enraged) May 1941 Dec 1941 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1942, target ship 1958
Razumnyy Разумный (sensible) 1940 1941 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1942, foundered 1960s
Rekordnyy Рекордный (record breaking) 1940 1941 sold to China 1955 as An'Shan
Rezkiy Резкий (Brusque) 1940 1942 sold to China 1954 as FuShun

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 99, 102–103
  2. ^ Yakubov & Worth, p. 101
  3. ^ Budzbon, p. 330
  4. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 101, 106–107
  5. ^ Hill, p. 40
  6. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 101, 105–106
  7. ^ page in Russian
  8. ^ page in Russian
  9. ^ page in Russian
  10. ^ page in Russian
  11. ^ page in Russian
  12. ^ [1]

Sources[edit]

  • Balakin, Sergey (2007). Легендарные "семёрки" Эсминцы "сталинской" серии [Legendary Sevens: Stalin's Destroyer Series] (in Russian). Moscow: Yauza/Eksmo. ISBN 978-5-699-23784-5.
  • Berezhnoy, Sergey (2002). Крейсера и миноносцы. Справочник [Guide to Cruisers and Destroyers] (in Russian). Moscow: Voenizdat. ISBN 5-203-01780-8.
  • Budzbon, Przemysaw (1980). "Soviet Union". In Chesneau, Roger. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 318–346. ISBN 0-85177-146-7.
  • Hill, Alexander (2018). Soviet Destroyers of World War II. New Vanguard. 256. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-2256-7.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen & Monakov, Mikhail S. (2001). Stalin's Ocean-Going Fleet. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4895-7.
  • Yakubov, Vladimir & Worth, Richard (2008). "The Soviet Project 7/7U Destroyers". In Jordan, John & Dent, Stephen. Warship 2008. London: Conway. pp. 99–114. ISBN 978-1-84486-062-3.

External links[edit]