Gnevny-class destroyer

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Aerial view of Razumny A 22471.jpg
Aerial view of Razumny, March 1944
Class overview
Operators:
Preceded by: Gogland class
Succeeded by: Storozhevoy class
Built: 1935–1942
In service: 1938–1990
Planned: 36
Completed: 30
Cancelled: 6
Lost: 7
Retired: 23
Preserved: 3
General characteristics (Gnevnyi as completed, 1938)
Type: Destroyer
Displacement:
Length: 112.8 m (370 ft 1 in)
Beam: 10.2 m (33 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.8 m (15 ft 9 in)
Installed power:
Propulsion: 2 shafts; 2 geared steam turbines
Speed: 38.3 knots (70.9 km/h; 44.1 mph)
Range: 2,640 nmi (4,890 km; 3,040 mi) at 19.83 knots (36.73 km/h; 22.82 mph)
Complement: 197 (236 wartime)
Sensors and
processing systems:
Arktur hydrophone
Armament:

The Gnevny class were a group of 29 destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the late 1930s. They are sometimes known as the Gremyashchiy class and the official Soviet designation was Project 7. These ships fought in World War II.

In the early 1930s the Soviets felt able to restart construction of fleet destroyers and forty-eight ships were ordered under the Second Five-Year Plan.

The design was produced with Italian assistance despite ideological differences between the Soviets and Fascist Italy. They resembled contemporary destroyers built in Italy for the Greek and Turkish navies.

They suffered from some of the same weaknesses of contemporary Italian ships with structural weakness and limited seaworthiness. There were also significant machinery problems in the earliest ships. The design flaws were apparent after trials of the first units in 1936/37 and production stopped after 30 ships. A modified design was then placed into production as the Type 7U.

Four surviving ships from the Pacific Fleet were transferred to the People's Liberation Army Navy and served as the Anshan-class destroyers.

Design and description[edit]

Right elevation and plan of the Gnevny class

Having decided on the specifications of the large 40-knot (74 km/h; 46 mph) Leningrad-class destroyer leaders, the Soviet Navy sought Italian assistance in designing smaller and cheaper destroyers. They licensed the plans for the Folgore class and, in modifying it for their purposes, overloaded a design that was already somewhat marginally stable.[1]

The Gnevnys had an overall length of 112.8 meters (370 ft 1 in), a beam of 10.2 meters (33 ft 6 in), and a draft of 4.8 meters (15 ft 9 in) at deep load. The ships were significantly overweight, almost 200 metric tons (197 long tons) heavier than designed, displacing 1,612 metric tons (1,587 long tons) at standard load and 2,039 metric tons (2,007 long tons) at deep load. Their crew numbered 197 officers and sailors in peacetime and 236 in wartime.[2]

The ships were powered by two geared steam turbine sets, each driving a single three-bladed 3.18-meter (10 ft 5 in) propeller using steam provided by three water-tube boilers that operated at a pressure of 26.5 kg/cm2 (2,599 kPa; 377 psi) and a temperature of 350 °C (662 °F).[3] The turbines, rated at 48,000 shp (36,000 kW), were intended to give the ships a speed of 37 knots (69 km/h; 43 mph).[4] The designers had been conservative in rating the turbines and many, but not all, of the ships handily exceeded their designed speed during their sea trials. Others fell considerably short of it; Boyky reached 34 knots (63 km/h; 39 mph) during her trials in 1943. Variations in fuel oil capacity meant that the range of the Gnevnys varied between 1,670 to 3,145 nautical miles (3,093 to 5,825 km; 1,922 to 3,619 mi) at 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph).[5]

Armament and fire control[edit]

As built, the Gnevny-class ships mounted four 50-caliber 130-millimeter (5.1 in) B-13 guns in two pairs of superfiring single mounts fore and aft of the superstructure. Each gun was provided with 150 rounds. The development of the gun was troubled by excessive barrel erosion problems and three variants were built in a not entirely successful effort to resolve the problem which complicated logistical and operational support as each performed slightly differently. The manually operated mounts had an elevation range between −5° to +45° and had a rate of fire of 6–10 rounds per minute. They fired a 33.4-kilogram (74 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,900 ft/s (870 m/s), which gave them a range of 25,597 meters (27,993 yd).[6]

Anti-aircraft defense was provided by two 55-caliber 76.2-millimeter (3 in) 34-K AA guns and two 46-caliber 45-millimeter (1.8 in) 21-K AA guns, all in single mounts[7] as well as a pair of 12.7-millimeter (0.50 in) DK or DShK machine guns. The 34-K guns could elevate betwwen −5° and +85°, had a rate of fire of fire of 15–20 rounds per minute, and the ships carried 300 rounds per gun for them. Their muzzle velocity of 801 meters per second (2,630 ft/s) gave their 26-pound (11.9 kg) high-explosive shells a maximum horizontal range of 14,640 meters (16,010 yd) and an effective ceiling of 6,500 meters (21,300 ft). The 21-K was a converted anti-tank gun with a rate of fire of 25–30 rounds per minute with an elevation range between −10° and +85°. The gun fired a 1.41-kilogram (3.1 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 760 ft/s (230 m/s). This gave them a range of 9,200 meters (10,100 yd). The Project 7s stowed 500 rounds for each gun. The DShK had an effective rate of fire of 125 rounds per minute and an effective range against aircraft of 2,500 meters (2,700 yd).[8]

The ships were equipped with six 533 mm (21.0 in) torpedo tubes in two rotating triple mounts amidships; each tube was provided with a reload. The Project 7-class ships primarily used the 53-38 or the 53-38U torpedo, which differed only in the size of their warhead; the latter had a warhead 100 kilograms (220 lb) heavier than the 300-kilogram (660 lb) warhead of the 53-38. The torpedoes had three range/speed settings: 10,000 meters (11,000 yd) at 30.5 knots (56.5 km/h; 35.1 mph); 8,000 meters (8,700 yd) at 34.5 knots (63.9 km/h; 39.7 mph) and 4,000 meters (4,400 yd) at 44.5 knots (82.4 km/h; 51.2 mph). The ships could also carry a maximum of either 60 or 95 mines and 25 depth charges. They were fitted with a set of Mars hydrophones for anti-submarine work, although it was useless at speeds over 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph).[9]

Fire control for the main battery of the Gnevnys was provided by a Mina-7 fire-control system that was derived from an Italian Galileo system. It included a TsAS-2 mechanical analog computer that received information from a KDP2-4 gunnery director on the roof of the bridge which mounted a pair of DM-4 four-meter (13 ft 1 in) stereoscopic rangefinders. Anti-aircraft fire control was strictly manual with only a DM-3 three-meter (9 ft 10 in) rangefinder to provide data to the guns.[10]

Ships[edit]

Black Sea Fleet[edit]

Ship Builder Launched Completed Fate
Bodry – Russian: Бодрый, lit. 'Brisk' Marti Yard, Nikolaev 1936 1938 scrapped 1950s [11]
Bystry – Russian: Быстрый, lit. 'Rapid' Marti Yard, Nikolaev 1936 Nov 1938 sunk 1 July 1941 by magnetic mine
Bezuprechny – Russian: Безупречный, lit. 'Irreproachable' 61 Kommunar yard, Nikolaev 1936 1938 sunk 26 June 1942[12]
Bditelny – Russian: Бдительный, lit. 'Watchful' 61 Kommunar yard, Nikolaev 1936 1938 sunk 2 July 1942[13] by KG 76
Boyky – Russian: Бойкий, lit. 'Spry / Bold' Marti Yard, Nikolaev 29 Oct 1936 1 May 1939 scrapped 1958[14]
Besposhchadny – Russian: Беспощадный, lit. 'Merciless' Sevastopol Navy Yard 1937 Sept 1939 sunk 6 October 1943, bombing by Stukas[15]

Baltic Fleet[edit]

Ship Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
Gnevny (Гневный (Angry)) Shipyard No. 190 (Zhdanov), Leningrad 8 December 1935 13 July 1936 23 December 1938 Sunk by aircraft, 26 June 1941
Gordy (Гордый (Proud)) 25 June 1936 10 June 1937 23 December 1938 Sunk by mines, 14 November 1941
Gromky (Громкий (Loud)) 29 April 1936 6 Dec 1937 31 December 1938 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941, scrapped 1960
Grozny (Грозный (Terrible)) 21 December 31 July 1936 9 December 1938 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941, used as a target for nuclear testing 1957, near Novaya Zemlya
Gremyashchy (Гремящий (Thunderous)) 23 July 1936 12 August 1937 28 August 1938 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941, used as a target for nuclear testing 1957, near Novaya Zemlya
Grozyashchy (Грозящий (Threatening)) 18 June 1936 5 January 1937 17 September 1939 During the first day of the Winter War, captured small Finnish steamer Auvo and took it as prize to Paldiski.[16] Damaged by bombing near Leningrad, scrapped 1950s
Sokrushitelny (Сокрушительный (Destructive)) 29 October 1936 23 August 1937 13 August 1939 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941 sunk in a storm 22 November 1942, after stern broke off, 35 dead
Smetlivy (Сметливый (Sly)) Shipyard No. 189 (Ordzhonikidze), Leningrad 17 September 1936 16 July 1937 6 November 1938 Sunk by mines, 4 November 1941
Steregushchy (Стерегущий (Watchful)) 12 August 1936 18 January 1938 30 October 1939 bombed and sunk 21 September 1941 near Kronstadt, salvaged in 1944 and returned to service 1948, Scrapped 1959
Stremitelny (Стремительный (Impetuous)) 22 August 1936 4 February 1937 18 November 1938 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1941 sunk 20 July 1941 by German Bombers in Ekatirinskaya Bay, Murmansk, partially raised in 1942 and cannibalised for spare parts to repair Raz'yaryonny

Pacific Fleet[edit]

All the Pacific Fleet ships were built by Dalzavod, Komsomolsk na Amure and towed to Vladivostok for fitting out due to the shallow depth of the Amur River. One unit, Reshitelny (i), was lost by stranding on passage 7 November 1938, being damaged beyond repair. The material for these ships was assembled in Nikolayev and then shipped east via the Trans-Siberian railway.

Ship Launched Completed Fate
Reshitelnyy Решительнвй (decisive) 1937 Not completed Lost while being towed between Sovetskaya Gavan and Vladivostok for final fitting out
Rezvy Резвый (Frisky) 1937 Dec 1939 Scrapped 1950s
Ryany Рьяный (Spirited) Oct 1937 1940 Sunk as target 8 January 1961 in the Sea of Japan
Rastoropny Расторопный (Prompt) 1939 1941 Scrapped 1950s
Redky Редкий (Rare) 1941 Scrapped 1962
Razyashchy Разящий (Furious) 1938 1941 sunk as target ship 1961
Reshitelny Решительный (Decisive) 1939 1941 sold to China 1955 first as ChangChun, Museum ship in Rushan from 1990
Retivy Ретивый (Ardent) 1940 1941 sold to China 1955 as Chi Lin(Jilin) and then renamed to TaiYuan, Stationary training ship for Dalian Naval Academy from September 1991.
Revnosty Ревностный (Fervent) 1940 1941 scrapped 1950s
Razyaryonny Разъяренный (Enraged) May 1941 Dec 1941 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1942, target ship 1958
Razumny Разумный (Sensible) 1940 1941 transferred to the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1942, foundered 1960s
Rekordny Рекордный (Record breaking) 1940 1941 sold to China 1955 as An'Shan, Museum ship in Qingdao from April 1992
Rezky Резкий (Brusque) 1940 1942 sold to China 1954 as FuShun, Scrapped 1989

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 99, 102–103
  2. ^ Yakubov & Worth, p. 101
  3. ^ Platonov, p. 172
  4. ^ Budzbon, p. 330
  5. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 101, 106–107
  6. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 101, 103–104
  7. ^ Hill, p. 40
  8. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 101, 104
  9. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 101, 105–106
  10. ^ Yakubov & Worth, pp. 104–105
  11. ^ page in Russian
  12. ^ page in Russian
  13. ^ page in Russian
  14. ^ page in Russian
  15. ^ page in Russian
  16. ^ [1]

Sources[edit]

  • Balakin, Sergey (2007). Легендарные "семёрки" Эсминцы "сталинской" серии [Legendary Sevens: Stalin's Destroyer Series] (in Russian). Moscow: Yauza/Eksmo. ISBN 978-5-699-23784-5.
  • Berezhnoy, Sergey (2002). Крейсера и миноносцы. Справочник [Guide to Cruisers and Destroyers] (in Russian). Moscow: Voenizdat. ISBN 5-203-01780-8.
  • Budzbon, Przemysaw (1980). "Soviet Union". In Chesneau, Roger (ed.). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 318–346. ISBN 0-85177-146-7.
  • Hill, Alexander (2018). Soviet Destroyers of World War II. New Vanguard. 256. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-2256-7.
  • Platonov, Andrey V. (2002). Энциклопедия советских надводных кораблей 1941–1945 [Encyclopedia of Soviet Surface Ships 1941–1945] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Poligon. ISBN 5-89173-178-9.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen & Monakov, Mikhail S. (2001). Stalin's Ocean-Going Fleet. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4895-7.
  • Yakubov, Vladimir & Worth, Richard (2008). "The Soviet Project 7/7U Destroyers". In Jordan, John & Dent, Stephen (eds.). Warship 2008. London: Conway. pp. 99–114. ISBN 978-1-84486-062-3.

External links[edit]