Gnocchi

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Gnocchi
Gnocchi di ricotta burro e salvia.jpg
Gnocchi di ricotta dressed in butter and sage
TypeDumpling, pasta
CourseEntrée
Place of originItaly
Main ingredientsPotatoes, semolina, wheat flour, breadcrumbs; sometimes eggs, cheese
VariationsCavatelli, gnudi, malfatti, malloreddus, strangulaprievete

Gnocchi (/ˈn(j)ɒki/ N(Y)OK-ee,[1] US also /ˈn(j)ki, ˈn(j)ɔːki/ N(Y)OH-kee, N(Y)AW-,[2][3][4][5] Italian: [ˈɲɔkki]; singular gnocco) are a varied family of dumpling in Italian cuisine.[6] They are made of small lumps of dough composed of semolina,[7] ordinary wheat flour,[8] egg,[9] cheese,[10] potato,[11] breadcrumbs,[12] cornmeal[13] or similar ingredients,[14][15][16] and possibly including herbs, vegetables, and other ingredients.[13] The dough for gnocchi is most often rolled out before it is cut into small pieces about the size of a wine cork.[17] The dumplings may be pressed with a fork or a cheese grater to make ridges or cut into little lumps.[13] Gnocchi are usually eaten as a first course, but they can also be served as a contorno (side dish) to some main courses.[13]

Gnocchi vary in recipe and name across different regions. For example, Lombard and Tuscan malfatti (literally poorly made) are made with ricotta, flour and spinach, as well as the addition of various other herbs if required.[13][18] Tuscan gnudi distinctively contains less flour;[19] but some varieties are flour-based, like the Campanian strangulaprievete, the Apulian cavatelli, the Sardinian malloreddus,[20] and so on.[21] Gnocchi are commonly cooked on their own in salted boiling water and then dressed with various sauces.[13] But certain kinds are made of cooked polenta or semolina, which is spread out to dry, layered with cheese and butter, and baked.[13]

Gnocchi are eaten as a first course (primo piatto) as an alternative to soups (minestre) or pasta. Common accompaniments of gnocchi include melted butter with sage, pesto, as well as various sauces. Gnocchi may be home-made, made by specialty stores, or produced industrially and distributed refrigerated, dried, or frozen. Most gnocchi are boiled in water and then served with a sauce. Small soup gnocchi are sometimes made by pressing the dough through a coarse sieve or a perforated spoon.

Origin[edit]

The word gnocchi may be derived from the Italian word nocchio, meaning a knot in wood,[22] or from nocca, meaning knuckle.[23] It has been a traditional type of Italian pasta since Roman times.[6] It was introduced by the Roman legions during the expansion of the empire into the countries of the European continent. One ancient Roman recipe consists of a semolina porridge-like dough mixed with eggs; similar modern dishes include the baked gnocchi alla romana and Sardinian malloreddus[24] which do not contain eggs.

After potatoes were introduced to Europe, they were eventually[when?] incorporated into gnocchi recipes.[25] Potato gnocchi are particularly popular in Abruzzo, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, and Lazio.

Manufacturing and packaging[edit]

Storing and packaging[edit]

Gnocchi that are home-made are usually consumed on the same day that they are made.

Commercial gnocchi are often sold under modified atmospheric packaging, and may achieve a shelf life of two weeks or more under refrigeration.[26][27]

Regional varieties[edit]

Gnocchi di pane (literally "bread lumps"), derived from the Semmelknödel, is made from breadcrumbs and is popular in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Another variety from the latter region is spinach gnocchi.

Austria[edit]

In Austria, gnocchi are a common main or side dish, known by the original name and Austrian variant, nockerl (pl. nockerln). As a side dish, they may accompany main dishes like goulash.

Croatia[edit]

Gnocchi are a very popular and often served as a dish in coastal Croatia, typically being served as a first course or a side dish with Dalmatinska pašticada. The Croatian name for Gnocchi is 'njoki'.[28]

Slovenia[edit]

Gnocchi, known locally as "njoki," are common in Slovenia's Primorska region, which shares many of its culinary traditions with neighboring Italy.

Poland[edit]

An almost identical creation are 'kluski leniwe' ("lazy dumplings"), but do not contain egg. Often they are spiced with various herbs like pepper, cinnamon or allspice. Similar in shape are kopytka ("hooves"), simple dough dumplings in the shape of a diamond, which do not contain cheese. Both are often served with sour cream, butter, caramelized onion, mushroom sauce, or gravy.

France[edit]

The name is also used in France in the dish known as gnocchis à la parisienne, a hot dish comprising gnocchi formed of choux pastry[29] served with Béchamel sauce. A specialty of Nice, the gnocchi de tantifla a la nissarda, is made with potatoes, wheat flour, eggs and blette (Swiss chard), which is also used for the tourte de blette. La merda dé can is longer than the original gnocchi.

South America[edit]

Due to the significant number of Italian immigrants who arrived in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, gnocchi, ñoqui (Spanish, [ˈɲoki]) or nhoque (Portuguese, pronounced [ˈɲɔki]) is a popular dish, even in areas with few Italian immigrants. In Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina there is a tradition of eating gnocchi on the 29th of each month, with some people putting money beneath their plates to bring prosperity.[30][31] Indeed, in Argentina and Uruguay ñoqui is slang for a bogus employee (according to corrupt accountancy practices, or, in the public sector, the distribution of political patronage), who only turns up at the end of the month to receive their salary.[32]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "gnocchi". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  2. ^ "gnocchi". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  3. ^ "gnocchi". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  4. ^ "gnocchi". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  5. ^ "gnocchi". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  6. ^ a b Serventi, Silvano; Françoise Sabban (2002). Pasta: The Story of a Universal Food. Trans. Antony Shugaar. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 42. ISBN 978-0-231-12442-3.
  7. ^ Vincenzo Buonassisi, Il nuovo codice della pasta, Rizzoli 1985, recipe #850-853
  8. ^ Buonassisi, recipe #831-833
  9. ^ Buonassisi, recipe #837-838
  10. ^ Buonassisi, recipe #839-840
  11. ^ Buonassisi, recipe #854-857
  12. ^ Buonassisi, recipe #877 "Al Pien... si tratta di gnocchi, delicatissimi, secondo un'antica ricetta mantovana..."
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Riley, Gillian (2007-11-01). The Oxford Companion to Italian Food. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 9780198606178.
  14. ^ Waverley Root, The Food of Italy, 1971 passim
  15. ^ Luigi Carnacina, Luigi Veronelli, La cucina rustica regionale (4 vol.), Rizzoli 1966, passim
  16. ^ Accademia Italiana della Cucina, La Cucina: The Regional Cooking of Italy, tr. Jay Hyams, Rizzoli, 2009, passim
  17. ^ Davidson, Alan (2014-11-20). "Gnocchi". Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199677337.001.0001. ISBN 9780199677337.
  18. ^ Buonassisi, recipe #875
  19. ^ Royer, Blake (April 15, 2010). "Homemade Gnudi from The Spotted Pig". Retrieved 2014-05-12.
  20. ^ Farley, David. "The perfect pasta dish Sardinians refuse to share". Bbc.com. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  21. ^ Buonassisi, recipe #895
  22. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. 1989.
  23. ^ Lo Zingarelli, 2008.
  24. ^ The perfect pasta dish Sardinians refuse to share. David Farley, 2017, BBC Travel
  25. ^ Theisen, K. "World Potato Atlas: China - History and Overview". International Potato Center.
  26. ^ Ohlsson, T.; Bengtsson, N. (2002-07-26). Minimal Processing Technologies in the Food Industries. Elsevier. ISBN 9781855736795.
  27. ^ Alessandrini, Laura; Balestra, Federica; Romani, Santina; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla (2010-11-01). "Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Fresh Potato-Based Pasta (Gnocchi)". Journal of Food Science. 75 (9): S542–S547. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01842.x. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 21535629.
  28. ^ MacGregor, Sandra (November 5, 2016). "Varazdin: Croatia's 'little Vienna'". The Telegraph. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  29. ^ Gray, Marlene Sorosky (April 4, 2010). "Bay Area chefs put twists on traditional French pastry". SFGate. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  30. ^ McClaughlin, Kate (January 29, 2011). "New World Gnocchi". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  31. ^ Schneider, Laura (February 4, 2014). "How Eating Italian Gnocchi Became a Monthly Tradition in Latin America". Global Voices. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  32. ^ "'I Am Not a Ñoqui' – The Story Behind the State's Mass Layoffs". Argentinaindependent.com. Retrieved 15 September 2018.

Further reading[edit]

  • Davidson, Alan. The Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. gnocchi.
  • Jenkins, Nancy Harmon. Flavors of Tuscany. 1998.
  • Garnerone, Myriam. "Traditions et Cuisine du pays niçois, Recettes Niçoises de nos Grands-Mères". 2008.