|Alternative names||Gołąb, holubky, holishkes|
|Course||Appetizer or main|
|Place of origin||Poland|
|Main ingredients||Cabbage, pork, beef, onions, rice|
Gołąbki [ɡɔˈwɔmpki] is the Polish name of a dish popular in cuisines of Central Europe, made from boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around a filling of minced pork or beef, chopped onions, and rice or barley.
Gołąbki are often served during the Christmas season and on festive occasions such as weddings. They are also a featured dish for family reunions amongst Polish Americans.[self-published source] An alternative to the dish are Jewish holishkes, served on Sukkot and Simchat Torah.
Gołąbki is the plural form of gołąbek, the diminutive form of gołąb ("pidgeon, dove"). Max Vasmer accepts this as the origin of the word, stating that the dish was so named due to similarity in shape. The Polish linguist Marek Stachowski find this theory semanticaly dubious. He instead proposes an Oriental borrowing, pointing out that a similar dish, aside from Eastern Europe, is known in the Levant and Central Asia. He mentions Persian کلم kalam "cabbage" or کلم پیچ kalam pič "cabbage roll" and Old Armenian կաղամբ kałamb "cabbage" as possible sources. The word would have later been altered by folk etymology to resemble the word for the bird.
Gołąbki are also referred to in English as golombki, golumpki, golabki, golumpkies, golumpkis, gluntkes, or gwumpki. Similar variations are called holubky (Czech, Slovak), töltött káposzta (Hungarian), holubtsi (Ukrainian), golubtsy (Russian), balandėliai (Lithuanian), Kohlrouladen (German) or kåldolmar (Sweden, from the Turkish dolma). In Yiddish, holipshes, goleptzi golumpki and holishkes or holep are very similar dishes.
In the United States, the terms are commonly Anglicized by second- or third-generation Americans to "stuffed cabbage", "stuffed cabbage leaves", or "cabbage casserole". They are also referred to as "pigs in a blanket".
- Bice, Jeanne (2008). The Ultimate Christmas: The Best Experts' Advice for a Memorable Season With Stories and Photos of Holiday Magic (recipe originally from Robin Kurth). HCI. p. 130. ISBN 9780757307546. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Mendicino, Tom; Polito, Frank (2011). Remembering Christmas. Kensington Books. p. 87. ISBN 9780758266859. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Frank Stanley Placzek (2010). I Surrendered All. AuthorHouse. p. 108. ISBN 9781452047591. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Stachowski, Marek (2016). "Uwagi do etymologii słowiańskiej nazwy potrawy "gołąbki"" (PDF). Przegląd Wschodnioweuropejski. Olsztyn: Centrum Badań Europy Wschodniej UWM. VII (2): 239–244. ISSN 2081-1128.
- De Kleine, John (2009). Lots Of Fat And Taste Recipes. Xlibris Corporation. p. 114. ISBN 9781441530950. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- "Dictionary of American Regional English". University of Wisconsin. n.d. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Silverman, Deborah Anders (2000). Polish-American Folklore. University of Illinois Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-252-0256-9-5.
- Long, Lucy M., ed. (2016). Ethnic American Cooking. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 234. ISBN 9781442267343.