Emperor Go-Fukakusa

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Go-Fukakusa
Emperor Go-Fukakusa.jpg
Emperor of Japan
Reign 1246–1260
Predecessor Go-Saga
Successor Kameyama
Born (1243-06-28)June 28, 1243
Died August 17, 1304(1304-08-17) (aged 61)
Burial Fukakusa no kita no Misasagi (Kyoto)
Spouse Fujiwara no Kimiko
Issue
Among others...
Emperor Fushimi
Prince Hisaaki
House Yamato
Father Emperor Go-Saga
Mother Fujiwara no Kitsushi

Emperor Go-Fukakusa (後深草天皇, Go-Fukakusa-tennō) (June 28, 1243 – August 17, 1304) was the 89th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years 1246 through 1260.[1]

This 13th-century sovereign was named after the 9th-century Emperor Ninmyō[2] and go- (後), translates literally as "later", and thus he could be called the "Later Emperor Fukakusa". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the "second one"; and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Fukakusa, the second", or as "Fukakusa II".

Name[edit]

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his imina) was Hisahito (久仁).[3]

Although the Roman-alphabet spelling of the name of this 13th-century emperor is the same as that of the personal name of a current member of the Imperial family, the kanji are different:

  • Emperor Go-Fukakusa, formerly Prince Hisahito (久仁)
  • Prince Hisahito of Akishino (悠仁)

He was the second son of Emperor Go-Saga.

Issue[edit]

  • Empress: Saionji (Fujiwara) Kimiko (西園寺(藤原)公子) later Higashinijō‘in (東二条院), Saionji Saneuji’s daughter
    • Second daughter: Imperial Princess Takako (貴子内親王; 1262-1273)
    • Daughter (1265-1266)
    • Third daughter: Imperial Princess Reiko (姈子内親王; 1270-1307)married Emperor Go-Uda
  • Consort: Tōin (Fujiwara) Inshi (洞院(藤原)愔子) later Genkimon-in (玄輝門院; 1246-1329), Tōin Saneo‘s daughter
    • Fourth daughter: Imperial Princess Hisako (久子内親王; 1272-1346)
    • Second son: Imperial Prince Hirohito (熈仁親王) (Emperor Fushimi)
    • Third son: Imperial Prince Priest Shonnin (性仁法親王) (1267-1304)
  • Court Lady: Saionji (Fujiwara) Aiko (西園寺(藤原)相子), Saionji Kinsuke
    • Fifth daughter: Imperial Princess Hanako/Eiko/Akiko (瑛子内親王; 1288-1352)
  • Court Lady: Saionji (Fujiwara) Moriko (西園寺(藤原)成子), Saionji Kintsune‘s daughter
    • First Son: Imperial Prince Tsunehito (常仁親王; d.1264)
    • Fourth Son: Imperial Prince Yukihito (幸仁親王; 1269-1272)
  • Court Lady: Sanjo (Fujiwara) Fusako (三条(藤原)房子), Sanjo Kinchika’s daughter
    • Fifth son: Imperial Prince Priest Gyōkaku (行覚法親王; 1274-1293)
    • Seventh son: Imperial Prince Hisaaki
    • Ninth son: Imperial Prince Priest ?kaku (増覚法親王)
    • Sixth Daughter: Imperial Princess Eiko later Shozenmon’in (永子内親王; 章善門院; d.1338)
  • Court Lady: Miyoshi Tadako (三善忠子; d.1299), Miyoshi Yasuhira’s daughter
    • Sixth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Shinsho (深性法親王; 1275-1299)
  • Court Lady: Bettō-Naishi (別当典侍), Takakura Shigemichi’s daughter
    • Eighth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Kojo (恒助法親王; 1288-1310)
  • Court Lady: Lady Nijō, Minamoto no Masatada‘s daughter
    • Son (1273-1274)
  • unknown
    • Son (1263-1266)

Events of Go-Fukakusa's life[edit]

Hisahito-shinnō (久仁親王) formally became Go-Fukakusa-tennō (後深草天皇) at the age of 2; and Go-Saga began to exercise power as cloistered Emperor.

  • 1247 (Kangen 4, 1st month): In the 4th year of Go-Saga-tennō 's reign (後嵯峨天皇四年), he abdicated; and the succession (senso) was received by his 4-year-old son. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Go-Fukakusa is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).[4]

In 1259, at the insistence of Retired Emperor Go-Saga, he abdicated at the age of 15 to his younger brother, who would become Emperor Kameyama.

After Emperor Go-Uda's ascension in 1260, Saionji Sanekane negotiated with the Bakufu, and succeeded in getting Emperor Go-Fukakusa's son Hirohito named as Crown Prince. In 1287, with his ascension as Emperor Fushimi, Go-Fukakusa's cloistered rule began.

In 1290, he entered the priesthood, retiring from the position of cloistered Emperor. But, with his seventh son, Imperial Prince Hisaaki becoming the 8th Kamakura shōgun among other things, the position of his Jimyōin-tō became strengthened.

In 1304, he died. He is enshrined with other emperors at the imperial tomb called Fukakusa no kita no misasagi (深草北陵) in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto.

Kugyō[edit]

Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Fukakusa's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Go-Fukakusa's reign[edit]

The years of Go-Fukakusa's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 248–255; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 231–232.
  2. ^ Varley, p. 237; n.b., Fukakusa was an alternate name for Emperor Ninmyō.
  3. ^ Titsingh, p. 248; Varley, p. 231.
  4. ^ Titsingh, pp. 247–248; Varley, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
  5. ^ Titsingh, p. 248.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Go-Saga
Emperor of Japan:
Go-Fukakusa

1246–1260
Succeeded by
Emperor Kameyama