Go for Broke! (1951 film)
|Go for Broke!|
|Directed by||Robert Pirosh|
|Produced by||Dore Schary|
|Written by||Robert Pirosh|
|Edited by||James E. Newcom|
Go for Broke! is a 1951 war film directed by Robert Pirosh, produced by Dore Schary and featured Van Johnson in the starring role, as well as several veterans of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, Henry Nakamura, Warner Anderson, and Don Haggerty amongst its large cast.
Fighting in the European theater during World War II, this unit became the most heavily decorated unit for its size and length of service in the history of the United States Army, as well as one of the units with the highest casualty rates. This film is a Hollywood rarity for its era in that it features Asian Americans in a positive light, highlighting the wartime efforts of Japanese Americans on behalf of their country even while that same country interned their families in camps.
As with his earlier film script Battleground, in which Van Johnson also starred, writer-director Robert Pirosh focuses on the average squad member, mixing humor with pathos, while accurately detailing equipment and tactics used by American infantry in World War II. The contrast of reality versus public relations, the hardships of field life on the line, and the reality of high casualty rates are accurately portrayed with a minimum of heroics.
The film begins in 1943 at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, with newly commissioned Lt. Michael Grayson (Johnson) reporting for duty with the 442nd, then in training. He discovers that he has been sent to a unit composed of Nisei; he had expected to return to the U.S. 36th Infantry Division, a Texas National Guard unit with which he had served as an enlisted man. Having joined the war to fight against the Japanese, he is disturbed to find he is expected to fight alongside people whom he sees as Japanese, rather than Americans. From the outset, Grayson runs his platoon rather harshly, including an almost martinet-like insistence upon the strict observance of regulations.
He (and the audience) learn that "Go for broke" is a pidgin phrase (used in Hawaii) meaning to gamble everything, to "shoot the works"—to risk "going broke" or bankruptcy. Eventually Grayson also learns the meaning of the frequently repeated expletive Baka tare, which, loosely translated, means "very stupid."
There is only brief mention of the internment camps from which most of the men have come, but throughout the film there are references to the camps. There are also a few brief references to the distinctions between the Nisei from Hawaii ("Buta-heads") and those from the mainland ("Katonks"). While Buta-heads (the phrase later devolved to "Buddha-Heads") were a key part of the Hawaiian economy and society, Katonks were largely distrusted and disliked by their neighbors.
Arriving in Italy, the unit is joined by the 100th Battalion, the Nisei unit formed in Hawaii before the 442nd was created on the mainland. The troops of the 100th are seasoned veterans and the new arrivals look to them for advice. On the march to the front lines, Grayson inadvertently gets left behind while fraternizing with a signorina, but when he catches up he finds that his platoon has covered for him during an inspection of their positions by the colonel.
Through fighting in Italy and France, Grayson eventually comes to respect the Nisei, and his bigotry fades. Eventually he is transferred back to his old unit, the 36th as a liaison—over his objections—when the 442nd is attached to the larger unit. As he has misjudged the Nisei, they have misjudged Grayson. They eventually learn that he has defended them against bigotry, even getting into a fistfight with an old friend of his from the 36th who had insulted them.
The climax of the movie comes with the "Buddha-heads'" famous rescue of the "Lost Battalion", after the 36th is surrounded by the German army. Then comes their return home, and the award of the eighth Presidential Unit Citation.
- Van Johnson as Lt. Michael Grayson
- Lane Nakano‡ as Sam
- George Miki‡ as Chick
- Akira Fukunaga‡ as Frank
- Ken K. Okamoto‡ as Kaz
- Henry Oyasato‡ as Takashi Ohhara
- Harry Hamada‡ as Masami
- Henry Nakamura as Tommy Kamakura
- Warner Anderson as Col. Charles W. Pence
- Don Haggerty as Sgt. Wilson I. Culley
- Gianna Maria Canale as Rosina
- Dan Riss as Capt. Solari
- John Banner as a German soldier
- ‡These actors were actual veterans of the 442nd.
The story and screenplay by Robert Pirosh were nominated for an Academy Award in 1951.
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
- "Robert Pirosh, 79, Veteran of Combat and Author, Is Dead," New York Times. December 31, 1989.
- Barsam, Richard. (1992). Nonfiction Film: a Critical History, p. 220.
- Sterner, C. Douglas. (2005). Go For Broke: The Nisei Warriors of World War II Who Conquered Germany, p. 141.
- Crowther, Bosley. "'Go for Broke!', Tribate to War Record of Nisei Regiment, Opens at the Capitol," New York Times. May 25, 1951.
- Pierce, David (June 2007). "Forgotten Faces: Why Some of Our Cinema Heritage Is Part of the Public Domain". Film History: An International Journal. 19 (2): 125–43. ISSN 0892-2160. JSTOR 25165419. OCLC 15122313. doi:10.2979/FIL.2007.19.2.125.
- Takemoto, Kenneth.' (2006). Nisei memories: my parents talk about the war years, p. 120.
- "Lane Nakano, 80, a Soldier Turned Actor, Is Dead," New York Times. May 11, 2005.
- Akira Fukunaga, film credits
- Harry Hamada, image of hula-dancing soldier; film credits
- Henry Nakamura, film credits
- 'The Top Box Office Hits of 1951', Variety, January 2, 1952
- "Go for Broke! (1951); Cast, Credits and Awards," New York Times online.
- Wu, Ellen D. (2014). The Color of Success: Asian Americans and the Invention of the Model Minority. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691168029, pp. 88ff.
- Barsam, Richard Meran. (1992). Nonfiction Film : a Critical History. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-31124-5; ISBN 978-0-253-20706-7; OCLC 24107769
- Takemoto, Kenneth Kaname. (2006). Nisei Memories: My Parents Talk About the War Years. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98585-5; OCLC 260074492
- Sterner, C. Dougals. (2008). Go for broke : the Nisei Warriors of World War II Who Conquered Germany, Japan, and American Bigotry. Clearfield, Utah: American Legacy Historical Press. ISBN 978-0-9796896-1-1; OCLC 141855086
- Yenne, Bill. (2007). Rising Sons: The Japanese American GIs Who Fought for the United States in World War II. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-35464-0 OCLC 122261832
- Steidl, Franz. (1997). "Lost Battalions: Going for Broke in the Vosges, Autumn 1944." Novato, California: Presidio Press. ISBN 978-0-89141-622-7, ISBN 978-0-89141-727-9; OCLC 36170542