Go of Balhae

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Dae Joyeong
Dae Joyeong.png
Reign698 – 712
PredecessorDae Jung-sang
Reign712 – 719
SuccessorDae Mu-ye
BornJoyeong
(Korean조영; Hanja祚榮)
Died719
Full name
Dae Joyeong
(Korean대조영; Hanja大祚榮)
Temple name
Gowang (high king)
(Korean고왕; Hanja高王)
FatherDae Jung-sang
Go of Balhae
Chinese name
Chinese
Personal name in Chinese
Chinese
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Personal name in Korean
Hangul
Hanja
Monarchs of Korea
Balhae
  1. Go 698–719
  2. Mu 719–737
  3. Mun 737–793
  4. Dae Won-ui 793
  5. Seong 793–794
  6. Gang 794–809
  7. Jeong 809–812
  8. Hui 812–817
  9. Gan 817–818
  10. Seon 818–830
  11. Dae Ijin 830–857
  12. Dae Geonhwang 857–871
  13. Dae Hyeonseok 871–894
  14. Dae Wihae 894–906
  15. Dae Inseon 906–926

Dae Joyeong (대조영; 大祚榮; [tae.dʑo.jʌŋ] or [tae] [tɕo.jʌŋ]; died 719), also known as King Go (고왕; 高王; [ko.waŋ]), established the state of Balhae, reigning from 699 to 719.[1][2]

Life[edit]

Early life[edit]

Dae Joyeong was the first son of general Sari Geolgeol Jungsang (Hangul: 사리걸걸중상, Hanja: 舍利乞乞仲象) or Dae Geolgeol Jungsang (Hangul: 대걸걸중상, Hanja: 大乞乞仲象).

After the fall of Goguryeo to the Silla-Tang armies, Dae Jung-sang remained in a part of Goguryeo which had not been attacked during the 3rd Goguryeo-Tang war. Afterward, Geolgeol Jung-sang was opposed to the Tang. In the confusion of the Khitan uprising led by Li Jinzhong against the Tang (Zhou) in May 696, Dae Jung-sang led at least 8,000 Goguryeo remnant peoples, the Mohe people,[3] to Dongmo mountain, and the Mohe leader Geolsa Biu made an alliance and sought independence.

King of Zhen and Balhae[edit]

The Tang killed Geolsa Biu, and Dae Jung-sang also died. Dae Geolgeol Jo-yeong integrated the armies of Goguryeo people and some Malgal tribes[4] and resisted Tang's attack. His overwhelming victory over the Tang at the Battle of Tianmenling to enabled him to expand his father's empire. He claimed himself the King of Zhen in 698.[5][6] He established his capital at Dongmo Mountain in the south of today's Jilin province, and built Dongmo mountain fortress, which was to become Zhen kingdom's capital.[7]

He attempted to expand his influence in international politics involving the Tang, the Göktürks, the Khitan, Silla[8] and some independent Mohe tribes. At first he dispatched an envoy to the Göktürks, allying against Tang. Then he reconciled himself with the Tang when Emperor Zhongzong was restored to the throne.[8]

In 712, he renamed his empire Balhae. In 713 he was given the titular title of "Prefecture King of Balhae (渤海郡王)" by Emperor Xuanzong.[6] After a period of rest within the empire, King Go made it clear that Silla was not to be dealt with peacefully because they had allied with Tang to destroy Goguryeo, the predecessor of Balhae. This aggressive stance towards Silla was continued on by his son and successor King Mu of Balhae.

Dae Jo-yeong died in 719,[9] and his son Dae Muye assumed the throne.[10] Dae Jo-yeong was given the posthumous name "King Go."

Controversial origins[edit]

The ethnicity of Dae Jo-yeong is disputed. Traditional Chinese historians believed that he belonged to an ethnic minority group in Goguryeo. The Old Book of Tang says that he was of “Goryeo [Goguryeo] stock” (高麗別種, 고려별종), while the New Book of Tang states that he is “from the Sumo Mohe (Malgal) region of the former realm of Goguryeo (本粟末靺鞨附高麗者).”

He was the son of the Dae Jung-sang, a leader of Goguryeo remnants and thought by some to be the founder of a revived Goguryeo that later became Balhae. Under the control of Tang, many Goguryeo refugees were moved to Yingzhou (modern-day Chaoyang). Balhae soon gained control of most of the former Goguryeo territory and went on to reign as king for many years.

Family[edit]

Dae Jo-yeong had at least two wives. His only known sons through his first wife were Dae Muye, and Dae Munye. The sons through his other wife or wives were Dae Chwi-jin, Dae Ho-bang, and Dae Nang-a. The only concrete fact regarding Dae Jo-yeong's sons was that Dae Muye was the firstborn and oldest among them. He had younger brother, Dae Ya-Bal.

Legacy[edit]

After the fall of Balhae, the last prince led some Balhae aristocracy into the Korean state Goryeo.[11] Dae Jo-yeong's descendants include modern-day Koreans who bear the surname Tae (태), or Dae (대).

In South Korea, a television drama on KBS1 was launched since September 2006 in his honor. Roughly 30% (based on 2007 survey) of the Korean viewers enjoyed this programme.

ROK navy warship, Dae Jo Yeong in San Diego, USA.

Dae Jo-yeong built a vast army and a powerful navy just as the Taewangs of Goguryeo had done. The third Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin class destroyer commissioned by the Republic of Korea Navy is named Dae Jo-yeong.[12] KDX-II class destroyers are named after significant figures in Korean history such as admiral Yi Sun-sin.

The Chunbun Ancestral Rite is held annually in Balhae Village, Gyeongsaunbok-do in order to commemorate the achievements of Dae Jo-yeong. The Gyeongsan City mayor participates in the event, which is open for public participation.

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "「渤海と古代の日本」" (PDF). 2010 年度第 6 回日本海学講座. 酒寄 雅志.
  2. ^ Korean culture and Information Service, "Things Newcomers Need to Know to Live in Korea", 2012. p.16
  3. ^ UNESCO Korean Committee, "Korean History:Discovery of its Characteristics and Developments", VOl.5, Hollym, 2004. ISBN 1565911776 p.134
  4. ^ Lee Injae, Owen Miller, Park Jinhoon, Yi Hyun-hae, 《Korean History in Maps》, Cambridge University Press, 2014. ISBN 1107098467 p.54
  5. ^ "渤海国小考" ["Little research of Balhae kingdom "]. 満州族の歴史 [History of Manchus]. 2004.
  6. ^ a b Kichan Bae, "Korea at the crossroads:the history and future of East Asia", Happyreading, 2007. ISBN 8989571464 p.83
  7. ^ South Korean Culture&Education Ministry, "나의 조국:재외국민용", 1981. p.102
  8. ^ a b Patricia Ebrey, Anne Walthall, "Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History", Vol.I:to 1800, Cengage Learning, 2013. ISBN 1133606512 p.111
  9. ^ Hahoe Hongbowon, "Korea Policy Review", Korean Overseas Information Service, 2006.
  10. ^ UNESCO Korean Committee, "Korean History:Discovery of its Characteristics and Developments", VOl.5, Hollym, 2004. ISBN 1565911776 p.158
  11. ^ Dyakova Olga Vasilyevna (2012). "К ПРОБЛЕМЕ ВЫДЕЛЕНИЯ В ПРИМОРЬЕ ПАМЯТНИКОВ ГОСУДАРСТВА ДУНДАНЬ И ИМПЕРИИ ЛЯО" ["TO THE PROBLEM OF IDENTIFYING IN PRIMORYE MONUMENTS OF THE STATE OF DUNDAN AND THE LIAO EMPIRE"]. Bulletin of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  12. ^ "Korea celebrates ties with Oman" Times of Oman, 2014-10-29

External links[edit]

Go of Balhae
 Died: 719
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dae Jung-sang
as Duke of Zhen
King of Zhen
698–712
Succeeded by
Himself
as King of Balhae
Preceded by
Himself
as King of Zhen
King of Balhae
712–719
Succeeded by
Mu