Clockwise from top: Immaculate Conception Church, Dudhsagar waterfalls, Basilica of Bom Jesus, Se Cathedral, Colva beach
Location of Goa (marked in red) in the Indian subcontinent
Map of Goa
|Coordinates (Panaji): Coordinates:|
|Country (1974/75 to Present)||India|
|Region||Coastal South West India|
|Past Country (1510 to 1974/75)||Portugal|
|Statehood established||30 May 1987|
|Largest city||Vasco da Gama|
|• Governor||Mridula Sinha|
|• Chief Minister||Laxmikant Parsekar (BJP)|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (40 seats)|
|• Parliamentary constituency||2|
|• High Court||Bombay High Court – Panaji, Goa Bench|
|• Total||3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-GA|
|HDI rank||3rd (2005)|
|^* Konkani is the sole official language but Marathi is also allowed to be used for any or all official purposes.|
Goa i// (English) is currently the Republic of India's smallest state by area post the 1974/75 UN treaty and presently has the fourth smallest population. Famously known as Rome of the East it was the capital of historical Portuguese eastern empire (1510 to 1910) followed by an Overseas province status of the Portuguese Republic (1910 to 1974/75). Located in the South Western part of the Indian subcontinent as numerous islands and provinces in the region generally known as the Konkan strip, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its entire western coast. Goa is India's richest state with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. It was ranked the best placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators. A native from Goa is called and identified as a Goan and depending on ancestry and descent can be full Portuguese citizens or can be a Goan with full Indian citizenship.
Panaji is the state's capital, Old Goa called Velha Goa is the former capital and Vasco da Gama is the largest city with a historical port, presently occupied with migrants from all over the Republic of India. The historic city of Margão still exhibits the 450 years cultural influence of Portugal, as in the early 16th century the Portuguese sailed as explorers, merchants and conquered it soon thereafter as its extended eastern empire. Goa is a former Portuguese province; the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by the Republic of India in 1961. Large numbers of international and domestic tourists (Indian) visit Goa each year for its beaches, places of worship and world heritage architecture. It also has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Flora and fauna
- 5 Subdivisions
- 6 Government and politics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Languages
- 10 People and culture
- 11 Architecture
- 12 Sports
- 13 Media and communication
- 14 Education
- 15 Tourism
- 16 Transportation
- 17 See also
- 18 Citations
- 19 References
- 20 Further reading
- 21 External links
In ancient literature's Goa was known by many different names, such as Gomanta, Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak. The Indian subcontinent epic Mahabharata refers to the area now known as Goa as Goparashtra or Govarashtra, which means a nation of cowherds. Gopakapuri or Gopakapattanam were used in some ancient Sanskrit texts, and these names were also mentioned in other sacred Hindu texts such as the Harivansa and the Skanda Purana. In the 3rd century BC, Goa was known as Aparantha and is mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy. In the 13th century, the Greeks referred to Goa as Nelkinda. Other historical names for Goa are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.
Goa's history goes back 20,000–30,000 years. The rock art engravings exhibit the earliest traces of human life in the Indian subcontinent.:p.254Upper Paleolithic or Mesolithic rock art engravings have been found on the bank of the river Kushavati at Usgalimal. Petroglyphs, cones, stone-axe, and choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in many places in Goa, such as Kazur, Mauxim, and the Mandovi-Zuari basin. Evidence of Palaeolithic life is seen at Dabolim, Adkon, Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne, and Aquem-Margaon etc. Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period. Early Goan society underwent radical changes when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture.
In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 to 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa.
In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yousuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). This was the beginning of Portuguese establishments in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until the 1961 Indian annexation of Goa.
In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panjim from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in the Indian subcontinent until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da Índia Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India, of which Goa was the largest territory. After British Raj India gained independence from the British in 1947, The Republic of India requested that all Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent be ceded to the Republic of India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its rightful Indian subcontinental enclaves.
On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army began military operations with Operation Vijay resulting in the invasion and annexation of Goa, Daman, and Diu and forcefully incorporating the regions into the newly formed Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organized as a centrally administered union territory of India.
The Treaty: The Treaty signed between Portugal Republic & Republic of India on 14 March 1975 acknowledges the full sovereignty of India on the territories of Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli effective from the date these territories became part of India under the Constitution of India.
Signed : 14 March 1975 ; courtesy: United Nations Treaty series 1975: Vol: 982, pg: 159
On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining as a union territory.
Geography and climate
Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi). It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. Most of Goa is located geographically in the coastal region generally known as the Konkan strip lately, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 metres (3,829 ft). Goa has a coastline of 101 km (63 mi).
Goa's main rivers are Mandovi, Zuari, Terekhol, Chapora kushavati river and the Sal. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of its geographic area. These rivers are some of the busiest rivers in India. Goa has more than forty estuarine, eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157 mi). Goa has more than three hundred ancient tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs.
Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterites which are rich in ferric aluminium oxides and reddish in colour. Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to agriculture. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss estimated to be 3,600 million years old, dated by the Rubidium isotope dating method. A specimen of the rock is exhibited in the Goa University.
Goa features a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, seeing day temperatures of over 35 °C (95 °F) coupled with high humidity. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and provide a much needed respite from the heat. Most of Goa's annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.
Goa has a short winter season between mid-December and February. These months are marked by nights of around 21 °C (70 °F) and days of around 28 °C (82 °F) with moderate amounts of humidity. Further inland, due to altitudinal gradation, the nights are a few degrees cooler.
|Climate data for Goa|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26
|Average low °C (°F)||19.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0.2
|Average precipitation days||0||0||0.1||0.8||4.2||21.9||27.2||13.3||13.5||6.2||2.5||0.4||90.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||313.1||301.6||291.4||288||297.6||126||105.4||120.9||177||248||273||300.7||2,842.7|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory for sunshine and mean temperatures|
Flora and fauna
Equatorial forest cover in Goa stands at 1,424 km2 (549.81 sq mi), most of which is owned by the government. Government owned forest is estimated at 1,224.38 km2 (472.74 sq mi) whilst private is given as 200 km2 (77.22 sq mi). Most of the forests in the state are located in the interior eastern regions of the state. The Western Ghats, which form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. In the February 1999 issue of National Geographic Magazine, Goa was compared with the Amazon and Congo basins for its rich tropical biodiversity.
Goa's wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented species of plants, over 275 species of birds, over 48 kinds of animals and over 60 genera of reptiles. Rice is the main food crop with pulses, ragi and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconuts, cashewnuts, arecanuts, sugarcane and fruits like pineapples, mangos and bananas. The state has a rich forest cover of more than 1,424 km2. Goa's state animal is the gaur, the state bird is the ruby throated yellow bulbul, which is a variation of black-crested bulbul, and the state tree is the asan.
The important forests products are bamboo canes, Maratha barks, chillar barks and the bhirand. Coconut trees are ubiquitous in almost all areas of Goa barring the elevated regions. A large number of deciduous trees, such as teak, sal, cashew and mango are present. Fruits include jackfruits, mangos, pineapples and 'black-berry' ('podkoam' in Konkani). Goa's forests are rich with medicinal plants.
Foxes, wild boars and migrating birds are found in the jungles of Goa. The avifauna includes kingfishers, mynas and parrots. Numerous types of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa and in its rivers. Crabs, lobsters, shrimps, jellyfish, oysters and catfish are the basis of the marine fishery. Goa also has a high snake population, which keeps the rodent population under control. Goa has many famous National Parks, including the renowned Salim Ali bird sanctuary. Other wildlife sanctuaries include the Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Molem Wildlife Sanctuary, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and the Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary located on the island of Chorao.
Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests (1224.38 km2) of which about 62% has been brought under Protected Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park. Since there is a substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew, mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover constitutes 56.6% of the geographic area.
The state is divided into two districts: North Goa and South Goa. Each district is governed by a district collector, an administrator appointed by the Indian government. Goa's major cities include Vasco da Gama, Margao, Panaji, Mapusa and Ponda. There are thirteen Municipal Councils: Margao, Mormugao (including Vasco da Gama), Pernem, Mapusa, Bicholim, Sanquelim, Valpoi, Ponda, Cuncolim, Quepem, Curchorem, Sanguem, and Canacona.
Panaji is the headquarters of North Goa district and is the only Municipal Corporation in Goa. North Goa is further divided into four subdivisions – Panaji, Bicholim, Mapusa and Ponda; and six taluks – Tiswadi (Panaji), Bardez (Mapusa), Pernem, Bicholim, Sattari (Valpoi), and Ponda.
Margao is the headquarters of South Goa district. South Goa is further divided into three subdivisions – Margao, Mormugao (Vasco da Gama), and Quepem; and six taluks – Mormugao, Salcete (Margao), Quepem, Canacona (Chaudi), Sanguem, and Dharbandora.
Government and politics
In the Parliament of India, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha, one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha. Goa's administrative capital is Panaji, known as Panjim in English as Pangim in Portuguese, and as Ponnje in the local language. Panaji lies on the left bank of the Mandovi river. Goa's legislative assembly building is located in Porvorim – the seat of the Goa assembly, which lies across the Mandovi from Panaji. The state's judicial hierarchy relates to Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay, which is the capital of Goa's neighbouring Maharashtra state), as the state comes under the Bombay High Court. A bench of the High Court is present in Panaji. Unlike other states, which follow the British Indian model of civil laws framed for individual religions, the Portuguese Uniform Civil Code, based on the Napoleonic code, has been retained by the Goa government.
Goa has a unicameral legislature consisting of a forty-member Legislative Assembly, headed by a Chief Minister who wields the executive power. The ruling government consists of the party or coalition garnering the most number of seats in the state elections and enjoying the support of a simple majority of the House. The Governor is appointed by the President of India. The Governor's role is largely ceremonial, but is crucial when it comes to deciding who should form the next government or in suspending the legislature as has happened in the recent past. After having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990, Goa is now notorious for its political instability having seen fourteen governments in the span of the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005. In March 2005 the assembly was dissolved by the Governor and President's Rule was declared, which suspended the legislature. A by-election in June 2005 saw the Indian National Congress coming back to power after winning three of the five seats that went to polls. The Congress party and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are the two largest parties in the state. In the assembly poll of 2007, the INC-led coalition won and started ruling the state. In the recent 2012 Vidhan Sabha Elections, the Bharatiya Janata Party along with the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party won a clear majority, forming the new government with Manohar Parrikar as the Chief Minister. Other parties include the United Goans Democratic Party, the Nationalist Congress Party. Gomant Vibhushan is the highest civilian honour of the State of Goa. It is given annually by Government of Goa since 2010.
|'Gross State Domestic Product (in millions of rupees)'|
Goa's gross state domestic product for 2007 is estimated at $3 billion in current prices. Goa is one of India's richest states with the highest GDP per capita — two and a half times that of the country as a whole — and one of its fastest growth rates: 8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000). Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it handles 12% of all foreign tourist arrivals in India. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the winter time, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the climate. In the summer time (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across India come to spend the holidays.
The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores and mining forms the second largest industry. Mining in Goa focuses on ores of iron, Bauxite, manganese, clays, limestone and silica. The Marmagao Port handled 31.69 million tonnes of cargo last year, and accounts for over 39% of India's Iron Ore exports. The leaders in the Goan Iron Ore industry include Sesa Goa (now owned by Vedanta Resources) and Dempo. Rampant mining in areas rich in Iron Ore and other minerals is now threatening the forest cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population. Mining corporations are also indulging in illegal mining in some areas without proper permits. Agriculture, while of shrinking importance to the economy over the past four decades, offers part-time employment to a sizeable portion of the populace. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca, cashew and coconut. The fishing industry provides employment for about forty thousand people, though recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch, perhaps coupled with the fact that traditional fishing has given way to large-scale mechanised trawling.
Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides, fertilisers, tyres, tubes, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products.
The Goa government has recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones (SEZs) in Goa. This is in stark contrast to policy followed by other states of India. SEZs are known to bring tax revenues for the government and employment option for local citizens since industries flock there for lower tax rates as compared to other areas. Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa. This decision was taken by state government after strong opposition to SEZs by political parties and Goa Catholic Church.
Goa is also notable for its low beer, wine and spirits prices due to its very low excise duty on alcohol. Another source of cash inflow into the state comes from many of its citizens who work abroad and remit money to their families.
|Source:Census of India|
A native of Goa is called a Goan in English, Goenkar in Konkani, Goês or Goesa in Portuguese and Govekar in Marathi. Goa has a population of 1.344 million residents, making it India's fourth smallest (after Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). The population has a growth rate of 14.9% per decade. There are 363 people for each square kilometre of land. Goa is the state with highest proportion of urban population with 49.76% of the population living in urban areas. The literacy rate of Goa is over 87%. The sex ratio is 960 females to 1000 males. The birth rate is 15.70 per 1,000 people in 2007. Goa also is the state with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes at 0.04%.
According to the 2001 census, out of a total population of 1,343,998 people, 886,551 (65.7%) were Hindus, 359,568 (26.6%) were Christians, 92,210 (6.8%) were Muslims, 970 (0.07%) were Sikhs, 649 (0.05%) were Buddhists, 820 (0.06%) were Jains and 353 (0.026%) belonged to other religious communities.
As per census data 2011, the total population of Goa is: 1,457,723.
|Rank||State of Republic of India||Population||%Decadal Growth (2001–2011)||Rural Pop.
( % )
( % )
|3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi)||394/km2 (1,020/sq mi)||968|
The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani in the Devanagari script the sole official language of Goa, but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". Portuguese was the sole official language during Portuguese empire governance. It is now, however, mostly spoken by only the elderly Portuguese educated populations, the descendants of the Portuguese nobles and others and is no longer an official language. The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Whilst there have been demands for according Konkani in the Roman script official status in the state, there is widespread support for keeping Konkani as the sole official language of Goa.
Konkani is spoken as a native language by about 65% of the people in the state but almost all Goans can speak and understand Konkani, its written in the Devanagari and the Roman script. Other linguistic minorities in the state as per the 2013 census are Portuguese (4%) spoken by Luso-Goans and is the third language option at schools and further education, Marathi (13%) spoken by migrants from Kholapur, Belgaum and Ratnagiri, Kannada (8%) spoken by migrants from North Canara, Hindi (5%) spoken by migrants from the North of India and Nepal, and Urdu (4%) spoken by Muslim communities of Goa and Muslim migrants from Gujrat.
People and culture
The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross, Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western royal attire of kings and regional dances being performed depict the unique blend of different religions and cultures of the state. The festival of music and dance, Shigmo Mel or the Holi and spring celebrations, signify unity in diversity. Prominent local festivals are Chavoth, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Shigmo, Samvatsar Padvo, Dasara etc. The Goan Carnival and new year celebration is known to attract a large number of tourists.
Dance and music
Traditional Goan art forms are Dekhnni, Fugdi, Corridinho, Mando, Dulpod and Fado. Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak, Bhajan and Kirtan. Many famous Indian Classical singers hail from Goa, including Kishori Amonkar, Kesarbai Kerkar, Jitendra Abhisheki and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar. Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance. While Goa trance has achieved widespread popularity itself, it also heavily influenced later forms of music such as psytrance.
Tiatr, Natak and Zagor are the chief forms of Goa's traditional performance in arts and drama. Other forms are Ranmale, Dashavatari, Kalo, Goulankala, Lalit, Kala and Rathkala. Stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata along with more modern social subjects are narrated with song and dance. Traditional drums like Pakhawaj, Ghumot,taso, Dhol, Cymbals, Tabla are part of the show and give the background score. Tiatr and its artists play a major role in keeping the Konkani language and music alive. Tiatrs are regularly held especially on weekends mainly at Kala Academy, Panjim, Pai Tiatrist Hall at Ravindra Bhavan, Margao and most recent shows have also started at the new Ravindra Bhavan, Baina, Vasco. Western musical instruments such as drums, bass, keyboards and trumpets are part of the show and most of the are played acoustically.
Konkani cinema is part of the Indian film industry post 1961, where films are made in the Konkani language, which is spoken mainly in the Indian states of Goa, parts of Maharashtra and borders of Karnataka and to a smaller extent by a small community in Kerala. Konkani films have been produced in Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala.
The first full length Konkani film was Mogacho Anvddo, released on 24 April 1950, and was produced and directed by Jerry Braganza, a native of Mapusa, under the banner of ETICA Pictures. Hence, 24 April is celebrated as Konkani Film Day. Konkani film Paltadcho manis has been included in the world’s best films of 2009 list. Konkani films are eligible for the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Konkani. The most commercially successful Konkani film (as of June 2011) is O Maria directed by Rajendra Talak.
In 2012, the whole new change adopted in Konkani Cinema by introducing Digital Theatrical Film "The Victim" directed by Milroy Goes. Some old Konkani films are Sukhachem Sopon, Amchem Noxib, Nirmonn, Mhoji Ghorkarn, Kortubancho Sonvsar, Jivit Amchem Oxem, Mog ani Moipas, Bhuierantlo Munis, Suzanne, Boglantt, Padri and Bhogsonne. Ujwadu is a 2011 Konkani film directed by Kasargod Chinna and produced by KJ Dhananjaya and Anuradha Padiyar.
Rice with fish curry (xit kodi in Konkani) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes. Coconut and coconut oil are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili peppers, spices, and vinegar giving the food a unique flavour.Goan food may be divided primarily into Goan Catholic and Goan Hindu cuisine with each showing very distinct tastes, characteristics, and cooking styles.
Goan Catholic dishes: Pork dishes such as vindaloo, ambsol, sorpotel, chorisa, salted pork, pork ard-mas; beef dishes such as beef xacuti, beef stew, beef cutlets, verde beef, assado, roast tongue, Goan beef olives, beef croquettes; chicken dishes such as cafreal, chicken xacuti, red chicken, canja de galinha, Goan roast chicken, fried chicken; sea food dishes such as shark ambot tik, apa de camarao, crab xacuti, prawn chilly fry, fried pomfret, prawn pan rolls, prawn balchao, peixe com raechado, rissois de camarao, caldine, prawn and lady finger curry, crab/prawn xeque xeque, Goan mackerel curry, Goan fish curry, mussels rawa fried and other dishes which are a fusion such as feijoada, meat & vegetable stew, various soups are common among the Goan Catholics.
An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as khatkhate, is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals, among the Hindu's and Christian's alike. Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas, hitt, are variants of idli and polle, amboli, and kailoleo are variants of dosa; all are native to Goa. The Goan pão is always served with the main course. A rich egg-based, multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite during Christmas. Goan Hindu dishes: Hindus are limited in their choices towards meats such as beef & pork. Hindu cuisine is partly pescetarian and partly lacto vegetarian, but lately the younger generation have taken up a taste for meat which was not common before. Hindu cuisine mainly uses less tamarind and kokum for souring, and jaggery for sweetening. They use asafoetida, fenugreek, curry leaves, mustard, and urad dal. It is not very spicy; less onion and garlic are used. It also includes more vegetables, such as lentils, pumpkins, gourds, bamboo shoots, roots, etc. It is less oily and the medium of cooking is coconut oil.
Various dishes are, humann ('हूमण' in Konkani), fish curry and rice ('शीत' or 'भात'), also known as kadi or ambot fried fish (तळील्ले नूस्ते) fish suke or dhabdhabit (सुकें) – dry spicy preparation of fish, eaten as a side dish fish udid methi or uddamethi (उद्दमेथी) – type of curry consisting of fenugreek and mackerel; a vegetarian version of this dish is also prepared using hog plums (or anything sour and tangy, such as pieces of raw mango) kismur (किस्मुर) – a type of side dish normally consisting of dried fish (mostly mackerel or shrimp), onions, and coconut. Dangar or fish cutlets (डांगर) kalputi – a dish normally prepared from the head of a large fish, with onions and coconut. Bhaji or shak, made of different vegetables and fruits (भाजी or शाक) khatkhate (ख़तखतें) tondak, made of beans, cashew nuts, etc. (तोंडाक) Different varieties of sweets made with rice and lentils, such as payasu, patoli, madgane, kheer, etc. (गोड्शें) Different varieties of pickles and papads (लोणचे or पापड) solachi kadi, a spicy coconut and kokum curry (कडी).
The most popular local alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni; cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms. Goa also has a rich wine culture.
The pre-21st century architecture of Goa is a combination of Portuguese, Islamic and Hindu influence styles primarily. Since the Portuguese governed for four centuries, many churches and houses bear a striking element of the Portuguese style of architecture. Goan Hindu houses show parts of Portuguese influence, though the modern temple architecture is an amalgam of original Goan temple style with Dravidian, Hemadpanthi, Islamic, and Portuguese architecture. The original Goan temple architecture fell into disuse as the temples were demolished by the Portuguese and the Sthapati known as Thavayi in Konkani were converted to Christianity though the wooden work and the Kavi murals can still be seen. (see:Goa:Hindu temples and deities by Rui Gomes Periera).
Football is the most popular and state sport of Goa and is embedded as part of Goan culture. Its origins in the state are traced back to 1883 when the visiting Irish priest Fr. William Robert Lyons established the sport as part of "Christian education". On 22 December 1959 the Associação de Futebol de Goa was formed, which continues to administer the game in the state under the new name Goa Football Association. Goa, along with West Bengal and Kerala is the locus of football in the country and is home to many football clubs in India's I-League. The state's football powerhouses include Salgaocar Sports Club, Dempo Sports Club, Churchill Brothers, Vasco Sports Club and Sporting Clube de Goa. The state's main football stadium, Fatorda stadium, is located at Margao and also hosts cricket matches. A number of Goans have represented India in football and six of them, namely Samir Naik, Climax Lawrence, Brahmanand Sankhwalkar, Bruno Coutinho, Mauricio Afonso, and Roberto Fernandes have all captained the national team. Goa has its own state football team and league, the Goa Professional League. It is probably the only state in the Republic of India where cricket is not considered important and is ranked as any other sports.
Media and communication
Goa is served by almost all television channels available in India. Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. In the interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, has two free terrestrial channels on air.
DTH (Direct To Home) TV services are available from Dish TV, Tata Sky & DD Direct Plus. The All India Radio is the only radio channel in the state that broadcasts on both FM and AM bands. Two AM channels are broadcast, the primary channel at 1287 kHz and the Vividh Bharati channel at 1539 kHz. AIR's FM channel is called FM Rainbow and is broadcast at 105.4 MHz. A number of independent FM radio channels are available, Big FM at 92.7 MHz, Radio Mirchi at 98.3 MHz, and Radio Indigo at 91.9 MHz. There is also an educational radio channel, Gyan Vani, run by IGNOU broadcast from Panaji at 107.8 MHz. In 2006, St Xavier's College, Mapusa, became the first college in the state to launch a campus community radio station 'Voice of Xavier's'.
Local publications include the English language O Heraldo (Goa's oldest, once a Portuguese language paper), The Gomantak Times and The Navhind Times. In addition to these, The Times of India and The Indian Express are also received from Mumbai and Bangalore in the urban areas. The Times of India has recently started publication from Goa itself, serving the local population news directly from the state capital. Among the list of officially accredited newspapers are O Heraldo, The Navhind Times and The Gomantak Times in English; Sunaparant in Konkani (Devanagari script); and Tarun Bharat, Gomantak, Navprabha, Goa Times, Sanatan Prabhat, Govadoot and Lokmat (all in Marathi). All are dailies. Other publications in the state include Planet Goa (English, monthly), Goa Today (English, monthly), Goan Observer (English, weekly), Vauraddeancho Ixtt (Roman-script Konkani, weekly) Goa Messenger, Vasco Watch, Gulab (Konkani, monthly), Bimb (Devanagari-script Konkani).
According to the 2011 census, Goa has a literacy rate of 87%, with 90% of males and 84% of females being literate. Each taluka is made up of villages, each having a school run by the government. Private schools are preferred over government run schools. All schools come under the Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education, whose syllabus is prescribed by the state education department. There are also a few schools that subscribe to the all-India ICSE syllabus or the NIOS syllabus. Most students in Goa complete their high school with English as the medium of instruction. Most primary schools, however, use Konkani and Marathi (in private, but government-aided schools). As is the case in most of India, enrolment for vernacular media has seen a fall in numbers in favour of English medium education. As per a report published in The Times of India, 84% of Goan primary schools run without an administrative head.
After ten years of schooling, students join a Higher Secondary school, which offers courses in popular streams such as Science, Arts, Law and Commerce. A student may also opt for a course in vocational studies. Additionally, they may join three-year diploma courses. Two years of college is followed by a professional degree programme. Goa University, the sole university in Goa, is located in Taleigão and most Goan colleges are affiliated to it.
There are five engineering colleges and one medical college in the state. Goa Engineering College and National Institute of Technology Goa are government funded colleges whereas the private engineering colleges include Don Bosco College of Engineering at Fatorda, Shree Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering and Information Technology at Shiroda, and Padre Conceicao College of Engineering at Verna. Goa Medical College provides medical training and is the largest hospital in Goa. In 2004, BITS Pilani inaugurated its second campus, the BITS Pilani Goa Campus, at Zuarinagar near Dabolim.
There are colleges offering pharmacy, architecture and dentistry along with numerous private colleges offering law, arts, commerce and science. There are also two National Oceanographic Science related centres: the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research in Vasco da Gama and the National Institute of Oceanography in Dona Paula.
The best known schools in Goa include Sharada Mandir School in Miramar , St Mary Angels Convent High School in Chinchinim, Our Lady of the Rosary High School at Dona Paula, Vidya Prabhodini at Porvorim, K.B. Hedgewar High School, the Progress High School, Don Bosco High School, People's High School, Mushtifund High School in Panaji, Sunshine Worldwide school in Old Goa, Shiksha Niketan and Nisha's Playschool in Torda, A. J. de Almeida High School in Ponda, S.S. Samiti's I.V.B.D. High School in Dhawali–Ponda, Vidya Bharati, Mahila And Nutan English High School in Margao, Manovikas in Margao, Loyola High School in Margao, St. Joseph's Institute in Vasco da Gama and Rosary High School in Navelim.
Among the colleges in Goa include Shri Damodar College of Commerce and Economics, V.V.M's R.M. Salgaocar Higher Secondary School in Margao, G.V.M's S.N.J.A higher secondary school, Don Bosco College, D.M.'s College of Arts, Science and Commerce, St Xavier's College, Carmel College, The Parvatibai Chowgule College, Dhempe College, Damodar College, MES College, S. S. Samiti's Higher Secondary School of Science and Rosary College of Commerce & Arts.
In addition to the engineering colleges, there are government polytechnic institutions in Panaji, Bicholim and Curchorem, and aided institutions like Father Agnel Polytechnic in Verna and the Institute of Shipbuilding Technology in Vasco da Gama which impart technical and vocational training.
Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa by the Arabian sea, with comparatively lesser tourist activity inland. Goans are on top of the list for hospitality and so in 2010, there were more than two million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.2 million of whom were from abroad. As of 2013 Goa was the destination of choice for Indian and foreign tourists, particularly Britons, with limited means who wanted to party. The state was hopeful that changes could be made which would attract a more upscale demographic. Over 450 years of Portuguese governance and the influence of the Portuguese culture presents to visitors of Goa a different environment than what is to be found elsewhere in the Republic of India. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations.
Historic sites and neighbourhoods
Goa has two World Heritage Sites: the Bom Jesus Basilica and churches and convents of Old Goa. The Basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier, regarded by many Catholics as the patron saint of Goa (the patron of the Archdiocese of Goa is actually the Blessed Joseph Vaz). The relics are taken down for veneration and for public viewing, as per the prerogative of the Church in Goa, not every ten or twelve years as popularly thought and propagated. The last exposition was held in 2014. Goa also has the Sanctuary of Blessed Joseph Vaz in Sancoale, Pilar monastery which holds novenas of Venerable Padre Agnelo Gustavo de Souza from 10 to 20 November November yearly. There is also a claimed Marian Apparition at the Church of Saints Simon and Jude at Batim Ganxim, near Pilar, where a number of Goans and non resident Goans visit. There is also the statue of the bleeding Jesus on the Crucifix at the Santa Monica Convent in Velha Goa. There are a number of churches (Igorzo), like the Baroque styled Nixkollounk Gorb-Sombhov Saibinnich Igorz (Church of the Our Lady of Immaculate Conception) in Panjim, the Gothic styled Mater Dei (Dêv Matechi Igorz/ Mother of God) church in Saligao and each church having its own style and heritage, besides Kopelam/ Irmidi (Chapels). The Velhas Conquistas regions are also known for its Goa-Portuguese style architecture. There are many forts in Goa such as Tiracol, Chapora, Corjuem, Aguada, Reis Magos, Nanus, Mormugao, Fort Gaspar Dias and Cabo de Rama.
In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Goan-Portuguese style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are in a dilapidated condition. Fontainhas in Panaji has been declared a cultural quarter, showcasing the life, architecture and culture of Goa. Some influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of Goa's temples, notably the Shanta Durga Temple, the Mangueshi Temple and the Mahalasa Temple, although after 1961, many of these were demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style under Indian Union occupation.
Museums and science centre
Goa also has a few museums, the two important ones being Goa State Museum and the Naval Aviation Museum. The aviation museum is one among three of its kind in the India, the other two being in Delhi and Bengaluru. Also, a place not well known to tourists is the Goa Science Centre, which is located in Miramar, Panjim. The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is also located in Goa at Dona Paula.
Goa International Airport, is a civil enclave at INS Hansa, a Naval airfield located at Dabolim near Vasco da Gama. The airport caters to scheduled domestic and international air services. Goa has scheduled international connections to Doha, Dubai, Sharjah and Kuwait in the Middle East by airlines like Air Arabia, Air India, GoAir, Indigo, SpiceJet, Jet Airways, JetKonnect and Qatar Airways.
Goa's public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, link major routes (like the Panjim–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state. The Corporation owns 15 bus stands, 4 depots and one Central workshop at Porvorim and a Head Office at Porvorim. In large towns such as Panjim and Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small family cars.
Goa has four National Highways passing through it. NH-66 (ex NH-17) runs along India's west coast and links Goa to Mumbai in the north and Mangalore to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panjim to Belgaum in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccan. The NH-366 (ex NH-17A) connects NH-66 to Mormugao Port from Cortalim. The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway connecting Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim Airport, primarily built to ease pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to Dabolim Airport and Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A) links Panjim and Ponda to Belgaum and NH-4. Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of national highways, 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 km of district highway. National Highways in Goa are among the narrowest in the country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that allows narrow national highways. In Kerala, highways are 45 meters wide. In other states National Highways are grade separated highways 60 meters wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8 lane access-controlled expressways.
Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws. Another form of transportation in Goa is the motorcycle taxi, operated by drivers who are locally called "pilots". These vehicles transport a single pillion rider, at fares that are usually negotiated. Other than buses, "pilots" tend to be the cheapest mode of transport. River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats, operated by the river navigation department.
Goa has two rail lines — one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa with Belgaum, Hubli, Karnataka via Margao. The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast.
The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland. Panjim, which is on the banks of the Mandovi, has a minor port, which used to handle passenger steamers between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. There was also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.
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Konkani is the only official language of the state. There actually is no second official language. However, as per notification, Marathi will be used for the purpose of reply by the Government whenever communications are received in that language.
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