Goat cheese

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A Goat Cheese
A Goat cheese with bread

Goat cheese, or chèvre (/ˈʃɛvrə/ or /ˈʃɛv/; from French fromage de chèvre 'goat cheese'),[1] is cheese made from goat's milk. Goats were among the first animals to be domesticated for producing food.[2] Goat cheese is made around the world with a variety of recipes, giving many different styles of cheese, from fresh and soft to aged and hard.[3]

Properties[edit]

History[edit]

Goats produce high quality, nutrition-rich milk under even the most difficult environments making them valuable to arid or mountainous areas where cows and sheep can not survive.[4] Goats were one of the earliest animals domesticated to suit human needs- more specifically milk production- going back to 8,000 B.C., 10,000 years ago.[2] Goat cheese has been made for at least as far back as 5,000 B.C.[5] Meanwhile, the first documented proof of humans making cheese is 7,500 years ago in Poland.

Nutritional value[edit]

Goat milk has a higher proportion of medium-chain fatty acids such as caproic and caprylic which contributes to the characteristic tart flavor of the cheese.[6] It also makes goat milk and cheeses more easily digestible.[7]

Goat milk and, therefore, cheeses contain anti-inflammatory enzymes, probiotics, antioxidants, proteins, and lipids and help maintain a healthy metabolism. These fatty acids take their name from the Latin for "goat": capra.[8] It is also high in calcium, vitamins A and K, phosphororus, thiamin and niacin.[9]

Process[edit]

Goat cheese is made like other cheeses. The milk is filtered to remove unwanted bacteria or deposits. A curdling starter agent is added, which can be rennet, or one or more starter bacteria that will affect the curds' size and eventually the cheese's consistency. Some examples of starters are Lactococcus Lactis, Lactis, Lactococcus Lactis subsp. cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Next, the cheese is molded and separated from the whey (the uncurdled liquid part of the milk). The curds are then molded, dried, flavored and cured. Any variations- the type of starter, the time or pressure of the draining, the temperature and duration of the curing process- will change the texture (soft, semi-hard, hard) and the flavor. [10]

Regional varieties[edit]

Asia[edit]

China[edit]

Japan[edit]

  • Yagi Cheese is a goat cheese made in Japan. Yagi is the Japanese word for goat.[11]

Philippines[edit]

Kesong puti cheese. Moisture content can also vary, ranging from almost gelatinous to pressed and firm. It can be eaten as is, paired with bread (usually pandesal), or used in various dishes in Filipino cuisine
  • Kesong puti is a Filipino soft, unaged, white cheese made from unskimmed carabao milk and salt curdled with vinegar, citrus juices, or sometimes rennet. It can also be made with goat or cow milk. It has a mild salty and tart flavor. When an acidifying agent is used, it resembles queso blanco or paneer. When rennet is used, it resembles buffalo mozzarella. The name, also spelled (Quesong Puti, is Tagalog for "white cheese") and is its name in the provinces of Laguna and Bulacan. In Cavite it is known as kesilyo (also kasilyo or quesillo); while in northern Cebu it is known as queseo or kiseyo.

Middle East[edit]

  • Akkawi cheese ((Arabic: :جبنة عكاوي)), romanized: jubna ʿakkāwī, also Akawi, Akawieh and Ackawi) is a white brine cheese named after the city of Akka (Acre, present-day Israel).[12]
  • Darfyieh is a flavorful cheese that comes specifically from baladi goats and is treated as a delicacy in Dargyieh.[12]
  • Djamid or Jameed is an unripened, hard cheese with a salt encrusted rind popular in Jordan and Syria.[12]
  • Jibneh Arabieh (Arabic: جبنة عربية) (also jibni) is a soft white cheese found all over the Middle East. It is particularly popular in the Persian Gulf region. The cheese has a mild taste similar to feta but less salty. The heritage of the product started with Bedouins using goat or sheep milk; however, current practice is to use cow's milk to make the cheese. Jibneh Arabieh is used for cooking, or simply as a table cheese.[12]
  • Labneh is consumed in many parts of the world. It is primarily produced in Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and Jordan but also throughout much of the Middle-east. It can be served with olive-oil, or seasoned with mint, eaten with salad or as dessert.[12]

Europe[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Goat cheese from Yeghegnadzor, Armenia
  • Yeghegnadzor goat cheese from Armenia.

Balkans[edit]

Sirene cheese
  • Sirene cheese (Albanian: djathë i bardhë; Bulgarian: сирене [ˈsirɛnɛ]; Macedonian: сирење; Serbian: сир/sir) also known as "white brine sirene" (Bulgarian: бяло саламурено сирене) is a type of brined cheese made in the Balkans (South-Eastern Europe), especially popular in Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Romania, Albania, Greece and also in Israel and Lebanon. It is made of the milk of goats, sheep, or cows, or a mixture of these.

North Caucasia[edit]

  • Circassian cheese (Adyghe: адыгэ къуае Adyghe pronunciation: [aːdəɣa qʷaːja], Russian: адыгейский сыр adygeyskiy syr, is a cheese found across the North Caucasus, the Levant and other areas with a Circassian diaspora. The cheese is prepared with raw cow, sheep and/or goats milk (Adyghean cheese - only with cow milk) and molded into a wooden basket.
  • Circassian smoked cheese is a smoked low-fat Circassian cheese, especially produced in the eastern Marmara region of Turkey. It is light yellow or cream-colored with a thick crust. After curdling and straining, the bottom and top of the cheese are salted and it is smoked with pinewood or thick pitch pine in smoking rooms. This process makes the cheese both more flavorful and more long-lasting.

Cyprus[edit]

Denmark[edit]

  • Rosa mundo.
    • Fenna mundo, Flora mundo, Geta mundo, Vita mundo.
  • Cumulu blue.

There are many different goat cheeses made in Denmark.

Finland[edit]

  • Leipäjuusto (bread cheese) or juustoleipä (Meänkieli: kahvijuusto; Swedish: kaffeost or brödost), also known in the United States as Finnish squeaky cheese, is a Finnish fresh cheese traditionally made from cow's beestings, rich milk from a cow that has recently calved. Reindeer or even goat milk can also be used. Commercially available versions are typically made from cow's milk, and they lack some of the colour and flavour because of this. The cheese originally comes from Southern Ostrobothnia, Northern Finland, and Kainuu.

France[edit]

Chevre with lavender and wild fennel

France produces a great number of goat milk cheeses, especially in the Loire Valley and Poitou.

Greece[edit]

  • Feta is made primarily of ewe's milk, with up to 30% of goat milk. Sheep (≥70%) and goat per PDO; similar cheeses may contain cow or buffalo milk.[12]
  • Mizithra or myzithra is a whey cheese which can produced from the whey left over from goat cheeses. It is served either fresh or dried.[12]
  • Anthotyros (Greek: Ανθότυρος) or (Anthotyro in modern Greek, "flowery cheese") is a traditional fresh cheese is a whey cheese using the whey from Kefalotyri or Graviera production and can be made from milk from goats, sheep or a combination. There are dry Anthotyros and fresh Anthotyros. Dry Anthotyros is a matured cheese similar to Mizithra. Anthotyros is made with milk and whey milk. It is served fresh or dried. Anthotyros is produced in Greece, commonly in Thrace, Macedonia, the Ionian Islands and Crete.[12]
  • Manouri (Greek: μανούρι) is a Greek semi-soft, fresh white mixed milk-whey cheese made from goat or sheep milk. It is produced primarily in Thessalia and Macedonia in central and northern Greece.[12]
  • Formaela (Greek: Φορμαέλα) is a hard cheese produced exclusively in Arachova, Greece. It is famous throughout Greece and has been registered in the European Union as a protected designation of origin since 1996. Formaela is prepared mainly from sheep's milk or goat's milk, has a hard and cohesive shell and is a light yellow color, without holes.
  • Kasseri or Kaşar (Greek: κασέρι, Turkish: kaşar is a medium-hard or hard pale yellow cheese made from pasteurised or unpasteurised sheep milk and at most 20% goat's milk. Kasseri is of semi-hard to hard consistency, smooth rather than crumbly, chewy, and with a hard rind. It belongs to the pasta filata family of cheeses, which includes fresh cheeses like mozzarella and aged ones like Provolone or Caciocavallo. Kasseri is a protected designation of origin, according to which the cheese must be made in the Greek provinces of Thessaly, Macedonia, Lesbos, or Xanthi, but a similar type of cheese is found in Turkey, Romania, and the Balkans, where it is known as kashkaval. The same cheese is made with cow's milk, but in that case it cannot be legally sold as kasseri in the EU and is instead sold under names that are particular to each producer.[12]
  • Kefalotyri or kefalotiri (Greek: κεφαλοτύρι, Turkish: talar peyniri) is a hard, salty white cheese made from sheep milk or goat's milk (or both) in Greece and Cyprus. A similar cheese Kefalograviera, also made from sheep or goat milk (or both), is sometimes sold outside Greece and Cyprus as Kefalotyri. Depending on the mixture of milk used in the process the color can vary between yellow and white.[12]
  • Xynomizithra or xynomyzithra (Greek: Ξινομυζήθρα) is a Greek whey cheese with some added milk; it is a sour variant of Mizithra, and made from ewes' and/or goats' milk. The proportion of full-cream milk is about 15%.[12]
  • Xynotyro or Xynotyri is an unpasteurized whey cheese from Greece made from sheep's milk or goat's milk, with a hard and flaky consistency, a pungent aroma and a yogurt-like sweet and sour taste. "Xynotyri" means "sour cheese" in Greek. Traditionally, the cheese is drained and cured in reed baskets or allowed to mature in bags made of animal skin. Cow's milk is not utilized in the production.[12]

Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Ricotta cheese

Malta[edit]

A selection of fresh and cured ġbejniet
  • A ġbejna is a small goat's- or sheep's-milk cheese. Various types are found which include; fresh (friski or tal-ilma), sundried (moxxa, bajda or ta' Għawdex), salt cured (maħsula), peppered (tal-bżar) and seasoned (imħawra).
    • Gbejna friska - a fresh cheeselet similar to ricotta in texture - native to Maltese Islands.
    • Gbejna tal bzar - same as above but aged and coated in black pepper - native to Maltese Islands.
    • Gbejna mghoxxa - same as the fresh cheeslet but left to air dry - native to Maltese Islands.

Netherlands[edit]

  • The Westerkwartier, the region west of the city of Groningen, has a relatively large concentration of organic goat-cheese farms. Well known goat cheeses from this region are Machedoux and Quiorio, brie-like cheeses served in restaurants all over the Netherlands and in Belgium and northern Germany. In other parts of the Netherlands, goat cheese is usually made in the Gouda style.

Norway[edit]

  • Geitost, which means goat cheese, is brown and made from goat milk and whey. Other brown cheeses, such as Brunost ("Brown cheese"), may also be made from cow milk whey, goat milk whey or a combination.
  • Snøfrisk is a fresh goat milk cheese, often made with added flavorings.

Portugal[edit]

Russia[edit]

  • Adygeisky cheese is made from sheep's, goat's, or cow's whole milk.

Serbia[edit]

  • Pule cheese or magareći sir, is a Serbian cheese made from 60% Balkan donkey milk and 40% goat milk.

Spain[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Varieties of tulum, center "Otlu tulum peyniri", or Tulum with herbs, in Ankara
  • Tulum cheese is a goat cheese made in Turkey. (Turkish: tulum peyniri) is a traditional Turkish goat cheese ripened in a goatskin casing, called tulum in Turkish. Due to its unique flavor, it is preferred as meze to rakı in Turkey.
  • Sepet cheese and Kaşar cheese are produced from goat milk and marketed as Goat Sepet cheese and Goat Kaşar cheese.
  • Sutdiyari 'white cheese' is a cheese produced from sheep, cow, or goat milk.
  • Beyaz peynir 'white cheese' is a brined cheese produced from sheep, cow, or goat milk.
    • Ezine Cheese, originating from Ezine, Çanakkale, is a type of Beyaz Peynir including at least 40% goat milk according to the geographical protection rules.[14]
  • Dolaz cheese is a traditional cheese produced from whey by nomad (Karakoyunlu, Hayta, Honamlı, Sarıkeçili Yörüks) in the Lakes region (Isparta, Afyon and Antalya) in Turkey. It is generally made from ewe's and goat's milk.
  • Kars gravyer cheese is a Turkish cheese similar to Gruyère. It is usually made with pure cow's milk or a mixture of cow and goat's milk.
  • Van herbed cheese (Turkish: Van otlu peyniri) is a type of cheese made out of sheep's or cow's milk. Ripened cheese varieties containing herbs are traditional in Turkey and have been manufactured for more than 200 years in the east and southeast of the country.

Ukraine[edit]

Bryndza cheese
Bryndza cheese on a piece of bread
  • Bryndza (from Romanian brânză  – cheese) is a sheep milk cheese made across much of East-Central Europe, primarily in or around the Carpathian Mountains of Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania and southern Poland.[15] Bryndza cheese is creamy white in appearance, known for its characteristic strong smell and taste. The cheese is white, tangy, crumbly and slightly moist. It has characteristic odor and flavor with a notable taste of butyric acid. The overall flavor sensation begins slightly mild, then goes strong and finally fades to a salty finish. Recipes differ slightly across countries. This cheese can also be made with goat milk or cow milk.

United Kingdom[edit]

  • Harbourne Blue.
  • Pantysgawn is a Welsh goat milk cheese.
  • Capricorn is a Somerset goat milk cheese.
  • Gevrik is a goat's milk cheese from Cornwall. The word gevrik means 'little goat' in Cornish.
  • Tesyn is a smoked goat's milk cheese from Cornwall. Tesyn means 'cake' in Cornish.

Americas[edit]

Canada[edit]

Mexico[edit]

  • Añejo cheese (Queso Añejo).
  • Asadero cheese.
  • Cotija cheese.
  • Fresco cheese (Queso Fresco).
  • Manchego cheese.
  • Quesillo Oaxaca cheese.

United States[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

  • In Venezuela, specifically in the states of Falcón, Lara and the population of San Jose de Turgua in Miranda state, many types of goat cheese are produced using traditional methods. A variety of artisanal cheeses are manufactured by smaller producers.[16]

Australian and Oceanian[edit]

Australia[edit]

  • Buche Noir is freshly pressed curd from the Sydney region.

Africa[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Domiati cheese
  • Domiati cheese, also referred to as white cheese (Egyptian Arabic: جبنة بيضا gebna bēḍa  [ˈɡebnæ ˈbeːdɑ]), is a soft white salty cheese made primarily in Egypt, but also in Sudan and other Middle Eastern countries. Typically made from buffalo milk, cow milk, or a mixture, it can also be made from other milks, such as sheep, goat or camel milk. It is the most common Egyptian cheese. Unlike feta and other white cheeses, salt is added directly to the milk, before rennet is added. It is named after the seaport city of Damietta (دمياط).
  • Testouri cheese is a cheese made from sheep milk or goat milk. It is often shaped like an orange, and is eaten fresh and lightly salted. Testouri cheese is popular in North Africa and the Near East. Testouri is popular in East Africa and was introduced by the Ottomans after the 15th century.

South Africa[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ""goat" in French | Lingopolo". lingopolo.org. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  2. ^ a b Sepe, Lucia; Argüello, Anastasio (2019-07-18). "Recent advances in dairy goat products". Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 32 (8): 1306–1320. doi:10.5713/ajas.19.0487. ISSN 1011-2367. PMC 6668858. PMID 31357271.
  3. ^ Rubino, R., Morand-Fehr, P., Sepe, L. (2004). Atlas of goat products. Italy: La Biblioteca di Caseus. ISBN 88-900631-4-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Zsolt, Csapo; Adam, Pentek; Tunde, Csapone Risko (2019). "Perception And Acceptance Of Goat Cheese In Comparision [sic] With Sheep And Cow Cheese €" An Empirical Study". Annals of Faculty of Economics. 1 (2): 248–260.
  5. ^ "NATIONAL GOAT CHEESE MONTH - August". National Day Calendar. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  6. ^ "Goaty - Cheese Science Toolkit". www.cheesescience.org. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  7. ^ Meira, Quênia Gramile Silva; Magnani, Marciane; de Medeiros Júnior, Francisco Cesino; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egito; Madruga, Marta Suely; Gullón, Beatriz; Gomes, Ana Maria Pereira; Pintado, Maria Manuela Estevez; de Souza, Evandro Leite (2015-10-01). "Effects of added Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics on the quality characteristics of goat ricotta and their survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions". Food Research International. 76 (Pt 3): 828–838. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.08.002. ISSN 0963-9969. PMID 28455069.
  8. ^ "Capric acid" Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine, Chemical LAND21.com. Accessed 26 June 2008.
  9. ^ Zsolt, Csapo; Adam, Pentek; Tunde, Csapone Risko (2019). "Perception And Acceptance Of Goat Cheese In Comparision [sic] With Sheep And Cow Cheese €" An Empirical Study". Annals of Faculty of Economics. 1 (2): 248–260.
  10. ^ Nayik, Gulzar Ahmad; Jagdale, Yash D.; Gaikwad, Sailee A.; Devkatte, Anupama N.; Dar, Aamir Hussain; Dezmirean, Daniel Severus; Bobis, Otilia; Ranjha, Muhammad Modassar A. N.; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Alotaibi, Saqer S. (2021). "Recent Insights Into Processing Approaches and Potential Health Benefits of Goat Milk and Its Products: A Review". Frontiers in Nutrition. 8: 789117. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.789117. ISSN 2296-861X. PMC 8685332. PMID 34938763.
  11. ^ "A Comprehensive Guide to Goat Cheese". The Manual. 2021-04-14. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rubino, R., Morand-Fehr, P., Sepe, L. (2004). Atlas of goat products. Italy: La Biblioteca di Caseus. ISBN 88-900631-4-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ "Goat cheese – Cheese for you". cheeseforyou.com. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  14. ^ Archived Copy Türk Patent Kurumu. (in Turkish) Archived 2021-05-01 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Cheese Description: Bryndza". Cheese.com. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  16. ^ Idalia De León. "Estampas" (in Spanish). El Universal. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05.

External links[edit]