God Makes the Rivers to Flow
Cover of complete edition, 2009
|Language||English (also translated
|Publisher||Nilgiri, Jaico, Éditions Fides|
|1982; 2009; others|
|Media type||book; ebook; audio|
|Pages||96 (1982); 334 (2009)|
God Makes the Rivers to Flow is an anthology of spiritual texts for use in meditation, assembled by Eknath Easwaran. Condensed versions have been published under the titles Timeless Wisdom (book) and Sacred Literature of the World (audio recording). First published as a book in the US in 1982, progressively enlarged or revised versions of God Makes the Rivers to Flow were also issued in the US in 1991, 2003, and 2009. English editions have been published in India, and a French edition has been published. The book has been reviewed in newspapers, magazines, professional journals, and websites, and utilized in research studies and education.
For nearly four decades, Easwaran taught a method of meditation, known as passage meditation, which involves focusing the mind on inspiring sacred texts, such as the 23rd Psalm or the Buddha's Discourse on Good Will. Throughout this time, he received inquiries about whether various texts were suitable passages for meditation. He taught that passages should meet the criteria he had learned to trust in his own practice: a passage should be "positive, practical, universal, and inspiring".:12 and drawn from a scripture or a person whose words and life attest to spiritual realization. God Makes the Rivers to Flow grew as a collection of such passages.
All US editions of God Makes the Rivers to Flow and its derivatives contain an introduction, plus numerous 1- to 3- or more page selections of spiritual texts from many traditions. Examples of spiritual texts are shown in the table at right.
|Examples of Inspirational Passages
(God Makes the Rivers to Flow)
|Lord, make me an instrument of thy peace|
|Where there is hatred let me sow love...|
|Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one...|
|And these words... shall be upon your heart, and you shall teach them always to your children...|
|May all beings be filled with joy and peace...|
|Just as a mother with her own life protects her child... So within yourself let grow a boundless love for all creatures...|
|Let nothing upset you; Let nothing frighten you.|
|Everything is changing; God alone is changeless...|
|Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.|
|Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted...|
|...O thou the savior of all who take refuge in thee,|
|The lowly and the distressed – O Mother Divine, we salute thee...|
|Though God be everywhere present, yet He is only present to thee in the deepest and most central part of thy soul....|
|This depth is... so infinite that nothing can satisfy it or give it any rest but the infinity of God.|
|O Great Spirit, whose voice I hear in the winds...|
|I am small and weak. I need your strength and wisdom...|
|All that we are is the result of what we have thought:|
|We are formed and molded by our thoughts...|
|The Prophet said, God Most High has said:|
|When my worshipper's thoughts turn to Me, there I am with him... and if he come to Me walking, I come to him running...|
|I know the path: it is strait and narrow...|
|I rejoice to walk on it. I weep when I slip. God's word is: "He who strives never perishes"...|
Easwaran's Introduction uses a sculptural metaphor to explain how passages can be used beneficially in meditation. He tells the story of an ancient Indian sculptor who was renowned for vivid representations of elephants. His secret, the sculptor explained, was that after quarrying a giant rock,
“for a long time, I do nothing but observe... and study it from every angle. I focus all my concentration on this task... At first, I see nothing but a huge and shapeless rock... Then slowly, very slowly, I... feel a presentiment... an outline, scarcely discernible, shows itself to me... An elephant is stirring in there!... I now know the one thing I must do:... I must chip away every last bit of stone that is not elephant. What then remains will be, must be, elephant.”
Similarly, Easwaran says, meditation helps us to reveal "our higher self... [a] spark of divinity [that] is to be found in the heart of each human being.... [by] resolutely chip[ping] away whatever is not divine in ourselves.":16 This process is neither easy or quick, and "can't be done in a week or by the weak.":16 But "whatever our tradition, we are inheritors of straightforward spiritual practices [that] vary a bit from culture to culture... but essentially... are the same.":19 Meditation is the most potent practice, enabling us to "see the lineaments of our true self"::19
In meditation, the inspirational passage is the chisel, our concentration is the hammer.... When we use our will to drive the thin edge of the passage deep into consciousness, we get the purchase to pry loose tenacious habits and negative attitudes. The passage, whether it is from the Bhagavad Gita or The Imitation of Christ or the Dhammapada of the Buddha, has been tempered in the flames of mystical experience...:19
According to Easwaran, "the great principle upon which meditation rests is that we become what we meditate on.":22 This, he says, is consistent with our experience that even in everyday life, we are shaped by what occupies our thoughts – for example, if we spend most of our time "studying the market, checking the money rates, evaluating our portfolios, we are going to become money-people.":22 Thus, in selecting meditation passages, Easwaran has "aimed for the highest the human being is capable of, the most noble and elevating truths that have ever been expressed on this planet.":23 Indeed,
The test of suitable meditation passages is simply this: Does the passage bear the imprint of deep, personal spiritual experience? Is it the statement of one who went beyond the narrow confines of past conditioning into the unfathomable recesses of the mind, there to begin the great work of transformation?.... whatever lacks this validation by personal experience, however poetic or imaginative... is not suited for use in meditation.:21–2
He also states that passages should be "life affirming,":22 and encourages building a varied repertoire of passages that can "guard against overfamiliarity.... [and] match a passage to your particular need at the time.":23
The 2nd and 3rd editions contain several supplementary sections:
- A description of 8-point program of passage meditation recommended by Easwaran, involving silently and slowly focusing the mind on memorized or previously known passages (6 pages)
- A post-script on the "Message of the Scriptures," describing the goal of meditation as a "deathless state of Self-realization.... the message of every major scripture [and] the testimony of mystics everywhere, East or West.":256–7 (3 pages)
- The author's statement of what he believes separates the book from other sacred literature collections: that it functions as an instrument for transforming one's life. He states he can "testify from my own experience [that the passages] have the power to remake personality in the image of one's highest ideals.":13 ("Preface," 1 page)
- Indices by source, title, and first line
- Biographical and bibliographic notes on passage sources
|"How to Use This Book" subsections:
(God Makes the Rivers to Flow, 3rd ed.)
The Power of the Word
Notes examples and views from major faith traditions of the transforming power of sacred words, including
...[and] in the Rig Veda...
...sixth century pope Gregory the Great has described how...
"It is God who speaks to us.... he who makes us hear them today already had us in mind when he inspired them of old...":267–8
Explains how to use the passages for lectio divina, an ancient Christian practice.
|•||To practice lectio divina with this book... Choose a passage and read it through slowly... reflect... Are there any words or phrases that seem especially significant...?:269|
Explains that lectio divina, if "practiced frequently in an organized sequence of readings... becomes lectio continua, an ongoing and systematic review of inspired texts";:270
|•||the main difference between works of literature and works of mysticism [is] you can read the mystics over and over again and have the impact at a deeper and deeper level:270–271|
|•||spiritual passages in this book have been arranged as a lectionary of the perennial philosophy.... You might find it helpful to keep a journal...:271|
|•||most of us in the modern world do not have the supportive framework of the great liturgical cultures that provide continuous nourishment... as ubiquitous and available in the past as modern advertising is in our own times.:273|
|•||We need a way to draw the power of the word down into the crucible of consciousness...:274|
|•||Memory is a mental muscle which gets stronger with use.... Some people are auditory learners.... You might try getting together with other auditory learners.... Visual learners seem to do better with silently reading...:274|
The 3rd edition – published originally in 2003, and revised in 2009 – also contains:
- "How to Use This Book," with subsections on: The power of the word, and on methods of using passages for lectio divina, lectio continua, and passage meditation (12 pages) (see Table at right).
- "Recommended Passages for Specific Uses," which suggests lists of especially helpful passages for particular stages of life (e.g., expectant mothers, caregivers, illness); for building specific positive qualities (e.g., patience, compassion, courage, devotion); or addressing and changing specific negative patterns of thinking (e.g., anger, fear, jealousy, greed). (6 pages)
The condensed edition (Timeless Wisdom, 2008) contains about half of the 3rd edition's passages, plus its Introduction, and a new 6-page preface, "In the Company of Saints & Sages," offering examples of how passages can function as a "mirror for helping us translate the lofty vision of the world's great spiritual traditions" into our daily lives.
Reviews and influence
Reviews have appeared in the International Journal of Humanities & Peace, Resurgence, New Age Journal, Prairie Messenger, BC Catholic, Fellowship in Prayer, The Times of India, India-West, and elsewhere.
In The International Journal of Humanities & Peace, Carol Burke wrote that God Makes the Rivers to Flow (2003) contains "rich resources" that offer "much to satisfy even the most restless mind.":113 In addition to the "vast assortment of inspiring passages,":113–4 the section on using passages for specific purposes is "practical," the biographical notes are "interesting,":114 and the introduction "entertainingly encourages":114 readers to begin personal transformation. Burke states that many passage sources will be familiar, but "many other passages perhaps less familiar, from Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and the Sufi and Native American traditions... are equally inspiring.":114 She adds that "in this reviewer's opinion, it is regrettable that nothing appears from the eloquent Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph.":114
In Resurgence, Marian van Eyk McCain wrote that "it feels refreshingly ecumenical to see sacred texts from many different wisdom traditions gathering peaceably between two covers." God Makes the Rivers to Flow "contains old favorites like the Prayer of St Francis," verses from well-known scriptures, psalms, prayers, poems, two Native American pieces, and selections from "many... individual sages like Gandhi, Shankara, Hildegard, Thomas à Kempis and Hazrat Inayat Khan." McCain also warned those "like me" with an aversion to a "preponderance of male pronouns" that "The divine feminine is seriously under-represented here (less than five percent) and only one fifth of the pieces are gender-neutral." In response, a letter from a reader, Margaret Purrett, also published by Resurgence, argued that "meditators need to be tolerant of metaphors for divinity and gender usage from the past. I would not like to be prevented from enjoying and using the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedas, Dhammapada, or the Psalms merely because of references to male pronouns. Would anyone?" Purrett stated that "In fact, Eknath Easwaran made new translations of many passages to make them more neutral for this last edition, and he changed many of the masculine singulars to neutral plurals."
The Times of India described the passages in God Makes the Rivers to Flow as "positive and practical, inspiring and life-affirming," "alive with the charge of mystical awareness," and having "the power to change your life."
Prairie Messenger, a Roman Catholic publication, stated that "these texts should have wide-ranging appeal since they are devoted to catching a glimpse of our inner being. Having taught meditation for over 30 years, Easwaran knows the importance of texts, the discipline of mental training, the use of a mantram, a holy formula, and daily meditation periods.... Easwaran is a faithful guide."
|A series on the life and works of|
|Books on Meditation|
|Daily Readers + Reference|
God Makes the Rivers to Flow
|Other works · Other influence
— Image courtesy of —
Blue Mountain Center of Meditation
Reviewing the audio edition (1995), Fellowship in Prayer stated that "There is no end to the beauty that pours forth from the Blue Mountain Meditation Center in California, where Sri Eknath Easwaran continues to weave the golden threads of his ministry." The reviewer described the audio as "magnificent," stating that "the depths of Easwaran's great soul brings each text to its most full expression of beauty and holiness... one has a sense of huge ocean waves rolling slowly, quietly, softly, timelessly, onto a distant shore.... My heart overflows with gratitude."
In B.C. Catholic's review of the audio edition (1995), Paul Matthew St. Pierre stated that "All of them [the passages] are spiritually thrilling both in their content and as read aloud by Easwaran." St. Pierre stated that "My own position... is that works of literature are to be read aloud, to be assigned a voice," and that
Having now listened (twice!) to all 170 minutes of readings, I feel confident in stating that this tape will stand up to repeated "hearings" from audiences interested in ecumenical Scriptures and holy books by saints and mystics, and in particular audiences looking for inspiration and dedicated to meditation.
New Age Journal stated that "as an attractive sampler of sacred literature [the book] would be impressive enough. But these passages were chosen... for their transformative power.... The meanings and rhythms of the selections are calming. Their beauty inevitably emanates from their simplicity."
BC Catholic's review of the 3rd edition (2003) stated that "This would be a wonderful book to help with one's Advent preparation and discipline... the book is designed for lectio divina and meditation.... the book... will fill readers with a sense of wonder, mostly obviously because it collects profoundly inspirational passages... but also because it demands that readers study the passages deferentially, with reverence." It mentioned many passages as comprising "Catholic content," and stated that
All the content, from all the faith traditions, in the spirit of ecumenism, is deeply inspirational. For example, the 'Invocations' of Ansari of Herat.... "O Lord, give me that right discrimination / That the lure of the world may cheat me no more. Give me strength / That my faith suffer no eclipse." This prayer evokes not only the penitence of Ramadan (Islam's month of fasting...) but also the preparation and discipline of Advent.
Excerpts from the book have been quoted or reproduced in journals, magazines, and numerous books. Large portions of the introduction were reproduced in 2008 in Yoga Journal.
Research and education
God Makes the Rivers to Flow has been used as instructional materials in scientific studies of Easwaran's Passage Meditation among health professionals and college undergraduates. Educational psychologists have used the book in college courses to foster learning from "spiritual models" – people, such as the authors of the passages, who exemplify spiritual qualities. The passages were viewed as providing spiritual "modeling information.":92
The original edition was published as a printed book in 1982 by Nilgiri Press. Additional English-language versions, sometimes condensed, or in electronic or audio recording form, have been published in the US and India. A translation has also been published in French.
The English-language editions are:
- Eknath, Eknath (2009). God makes the rivers to flow: an anthology of the world's sacred poetry & prose (3rd, revised ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 978-1-58638-038-0. (334 pages); ISBN 1-58638-038-9, OCLC 351322283
- Eknath, Eknath (2003). God Makes the Rivers to Flow: Sacred Literature of the World / Selected by Eknath Easwaran (3rd ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 978-1-58638-008-3. (332 pages); ISBN 1-58638-008-7, OCLC 56541933
- Eknath, Eknath (1991). God Makes the Rivers to Flow: Selections from the Sacred Literature of the World / Chosen for Daily Meditation by Eknath Easwaran (2nd ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 0-915132-69-9. (207 pages); ISBN 0-915132-68-0 (paper) OCLC 24373242
- Eknath, Eknath (1982). God Makes the Rivers to Flow: Passages for Meditation Selected by Eknath Easwaran (1st ed.). Petaluma, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 0-915132-28-1. (96 pages); ISBN 0-915132-29-X (paper) OCLC 8475279
- Eknath, Eknath (2008). Timeless wisdom: passages for meditation from the world's saints & sages (1st ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 978-1-58638-027-4. (227 pages); ISBN 1-58638-027-3, OCLC 209590564
Indian editions (condensed and full):
- Eknath, Eknath (2009). Timeless wisdom: passages for meditation from the world's saints and sages. Mumbai, India: Jaico. ISBN 978-81-7992-950-6. (227 pages); ISBN 81-7992-950-7, OCLC 421024277
- Eknath, Eknath (2004). God makes the rivers to flow: sacred literature of the world. Mumbai, India: Jaico. ISBN 978-81-7992-330-6. (332 pages); ISBN 81-7992-330-4, OCLC 428014291
- Eknath, Eknath (1997). Sacred literature of the world. Mumbai, India: Jaico. ISBN 978-81-7224-582-5. (208 pages); ISBN 81-7224-582-3
- Wikipedia article in French publisher: Éditions Fides
- Eknath, Eknath (1997). Les grands textes spirituels du monde entire. Marie-Annick Thabaud (trans.). Saint-Laurent, Québec, Canada: Les Editions Fides. ISBN 978-2-7621-2002-8. (247 pages); ISBN 2-7621-2002-0, OCLC 37490962
- Non-US editions of Nilgiri Press Books, by Language, accessed 21 Sep 2011.
- Anonymous (28 January 2007). "God makes the rivers to flow [review of book by Eknath Easwaran]". The Times of India (The Times Group). Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- Punita Ghosh (23 January 2004). "Untitled [ review of God makes the rivers to flow, by Eknath Easwaran]". India-West. pp. B15.
- Marian van Eyk McCain (2004). "Untitled [review of God makes the rivers to flow (3rded.), by Eknath Easwaran ]". Resurgence (The Resurgence Trust) 14 (222): 72. ISSN 0034-5970. OCLC 1763807
- JWG (James William Gray) (1995). "Glimpsing the splendor of our inner being". Prairie Messenger (Benedictine Monks of St. Peter's Abbey) 73: 11. OCLC 2587655 (review of 1995 audio edition)
- St. Pierre, Paul Matthew (1995). "Reading Aloud". B.C. Catholic (Catholic Church, Archdiocese of Vancouver) 65 (21). ISSN 0007-0483. OCLC 2321752
- St. Pierre, Paul Matthew (2003). "Advent Readings". B.C. Catholic (Catholic Church, Archdiocese of Vancouver) 73 (27 Oct.): 7. ISSN 0007-0483. OCLC 2321752
- MFG (Mary Ford Grabowsky) (1995). "Untitled [review of sacred literature of the world, by Eknath Easwaran]". Fellowship in Prayer (Fellowship in Prayer, Inc.) 46 (3). ISSN 0014-9837. OCLC 3372402
- E.S. (1992). "Spirituality [ review of books including God makes the rivers to flow, by Eknath Easwaran]". New Age Journal (Rising Star Associates) 9 (May/June): 100. ISSN 0746-3618. OCLC 9978138
- Carol T. Burke (2004). "Untitled [review of God makes the rivers to flow, by Eknath Easwaran ]". International Journal of Humanities and Peace (Flagstaff, AZ: International Journal of Humanities and Peace) 20 (1): 113–114. ISSN 1042-4032. (journal OCLC 60625117)
- Review of God Makes the Rivers to Flow (3rd edition) at Spirituality and Practice (accessed 8 May 2011).
- Doug Oman, T. Anne Richards, John Hedberg & Carl E. Thoresen (2008). "Passage meditation improves caregiving self-efficacy among health professionals: A randomized trial and qualitative assessment". Journal of Health Psychology 13 (8): 1119–1135. doi:10.1177/1359105308095966. ISSN 1359-1053. PMID 18987085.
- Doug Oman, Tim Flinders & Carl E. Thoresen (2008). "Integrating spiritual modeling into education: A college course for stress management and spiritual growth". International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 18 (2): 79–107. doi:10.1080/10508610701879316. ISSN 1050-8619. OCLC 45255134
- God Makes the Rivers to Flow, 2009 edition, ISBN 978-1-58638-038-0
- Pages 21 (1982 ed.), 29 (1991 ed.), 109 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- The Shema (Deut. 4:6-). Pages 26 (1982 ed.), 34 (1991 ed.), 103 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- Discourse on Good Will, pages 45 (1982 ed.), 60–61 (1991 ed.), 104–105 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- Pages 30 (1982 ed.), 174 (1991 ed.), 206 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- See also article on the book Original Goodness, Easwaran's commentary on the Sermon on the Mount in light of his own experience and on how the Sermon can be used in the methods of passage meditation that he has developed.
- Sermon on the Mount, Gospel of Saint Matthew. Pages 64–65 (1982 ed.), 88–91 (1991 ed.), 106–108 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- Chandi. Pages 31 (1982 ed.), 35 (1991 ed.), 36 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- . Page 48 (2003 ed.).
- Let Me Walk in Beauty, pages 162 (1991 ed.), 188 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- Dhammapada, chapter 1, "Twin verses". Pages 32–33 (1982 ed.), 43–45 (1991 ed.), 86–88 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- Mishkat al-Masabih, page 181 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- Pages 59 (1982 ed.), 115 (1991 ed.), 202 (2003 & 2009 eds.).
- This is a photograph of a statue of Guruvayur Keshavan, an elephant who lived the last 54 years of his life, until 1976, at Guruvayur Temple in Kerala state, India. The elephant was reported to display many signs of devotion to God. See "'Guruvayur Keshavan' Remembered" in The Hindu, Sunday, 11 Dec 2005.
- The elephant is used as both a metaphor (e.g., "once we have become attentive to the presence of this true self, then all we really need do is resolutely chip away whatever is not divine in ourselves," p. 16) and a simile (e.g., "we wouldn't use a dull chisel or one meant for wood on a piece of stone, and we should use suitable passages for meditation," p. 21), 2009 edition.
- Direct link: "For a long time...", page 15, God Makes the Rivers to Flow (2009)
- Pages 265–268 (2003 ed.), 266–268 (2009 ed.).
- Pages 268–269 (2003 ed.), 268–270 (2009 ed.).
- Pages 269–271 (2003 ed.), 270–273 (2009 ed.).
- Pages 272–275 (2003 ed.), 273–277 (2009 ed.).
- Not all 2009 categories were present in the 2003 edition's section, which was titled "Using Inspirational Passages to Change Negative Thinking" (pp. 277–281).
- In comparison to God Makes the Rivers to Flow (3rd ed., 2003 or 2009), Timeless Wisdom (2008) has a small number of new passages, including Psalm 119, the opening verses of the Quran, a poem from Judah Halevy, and a poem from Guru Nanak.
- Page 13, Timeless Wisdom (2008).
- Margaret Purrett (2004). "Engendering Change [letter commenting on review of God makes the rivers to flow, by Eknath Easwaran]". Resurgence (The Resurgence Trust). 14(226) (226): 60. ISSN 0034-5970. OCLC 1763807 (letter signed by Margaret Purrett of Voorschoten, The Netherlands)
- The Prairie Messenger's website states that "True to its Catholic tradition, the Prairie Messenger seeks to mirror for the church on the Prairies the whole reality of the pilgrim People of God as they seek to better understand, make present and judge themselves by the kingdom of God as announced in the liberating and merciful news of Jesus Christ." (accessed 26 June 2011)
- A fuller version of St. Pierre's statement is: "My own position as an English professor is that works of literature are to be read aloud, to be assigned a voice, either from within the text (the voice of author, narrator, or character) or from outside the text (the voice of the reader). This oral dimension of inscribed texts is no more evident than in works that have their origin in oral traditions, such as the scriptures of most of the world's religions. The Hebrew and Christian Scriptures are less a recorded than an authored text, recorded by men and women, but first authored (spoken) by God. Before they came to be recorded, these Scriptures circulated within the Jewish and Christian faith communities, passed on by word of mouth, from generation to generation."
- "The Catholic content comprises Psalms 23, 24, 100, and 139; Saint Anselm's 'Teach Me'; Saint Symeon the New Theologian's 'I know That He Reveals Himself'; Saint Francis of Assisi's 'Prayer of Saint Francis' and Saint Clare of Assisi's 'The Mirror of Eternity'; Christ's 'Sermon on the Mount' from the Gospel of Saint Matthew; 'When You Call' from the Book of Isaiah; St. Paul's 'Epistle on Love'; St. Therese of Liseux's 'Living on Love'; and St. Teresa of Avila's 'I Gave All My Heart' and 'Her Heart is Full of Joy.' Other contributions are by Sts. Ignatius of Loyola, Bernard of Clairvaux, Catherine of Genoa, Brother Lawrence, Francis de Sales, Augustine, and Patrick; and by Hildegard of Bingen, Elizabeth of the Trinity, Mechthild of Magdeburg, Thomas a Kempis, and Cardinal John Henry Newman." (St. Pierre, 2003, p. 7)
- Ashok M. Karnik (2002). "End-of-life issues and the do-not-resuscitate order". Chest (American College of Chest Physicians) 121 (3): 683–686. doi:10.1378/chest.121.3.683. ISSN 0012-3692. PMID 11888944.
- Gandhi's "I know the path..." is quoted on page 71 of: Bill McKibben (1999). "The end of growth". Mother Jones (Foundation For National Progress) 24 (6): 68–71, 94–95.
- A search in Google Books, excluding books authored by Easwaran himself, gave 71 hits (25 June 2011).
- p. 102 in Herlihy, John (2005). Borderlands of the spirit: Reflections on a sacred science of mind. Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, Inc. ISBN 978-0-941532-67-9.
- Pp. 29, 42 of Weil, Zoe (2009). Most good, least harm: A simple principle for a better world and a meaningful life. New York: Atria Books. ISBN 978-1-58270-206-3.
- Eknath Easwaran (2008). "Uncover your true self". Yoga Journal 216: 93–96.
- T. Anne Richards, Doug Oman, John Hedberg, Carl E. Thoresen & Jeanne Bowden (2006). "A qualitative examination of a spiritually-based intervention and self-management in the workplace". Nursing Science Quarterly 19 (3): 231–239. doi:10.1177/0894318406289490. ISSN 0894-3184. PMID 16757790.
- Doug Oman, Shauna L. Shapiro, Carl E. Thoresen, Tim Flinders, Joseph D. Driskill & Thomas G. Plante (2007). "Learning from spiritual models and meditation: A randomized evaluation of a college course". Pastoral Psychology 55 (4): 473–493. doi:10.1007/s11089-006-0062-x. ISSN 1573-6679.
- Shauna L. Shapiro, Doug Oman, Carl E. Thoresen, Thomas G. Plante & Tim Flinders (2008). "Cultivating mindfulness: Effects on well-being". Journal of Clinical Psychology 64 (7): 840–862. doi:10.1002/jclp.20491. ISSN 1097-4679. PMID 18484600.
- "Meditating on the information in these passages fosters its retention, thereby facilitating its reproduction in behavior later during the day (e.g., when a meditator remembers Saint Francis’s words “where there is hatred let me sow love”). Recommended meditation passages also motivate by including exemplars’ accounts of positive rewards and benefits of spiritual living" (p. 92, Oman, Flinders & Thoresen, 2008, italics in original)
Audio versions: Examples from Sacred Literature of the World (audio book)