Nuuk

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Nuuk
Godthåb
City
Nuuk and Katuaq - Visit Greenland.jpg Nuuk Teletaarnet.jpg
Nuussuaq-district-nuuk-aerial.jpg Qernertunnguit.jpg
Nuuk city below Sermitsiaq.JPG
Nuussuaq district of Nuuk with the Sermitsiaq mountain in the background
Flag of Nuuk
Flag
Coat of arms of Nuuk
Coat of arms
Nuuk is located in Greenland
Nuuk
Nuuk
Location within Greenland
Coordinates: 64°10′30″N 51°44′20″W / 64.17500°N 51.73889°W / 64.17500; -51.73889Coordinates: 64°10′30″N 51°44′20″W / 64.17500°N 51.73889°W / 64.17500; -51.73889
State  Denmark
Constituent country  Greenland
Municipality Sermersooq-coat-of-arms.png Sermersooq
Founded 29 August 1728
Incorporated 1728
Government
 • Mayor Asii Chemnitz Narup (Inuit Ataqatigiit)
Area
 • City 690 km2 (265 sq mi)
Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2016)
 • City 17,316[1] (Largest in Greenland)
 • Metro 18,040 (including Qeqertarsuatsiaat and Kapisillit)
  City and metropolitan population is co-extensive, the entire Metro area belongs to Nuuk City
Demonym(s) Nuummioq
Time zone Western Greenland Standard (UTC−03:00)
 • Summer (DST) Western Greenland Daylight (UTC−02:00)
Postal code 3900

Nuuk (Greenlandic pronunciation: [nuːk], Danish: [ˈnuːɡ]; Colonial name Danish: Godthåb)[2] is the capital and largest city of Greenland and the municipality of Sermersooq. It is the seat of government and the country's largest cultural and economic centre. The major cities closest to the capital are Iqaluit and St. John's in Canada and Reykjavík in Iceland. Nuuk contains almost a third of Greenland's population, and also has the tallest building in Greenland. Nuuk is the seat of government for the Sermersooq municipality. In January 2016, it had a population of 17,316.[3]

Nuuk is the Kalaallisut word for "cape". It is so named because of its position at the end of the Nuup Kangerlua fjord on the eastern shore of the Labrador Sea. Its latitude, at 64°10' N, makes it the world's northernmost capital, located only a few kilometres farther north than the Icelandic capital Reykjavík. Since 2009, the city bus service Nuup Bussii provides city transport services in Nuuk for the new Sermersooq municipality,[4] linking the town centre with the outlying districts and neighborhoods[5] of Nuussuaq, Qinngorput, as well as Qernertunnguit in Quassussuup Tungaa.[6] In 2012 the buses transported more than 2 million passengers around the city of Nuuk. The campus of the University of Greenland, hosting Statistics Greenland, and the main holdings of the Public and National Library of Greenland[7] is located at the northern end of the district, near the road to the Nuuk Airport.[8]

Nuuk receives its electric power mainly from the renewable energy-powered Buksefjord hydroelectric power plant by way of a 132 kV powerline crossing Ameralik fjord over a distance of 5,376 m (17,638 ft), the world's longest free span.[9][10]

History[edit]

The site has a long history of habitation. The area around Nuuk was first occupied by the ancient pre-Inuit, Paleo-Eskimo people of the Saqqaq culture as far back as 2200 BC when they lived in the area around the now abandoned settlement of Qoornoq.[11] For a long time it was occupied by the Dorset culture around the former settlement of Kangeq but they disappeared from the Nuuk district before AD 1000. The Nuuk area was later inhabited by Viking explorers in the 10th century (Western Settlement), and shortly thereafter by Inuit peoples.[12] Inuit and Norsemen both lived with little interaction in this area from about 1000 until the disappearance of the Norse settlement for uncertain reasons during the 15th century.

The statue of Hans Egede in Nuuk.

The city proper was founded as the fort of Godt-Haab in 1728 by the royal governor Claus Paarss, when he relocated the missionary and merchant Hans Egede's earlier Hope Colony (Haabets Koloni) from Kangeq Island to the mainland. At that time, Greenland was formally still a Danish colony under the united Dano-Norwegian Crown, but the colony had not had any contact for over three centuries. Paarss's colonists consisted of mutinous soldiers, convicts, and prostitutes and most died within the first year of scurvy and other ailments. In 1733 and 1734, a smallpox epidemic killed most of the native population as well as Egede's wife.[13] Hans Egede went back to Denmark in 1736 after 15 years in Greenland, leaving his son Poul to continue his work.[14] Godthaab became the seat of government for the Danish colony of South Greenland,[15] while Godhavn (modern Qeqertarsuaq) was the capital of North Greenland until 1940 when the administration was unified in Godthaab.[16]

In 1733, Moravian missionaries received permission to begin a mission on the island; in 1747, there were enough converts to prompt the construction of the Moravian Brethren Mission House and the formal establishment of the mission as New Herrnhut (Danish: Nye-Hernhut). This became the nucleus for present-day Nuuk as many Greenlanders from the southeastern coast left their territory to live at the mission station. From this base, further missions were established at Lichtenfels (1748), Lichtenau (1774), Friedrichsthal (1824), Umanak (1861), and Idlorpait (1864),[17] before they were discontinued in 1900 and folded into the Lutheran Church of Denmark.[18]

Around 1850, Greenland, and especially the area around Nuuk, were in crisis. The Europeans had brought diseases and a culture that conflicted with the ways of the native Greenlanders. Many Greenlanders were living in poverty. In 1853, Hinrich Johannes Rink came to Greenland and perceived the Greenlanders had lost much of their culture and identity under Danish influence. In response, in 1861, he started the Atuagagdliutt, Greenland's first newspaper, with a native Greenlander as editor. This newspaper based in Nuuk later became significant for the Greenlandic identity.

During World War II, there was a reawakening to Greenlandic national identity. Greenlanders shared a written language and assembled a council under Eske Brun's leadership in Nuuk. In 1940, an American and a Canadian Consulate were established in Nuuk. Under new regulations in 1950, two councils amalgamated into one. This Countryside Council was abolished on 1 May 1979, when the city of Godthåb was renamed Nuuk by the Greenland Home Rule government. The city boomed during the 1950s when Denmark began to modernise Greenland. As in Greenland as a whole, Nuuk is populated today by both Inuit and Danes. Over a third of Greenland's total population lives in the Nuuk Greater Metropolitan area.[19]

An article examining indigenous influences on cities worldwide[20] suggested,

One city... stands out. Nuuk... has probably the highest percentage of aboriginal people of any city: almost 90% of Greenland’s population of 58,000 is Inuit, and least eight in 10 live in urban settlements. Nuuk also celebrates Inuit culture and history to an extent that is unprecedented in many cities with higher total aboriginal populations. By proportion and by cultural authority and impact, it may well be tiny Nuuk that is the most indigenous city in the world.[20]

Geography[edit]

Left: Satellite view. Right: Aerial view of Nuuk

Nuuk is located at approximately 64°10′N 51°44′W / 64.167°N 51.733°W / 64.167; -51.733[21] at the mouth of Nuup Kangerlua (formerly Baal's River[22]), some 10 km (6.2 mi) from the shores of the Labrador Sea on the southwestern coast of Greenland, and about 240 km (150 mi) south of the Arctic Circle. Initially, the fjord flows to the northwest, to then turn southwest at 64°43′N 50°37′W / 64.717°N 50.617°W / 64.717; -50.617, splitting into three arms in its lower run, with three big islands in between the arms: Sermitsiaq Island, Qeqertarsuaq Island, and Qoornuup Qeqertarsua.[23] The fjord widens into a bay dotted with skerries near its mouth, opening into Labrador Sea at approximately 64°03′N 51°58′W / 64.050°N 51.967°W / 64.050; -51.967. Some 20 km (12 mi) to the northeast, reaching a height of 1,210 m (3,970 ft), Sermitsiaq can be seen from almost everywhere in Nuuk. The mountain has given its name to the nationwide newspaper Sermitsiaq. Closer to the town are the peaks of Store Malene, 790 m (2,590 ft), and Lille Malene, 420 m (1,380 ft).[24] The magnetic declination at Nuuk is extreme.[25][26]

Climate[edit]

Nuuk has a maritime-influenced tundra climate (Köppen ET) with cold, long, snowy winters and cool, short summers. On 22 December, the shortest day and longest night of the year, the sun rises at 10:30 and sets at 14:20. By contrast, on the longest day and shortest night of the year, 21 June, the sun rises at 03:00 and does not set until 00:00. Nuuk can have mild temperatures on brief occasions year round, with each month having recorded 13 °C (55 °F) or warmer. The monthly averages range from −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) to 8 °C (46 °F), whereas all-time extremes range from −32.5 °C (−26.5 °F) to 26.3 °C (79.3 °F).

Climate data for Nuuk (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.5
(56.3)
13.0
(55.4)
14.8
(58.6)
13.0
(55.4)
18.3
(64.9)
24.0
(75.2)
26.3
(79.3)
22.0
(71.6)
22.8
(73)
18.9
(66)
15.8
(60.4)
13.2
(55.8)
26.3
(79.3)
Average high °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−4.9
(23.2)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.9
(39)
8.5
(47.3)
11.2
(52.2)
10.1
(50.2)
6.5
(43.7)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
−3.1
(26.4)
1.4
(34.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.5
(18.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−7.4
(18.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.8
(35.2)
5.4
(41.7)
8.0
(46.4)
7.6
(45.7)
4.5
(40.1)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
Average low °C (°F) −10.5
(13.1)
−11.1
(12)
−10.3
(13.5)
−5
(23)
−1
(30)
2.1
(35.8)
4.2
(39.6)
4.5
(40.1)
2.3
(36.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
−7.6
(18.3)
−2.5
(27.5)
Record low °C (°F) −32.5
(−26.5)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−20.0
(−4)
−15.0
(5)
−10.3
(13.5)
−6.6
(20.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−8.2
(17.2)
−16.6
(2.1)
−24.4
(−11.9)
−22.2
(−8)
−32.5
(−26.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42.1
(1.657)
57.6
(2.268)
49.2
(1.937)
45.3
(1.783)
57.9
(2.28)
47.3
(1.862)
65.9
(2.594)
87.6
(3.449)
87.0
(3.425)
71.0
(2.795)
105.6
(4.157)
113.9
(4.484)
831.6
(32.74)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.7 9.1 9.9 8.7 8.5 7.3 7.8 10.0 9.9 9.4 10.4 12.2 113.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 31 84 186 240 186 150 186 124 90 62 30 0 1,369
Percent possible sunshine 18.4 34.8 51.2 52.9 32.5 23.7 30.5 24.4 23.0 20.4 15.5 0.0 27.27
Source #1: Météo Climat[27]
Source #2: BBC Weather (sun only)[28]

The climate (6.5 °C (43.7 °F) in July) is colder than what is considered the limit for trees (10 °C (50 °F) during the warmest month). There are a few planted trees[30] which do not sustain well.

Demographics[edit]

With 16,992 inhabitants as of 2015, Nuuk is by far the largest and fastest growing town in Greenland. Despite an overall decline in the country's population, there was an increase of 174 in Nuuk from 2014 to 2015.[31] Nuuk, Paamiut[citation needed] and Tasiilaq are the only towns in the Sermersooq commune (a third of Greenland) which have grown steadily over the last two decades. The population of Nuuk has doubled since 1977, increased by over a third since 1990, and risen by almost 21% since 2000. In addition to those born in Greenland, 3,636 were born outside the country.[32] Attracted by good employment opportunities with high wages, Danes have continued to settle in the town. Today, Nuuk has the highest proportion of Danes of any town in Greenland.[33] Half of Greenland's immigrants live in Nuuk, which also accounts for a quarter of the country's native population.[24]

Government and politics[edit]

As the capital of Greenland, Nuuk is the administrative centre of the country, containing all of the important government buildings and institutions. The public sector bodies are also the town's largest employer.[24]

As of December 2015, the mayor of Nuuk is Asii Chemnitz Narup. She is a member of the Inuit Ataqatigiit party.[34]

Greenland's Self Government Parliament, the Inatsisartut, is in Nuuk. It has 31 seats and its members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms.[35] All of Greenland's major political parties have their headquarters in Nuuk, including the Inuit Ataqatigiit, Siumut, Democrats, Atassut, Association of Candidates and the Women's Party.[36]

KANUKOKA[edit]

KANUKOKA (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaanni Kommunit Kattuffiat) is based in Nuuk. It is an association of Greenland's municipalities, led by Enok Sandgreen.[37] The aim of the organisation is to facilitate cooperation among all four municipalities of Greenland: Kujalleq, Qaasuitsup, Qeqqata, and Sermersooq. The organisation runs the municipal elections every four years, with the last election taking place in 2012. All municipal authorities in Greenland are members of the organisation.[38] The association is overseen by Maliina Abelsen, the Minister for Social Affairs in the Government of Greenland.[37][39]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

The port of Nuuk

Although only a small town, Nuuk has developed trade, business, shipping and other industries. It began as a small fishing settlement with a harbour but as the economy developed rapidly during the 1970s and 1980s, the fishing industry in the capital declined.[40] The port is nevertheless still home to almost half of Greenland's fishing fleet. The local Royal Greenland processing plant absorbs landed seafood amounting to over DKK 50 million (US $7 million) per annum, mainly (80%) shrimp but also cod, lumpfish and halibut.[24] Seafood, including seal, is also sold in abundance in Nuuk's fish markets, the largest being Kalaaliaraq Market. Minerals including zinc and gold have contributed to the development of Nuuk's economy.

The city, like much of Greenland, is heavily dependent upon Danish investment and relies on Denmark for block funding.[41]

Energy[edit]

All of Greenland's electricity is powered by the government owned company Nukissiorfiit, which has a monopoly on the electricity in Greenland.[42] Since 1993, Nuuk has received its electric power mainly from Buksefjord hydroelectric power plant by way of a 132 kV powerline crossing Ameralik fjord over a distance of 5,376 m (17,638 ft), the world's longest free span.[43][44]

Education[edit]

University of Greenland

Nuuk has several educational institutions of higher learning. The University of Greenland (Ilisimatusarfik), which is the only university in Greenland, is in Nuuk. The university was founded in 1987 and expanded in 2007 with the new building called Ilimmarfik which houses departments of journalism, management and economics, language, literature and media, cultural and social history, theology and religion and social work. Nuuk is also home to the Department of Learning (Ilinniarfissuaq), the oldest educational facility in Greenland, in the old colonial part of Nuuk (Nuutoqaq: Old Nuuk). Other notable educational institutions include the Department of Nursing and Health Science, Nuuk Technical College and the Iron & Metal School.

Healthcare[edit]

The city is served by Queen Ingrid's Hospital. The hospital not only serves as the main hospital for the municipality but is the central hospital in all of Greenland. The hospital has around 130 beds.[45]

Tourism[edit]

The Nuuk Tourist Office was built in 1992 to house the headquarters of the new National Tourist Board of Greenland.[46]

Shopping[edit]

Nuuk is a good place for buying high quality art and craftwork. In July 2012 Greenland's first shopping centre, Nuuk Center (abbreviated as NC), opened. The centre has Greenland's first underground parking. Several supermarkets exist, such as Nuuk Center, Pisiffik, Brugseni, and Spar.

Transport[edit]

Nuuk's main road Aqqusinersuaq with Hotel Hans Egede on the right

Air[edit]

Nuuk has an international airport 4 km (2.5 mi) to the northeast of the town centre. Built in 1979, it is a focus city for Air Greenland, which is also headquartered in Nuuk,[47] and operates its technical base at the airport. Air Iceland flies regularly between Reykjavík, Iceland, and Nuuk.

Sea[edit]

As a result of the high cost of flying goods to Greenland, Nuuk and other towns in Greenland are connected to Denmark by cargo vessels which sail mainly from Aalborg during the warmer months after the winter ice has melted. They bring clothing, flour, medicine, timber and machinery and return with deep-frozen shrimp and fish.[48]

For most of the year, Nuuk is served twice-weekly by the coastal ferry of the Arctic Umiaq Line which links the communities of the western coast.[49]

Ground[edit]

The main street in Nuuk is Aqqusinersuaq, with a number of shops and the 140-room Hotel Hans Egede.[50] The majority of the 72 buses and 2,570 cars owned in Greenland (as of 2005) operate in Nuuk.[51] With its 31 yellow buses, Nuup Bussii provides public bus services throughout the town and has routes to the outlying districts of Nuussuaq and Qinngorput, as well as a shuttle service to the airport.[52] There are no roads connecting Nuuk with other areas of Greenland.[53]

Cityscape[edit]

Historical[edit]

Hans Egede's House

Hans Egede's House, built in 1721 by the Danish missionary Hans Egede, is the oldest building in Greenland. Standing close to the harbour among other old houses, it is now used for government receptions.[48][54]

Nuuk Cathedral
Nuuk Cathedral

The Church of Our Saviour of the Lutheran diocese of Greenland was built in 1849 and the tower was added in 1884. The red building with a clock tower and steeple is a prominent site on the landscape.[55] The church received the status of Nuuk Cathedral in 1994 when the first bishop was Kristian Mørk, followed in 1995 by Sofie Petersen, a native of Greenland and the second woman in Denmark to become a bishop.[56]

The Herrnhut House was the centre of the Moravian mission of New Herrnhut. Other landmarks include the Hans Egede Church and the Statue of Hans Egede

National Museum

Greenland National Museum is in Nuuk and was one of the first museums established in Greenland, inaugurated in the mid-1960s.[57] The museum has many artifacts and exhibits related to Greenland's archaeology, history, art, and handicrafts, and contains the Qilakitsoq mummies.

Cultural[edit]

Katuaq
Nuuk Art Museum

Katuaq is a cultural centre used for concerts, films, art exhibitions, and conferences. It was designed by Schmidt Hammer Lassen and inaugurated on 15 February 1997. Katuaq contains two auditoria, the larger seating 1,008 people and the smaller, 508. The complex also contains an art school, library, meeting facilities, administrative offices and a café.

The Nuuk Art Museum is the only private art and crafts museum in Greenland.[58] The museum contains a notable collection of local paintings, watercolours, drawings, and graphics, some by Andy Warhol; and figures in soapstone, ivory, and wood, with many items collected by archaeologists.

Educational[edit]

Ilisimatusarfik, the University of Greenland, is in Nuuk and is the national university of Greenland. Most courses are taught in Danish, although a few are in Kalaallisut as well. As of 2007, the university had approximately 150 students (almost all Greenlanders), around 14 academic staff, and five administrators.[59] Its library holds approximately 30,000 volumes.

The National Library of Greenland in Nuuk is the largest reference library in the country, devoted to the preservation of Greenland's cultural heritage and history.[60] The library holdings are split between the public library in the town centre and Ilimmarfik, the campus of the University of Greenland. As of 1 January 2008, there are 83,324 items in the library database at Ilimmarfik.[61]

Sports[edit]

Godthåbhallen exterior
Teletårnet, Nuuk

Nuuk's sports clubs include Nuuk IL (established in 1934), B-67, and GSS Nuuk.

Nuuk Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium, used mostly for football games. The stadium has a capacity of 2,000.[62] The stadium can also be used as an entertainment venue: recently, the Scottish rock band Nazareth performed at the venue. Nuuk also has the Godthåbhallen, a handball stadium. It is the home of the Greenland national handball team and has a capacity of 1,000.[62]

There is a hill for alpine skiing with lifts (altitude difference around 300 m), on the mountain Lille Malene,[63] with the valley station close to the airport terminal.[64] There is also a golf course in Nuuk.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Nuuk is twinned with:

View from the mountain Ukkusissaq
View from the mountain Ukkusissaq, which means "soap stone" (in Danish it is called Store Malene)
Panorama of Nuuk
Panorama of Nuuk

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Population in Greenland. CITYPOPULATION. Retrieved 23 February 2016. 
  2. ^ The pre-1948 spelling was Godthaab.
  3. ^ "Befolkningen i Nuuk efter tid og bydel" (in Danish). Statistikbanken. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  4. ^ "Nuup Bussii udvider bestyrelsen" (in Danish). Sermersooq Municipality, Official Website. Retrieved 13 July 2010. 
  5. ^ "Lokalplaner og kommuneplantillæg for Nuuk" (in Danish). Sermersooq Municipality, Official Website. Retrieved 13 July 2010. 
  6. ^ "Nuup Bussii A/S". Nuup Bussii, Official Website. Retrieved 13 July 2010. 
  7. ^ "Velkommen til Ilimmarfik". University of Greenland, Ilimmarfik. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  8. ^ "Kontakt". University of Greenland. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  9. ^ "Greenland hydro capacity increases with new plant". North of 56. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  10. ^ "Buksefjorden: Grønlands første vandkraftværk satte verdensrekord" (in Danish). Arctic Business Network. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  11. ^ "Human history". Nuuk Tourism. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  12. ^ "Nuuk". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  13. ^ Wurm, Stephen A.; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tyron, Darrell T. (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies. Volume 2, Part 1 Volume 13 of Trends in Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1051. ISBN 3-11-013417-9. 
  14. ^ "Nuuk travel guide". 
  15. ^ Scandinavian Review. American-Scandinavian Foundation. 1921. p. 681. 
  16. ^ Lemkin, Raphael (1 June 2008). Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-58477-901-8. 
  17. ^ Lüdecke, Cornelia. "East Meets West: Meteorological observations of the Moravians in Greenland and Labrador since the 18th century". History of Meteorology 2 (2005). Accessed 27 April 2012.
  18. ^ Wittman, P. "Greenland". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Co. (New York), 1909. Accessed 28 April 2012.
  19. ^ "CIA World Factbook – Greenland". 
  20. ^ a b Daley, Paul (29 June 2016). "Which is the world's most indigenous city?". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  21. ^ Municipality information. De grønlandske kommuners Landsforening, KANUKOKA
  22. ^ Nicoll, James. An Historical and Descriptive Account of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Oliver & Boyd, 1840.
  23. ^ O'Carroll, Etain (2005). Greenland and the Arctic. Lonely Planet. p. 154. ISBN 1-74059-095-3. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Nuuk Kommune" (in Danish). Den Store Danske. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  25. ^ On 11 October 2015, the magnetic declination between the North Pole and Nuuk was "27° 49' W ± 0° 33' changing by 0° 22' E per year", calculated with NOAA's Magnetic Field Calculators, National Geophysical Data Center.
  26. ^ "Magnetic declination in Nuuk, Greenland". Magnetic Declination. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  27. ^ "Météo climat stats for Nuuk". Météo Climat. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  28. ^ "BBC Weather - Nuuk". BBC Weather. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  29. ^ "Past Weather in Nuuk, Greenland — June 2016". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  30. ^ e.g Gult by Henrik Greve Thorsen
  31. ^ "Population 2015" (PDF) (in Danish). Statistics Greenland. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  32. ^ "Population in localities by gender, age and place of birth 1977-2015 [BEEST4]". Statbank Greenland. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  33. ^ O'Hara, Kevin; Trueman, Peter (2003). South Greenland: An Arctic Paradise. Kevin O'Hara. pp. 222–. ISBN 978-1-894673-12-9. 
  34. ^ "Asii Chemnitz Narup" (in Danish). Kalaallisut. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  35. ^ "Members of Inatsisartut". Inatsisartut. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  36. ^ "Political parties in Greenland". Statistics Greenland. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  37. ^ a b "Sermitsiaq mener: Hvem ka'? Kanukoka!". Sermitsiaq (in Danish). 20 May 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  38. ^ "Hvad er KANUKOKA?" (in Danish). KANUKOKA, Official Website. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  39. ^ "Minister for Social Affairs". Government of Greenland. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  40. ^ Jones, Michael; Olwig, Kenneth (2008). Nordic landscapes: region and belonging on the northern edge of Europe. University of Minnesota Press. p. 118. 
  41. ^ World of Information Regional Review: Europe. Kogan Page Publishers. 2003. p. 164. ISBN 0-7494-4067-8. 
  42. ^ "Historie" (in Danish). Nukissiorfiit. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  43. ^ "Greenland hydro capacity increases with new plant". North of 56. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  44. ^ "Buksefjorden: Grønlands første vandkraftværk satte verdensrekord" (in Danish). Arctic Business Network. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  45. ^ Bjerregaard, Peter; Young, T. Kue (1998). The circumpolar Inuit: health of a population in transition. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 55. ISBN 87-16-11905-3. 
  46. ^ Europa World Year, Book 1. Taylor & Francis Group. 2004. p. 1458. ISBN 1-85743-254-1. 
  47. ^ airgreenland.com Archived 26 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  48. ^ a b De Store Fagbøger. Grønland. Gyldendal Uddannelse. 2004. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-87-02-02629-0. 
  49. ^ "AUL, Timetable 2009" (PDF). Arctic Umiaq Line. Retrieved 13 July 2010. 
  50. ^ Hotel Hans Egede
  51. ^ O'Carroll, Etain (2005). Greenland and the Arctic. Lonely Planet. p. 231. ISBN 1-74059-095-3. 
  52. ^ "Om NB" (in Danish). Nuup Bussi. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
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