Gofraid Donn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Gofraid Donn
King of the Isles[1]
Reign circa 1231
Successor Amlaíb Dub (d. 1237)
Died 1231[2]
Lewis, Outer Hebrides, Scotland
Issue Aralt mac Gofraid
Gaelic Gofraid mac Ragnaill; Gofraid Donn; Gofraid Dub
Old Norse Guðrøðr Rögnvaldsson; Guðrøðr Svarti
Father Ragnall mac Gofraid (d. 1229)
Mother Unnamed sister of Lauon (Lauon the daughter of nobleman from Kintyre)

Gofraid mac Ragnaill (meaning "Gofraid, son of Ragnall"; Old Norse: Guðrøðr Rögnvaldsson) was a 13th-century Hebridean king, who descended from a long line of kings who ruled the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. He is recorded within two 13th century chronicles with a byname meaning "the brown" (Gaelic: Gofraid Donn);[note 1] although within a 13th-century saga, and within Hebridean tradition dating from the 17th century, he is given the byname "the black" (Old Norse: Guðrøðr Svarti; Gaelic: Gofraid Dub).[note 2] Gofraid Donn's father was Ragnall mac Gofraid, King of Man and the Isles; his mother was Ragnall's wife, who is described by a 13th-century chronicle as the sister of a daughter of a nobleman from Kintyre. Gofraid Donn's male-line ancestry can be traced back with certainty to his great-great grandfather, Gofraid Méránach, King of the Isles, King of Dublin (d. 1095). Gofraid Méránach is thought to have taken control of the Kingdom of Man and the Isles in about the year 1079, and is recorded as the King of Dublin in 1091.

In 1187, on the death of Gofraid Donn's paternal grandfather, Gofraid mac Amlaíb, King of Man and the Isles, Gofraid Donn's father, Ragnall, usurped the kingdom from the legitimate heir, his younger half-brother Amlaíb Dub. In consequence, a bitter family feud broke out, in which Gofraid Donn played a part. According to a 13th-century chronicle, when Amlaíb Dub's marriage to the sister of Ragnall's wife was nullified, Gofraid Donn was tricked by his mother into attempting to kill his uncle Amlaíb Dub. Sometime later, Amlaíb Dub had his revenge, as Gofraid Donn was captured, and one of Amlaíb Dub's followers blinded and castrated him. Amlaíb Dub later successfully took the throne, and Ragnall was soon after assassinated. Amlaíb Dub was constantly under threat of Ragnall's powerful ally Alan, Lord of Galloway. In about 1230, Amlaíb Dub was forced to flee Man, and went to Norway to plead for assistance from the king. Amlaíb Dub arrived just before the king sent a fleet into the Hebrides to pacify the western coast of Scotland. Both Amlaíb Dub, and Gofraid Donn, travelled with the fleet, and upon the commander's death, Amlaíb Dub took control and retook the Isle of Man. Amlaíb Dub and Gofraid Donn then divided the kingdom between themselves, with Gofraid Donn controlling the Hebridean portion. Not long after the Norwegian fleet left the Hebrides, Gofraid Donn was killed on the Outer Hebridean island of Lewis, in 1231.


Detail from the Hedin Cross, which dates from about the time of Gofraid Méránach's dynasty. The dynasty's strength lay in the power of their fleets of galleys.[7]

Gofraid Donn appears in several mediaeval chronicles, a mediaeval saga, and also within Hebridean tradition dating from the 17th century. One of the sources in which Gofraid appears is the Chronicle of Mann, which dates from the 13th century, and contains additions from the 13th and 14th centuries. Parts of the chronicle are based upon a source that is also used by the Chronicle of Lanercost.[8] Gofraid also appears in the Chronicle of Lanercost, which dates from the 14th century, although parts of it are based on an earlier source.[9] Both chronicles are written in Latin, and within both Gofraid is given a byname that literally means "the brown", which is thought to refer to the colour of his hair.[10][note 3] The kings' saga Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar ("The Saga of Hákon Hákonarson") was composed by Sturla Þórðarson sometime around 1263–1284. Sturla based it on both written sources and oral traditions. The saga is preserved in several manuscripts that slightly differ from one another. According to 20th century historian Alan Orr Anderson, the Eirspennill version is the most authoritative, and likely represents an early form of the saga.[16] Within this saga, Gofraid is given a byname that literally means "the black". The History of the MacDonalds is a manuscript history that dates from the 17th century, and is thought to have been composed by a seanchaidh for the MacDonalds of Sleat. The manuscript is written in English, and preserves a traditional version of history believed during the period of its creation.[17][18] Within this manuscript Gofraid is given an Anglicised form of a Gaelic byname that means "the black".


Gofraid Donn was a great-great grandson of Gofraid Méránach, King of the Isles, King of Dublin. The ancestry of Gofraid Méránach is uncertain. The Chronicle of Mann names him as: "filius Haraldi nigri de ysland",[19] and it is possible that "ysland" may refer to Iceland.[note 4] In one Irish annal, he is given the patronymic "mac mic Arailt", and this may mean that he was a son, or nephew, of Ímar mac Arailt, King of Dublin (d. 1054),[19] a grandson of the celebrated Amlaíb Cuaran and one of the last verifiable members of the once imperial Uí Ímair. Gofraid Méránach died in 1095, after ruling the Kingdom of Man and the Isles for over fifteen years. A period of confusion followed his death, before his younger son, Amlaíb (d. 1153), ruled the kingdom for over forty years. Amlaíb was treacherously assassinated by his nephews in 1153,[note 5] and was succeeded by his son Gofraid (d. 1187).[20] In 1156, Gofraid and his brother-in-law, Somairle mac Gille Brigte (d. 1164), fought an inconclusive naval battle, and the kingdom was split between the two:[21] Somairle took the Islay and Mull island-groups, and Gofraid retained the outer islands, and Mann itself.[22] Two years later, Somairle defeated Gofraid outright, and ruled the entire kingdom until his death. With the death of Somairle, Gofraid returned from exile to reclaim Mann, and outer-island portion of the kingdom.[21]

Fractured family[edit]

The four island groups of the Kingdom of Man and the Isles.[23]

Feuding half-brothers: Ragnall and Amlaíb Dub[edit]

According to the Chronicle of Mann, Gofraid mac Amlaíb died in 1187, leaving three sons: Ragnall, Amlaíb Dub, and Ímar. Although Ragnall was the eldest son, he was also illegitimate, and his father had chosen Amlaíb Dub as heir. However, upon Gofraid's death, the Manxmen appointed Ragnall as their king, because Amlaíb Dub was only a boy, and Ragnall was already by then a young man capable of governing the kingdom. In 1188, Ragnall began his reign over the kingdom.[24] The chronicle recounts how Ragnall gave Amlaíb Dub the Outer Hebridean island of Lewis. The chronicle however notes that this island was thinly populated, and that the land was mostly unfit for cultivation. When Amlaíb Dub determined that he could no longer support himself and his followers with Lewis alone, he travelled to Mann and asked his half-brother for further lands. Ragnall then had Amlaíb Dub seized and sent to William I, King of Scots, where Amlaíb Dub was kept imprisoned for almost seven years. On the seventh year the Scots king died and Amlaíb Dub was subsequently released, and he returned to his brother on Mann, and subsequently set off on a pilgrimage accompanied by a considerable number of men of rank.[25][note 6] Upon his return, the two half-brothers were reconciled, and Ragnall set up a marriage between Amlaíb Dub and "Lauon", a daughter of a nobleman from Kintyre, who was also the sister of his own wife.[25][note 7] After this marriage, the couple lived on Lewis.[25]

Feuding uncle and nephew: Amlaíb Dub and Gofraid Donn[edit]

The Chronicle of Mann notes that, in 1217, the Bishop of the Isles died and was succeeded by a new one who was a relation of Amlaíb Dub.[29][note 8] The bishop, however, disapproved of Amlaíb Dub's marriage on the grounds that Amlaíb Dub formerly had a concubine who was a cousin of Lauon, and in consequence, a synod was assembled, and Amlaíb Dub's marriage was nullified.[29][note 9] Amlaíb Dub afterwords married a daughter of Ferchar, Earl of Ross, but his separation from Lauon had enraged her sister (the wife of Ragnall), and Ragnall's bitter queen sought to sow discord between the half-brothers. The queen's son, Gofraid Donn, was then on Skye, and she secretly wrote to him under Ragnall's name, ordering Gofraid Donn to seize and kill Amlaíb Dub. Gofraid Donn dutifully gathered a force on Skye and proceeded to Lewis, where he laid waste to most of the island. Amlaíb Dub narrowly escaped with a few men, and fled to the protection of his father-in-law in Ross.[29]

The chronicle states that the viscount of Skye, Páll Bálkason, refused to consent to the murder of Amlaíb Dub and fled the island to reside with the Amlaíb Dub in Ross. Páll and Amlaíb Dub then entered into a pact of friendship, and together they secretly returned to Skye, where they learned that Gofraid Donn was unsuspectingly staying with few with only a few men, on a certain island called "the island of Saint Columba". Historians have attempted to identify this island, and several locations have been proposed. According to W.D.H. Sellar, the most likely location is the island that was originally in the middle of Loch Chaluim Chille, located near Kilmuir.[18] According to local tradition, this island is associated with a man, whom Sellar thought represented Páll.[18][note 10]

The chronicle states that Páll and Amlaíb Dub then gathered as many men as possible, and under the cover of darkness, they brought five ships from the closest point of the shore, about two furlongs from the island. When morning came, Gofraid Donn and his few followers were shocked to find themselves surrounded by enemies. Nevertheless, he and his followers donned their armour and waited for the inevitable assault. At "about the ninth hour of the day", Amlaíb Dub and Páll attacked the island with their full force.[35][note 11] Every one of Gofraid Donn's men who could not find protection within the enclosure of the church were summarily put to death. Gofraid Donn was seized, blinded, and castrated. The chronicle states that Amlaíb Dub was unable to prevent the mutilation, and torture, of his nephew on account of the fate of Páll's predecessor, the viscount Bálki. The chronicle dates these events to the year 1223.[35]

The former island Eilean Chaluim Chille, which sits in a drained loch on Skye, is possibly the island on which Gofraid Donn was surrounded and defeated by Amlaíb Dub and Páll.

According to Sellar, an extremely garbled account of Gofraid Donn and Amlaíb Dub's feuding is recorded in the History of the MacDonalds, composed in the early 17th century. This manuscript history fancifully[38] describes the rise of the warlord Somairle mac Gille Brigte (d. 1164), who lived generations before both Gofraid Donn and Amlaíb Dub. It recounts how Somairle was successful in marrying the daughter of "Olay, surnamed the Red". Together Somairle and Olay went on an expedition through the Hebrides and killed several men, including one "Godfrey Du". Godfrey was put to death by "the hermit MacPoke", who put out Godfrey's eyes because Godfrey had killed MacPoke's father.[39] Historically, Somairle married a daughter of Gofraid Donn's paternal grandfather, Amlaíb mac Gofraid (d. 1153).[1] Sellar noted that, although the byname of the manuscript's "Godfrey Du" equates to the colour black (rather than brown), the character refers to Gofraid Donn. Sellar stated that character "Olay", who assisted in the death of Godfrey Du, refers to Gofraid Donn's uncle, Amlaíb Dub (rather than Gofraid's paternal grandfather). Also, Sellar noted that "the hermit MacPoke" is identical to the historical Páll Bálkason.[18]

Rise of Amlaíb Dub, fall of Ragnall[edit]

The Chronicle of Mann states that the following summer, possibly in 1224,[37] Amlaíb Dub took hostages from the Hebridean portion of the kingdom, and with 32 ships, landed on Mann and confronted Ragnall. It was then agreed that the kingdom would be split between the two, with Ragnall keeping Mann itself and the title of king, and Amlaíb Dub retaining the island portions.[40] Historians have noted that in the 1220s, the Scots king, Alexander II, attempted to extend his power into what is today the west coast of Scotland. He attempted to do this by encouraging the powerful Alan, Lord of Galloway, to enter into the squabbles of Ragnall and Amlaíb Dub.[41] The next year, possibly 1225,[37] the Chronicle of Mann states that Ragnall and Alan attempted to take possession of Amlaíb Dub's island portion of the kingdom, but the Manx people were unwilling aid the cause, and the nothing came of the expedition. A short time later, Ragnall's daughter was married to Alan's son.[40] Historians have commented that such a marriage, between Ragnall's daughter and Alan's illegitimate son Thomas, gave Alan a stake in the kingship of Mann and the Isles,[41] and that Thomas was likely to succeed to the kingship.[26] It has also been noted how the marriage was beneficial to Ragnall as well, since he could rely on Alan's military might to fend off the troublesome Amlaíb Dub.[41] However, the chronicle states that the Manx people were angered by the marriage, and they consequently appointed Amlaíb Dub as king. He took the throne in 1226, and ruled the kingdom peacefully for the next two years.[40]

According to the chronicle, in 1228, while Amlaíb Dub and his chiefs were away from Mann, the island was attacked and devastated by Alan, his brother Thomas, Earl of Atholl, and Ragnall. When Alan left with most of his force, Amlaíb Dub was able to regain control of Mann. In the winter of the same year, Ragnall landed again, and burnt all the ships of Amlaíb Dub and his chiefs. Ragnall stayed at Ronaldsway for forty days, and won over the hearts of the southern inhabitants of the island. On 14 February,[42] Amlaíb Dub and his forces arrived at Tynwald, where they attacked Ragnall and his forces. The chronicle states that Ragnall was treacherously killed by his own men, without the knowledge of Amlaíb Dub (although it also notes that Amlaíb Dub never avenged his half-brother's death).[43]

Norwegian intervention[edit]

Hákon Hákonarson, King of Norway and Skúli Bárðarson, pictured in the 14th century Flateyjarbók. It is possible that Gofraid Donn was at the court of Hákon, when Amlaíb Dub fled there for aid in about 1230.

The Chronicle of Lanercost states that, in the year 1230, a Norwegian fleet sailed down the west coast of Scotland with Óspakr Ögmundsson, who had been appointed king of the Suðreyjar by the King of Norway.[44][note 12] It also notes that Amlaíb Dub and Gofraid Donn were among the fleet.[44][note 13] The Eirspennill version of Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar gives a much more illustrative account, although it does not specifically state that Gofraid Donn travelled with the fleet from Norway. The saga states that in the summer before the fleet left Norway, news of warring in the Suðreyjar reached the Norwegian king, Hákon Hákonarson.[45] P.A. Munch believed that Gofraid Donn was likely one of the first to tell the king of the chaos in the Suðreyjar, and that he may have fled to Norway following the death of his father.[46] The saga then describes Alan as a great warrior in the region, and Amlaíb Dub is described as a most faithful vassal of the Norwegian king. Also described are two Hebridean noblemen of royal blood, two sons of Dubgall mac Somairle, who were very unfaithful to the Norwegian king. The Eirspennill version also states that Óspakr was in another son of Dubgall.[47] According to scholars A.L. Brown and A.A.M. Duncan, it appears that the "unfaithful" sons of Dubgall were attacking portions of Amlaíb Dub's kingdom,[2] and it is clear that the situation in the Suðreyjar had further deteriorated from attacks by Alan and members of Clann Somairle. The scholars observed that, when Amlaíb Dub was unable to control the chaotic situation in the Suðreyjar, Hákon decided to pacify the region using Óspakr.[48] The Eirspennill version of the saga relates how that winter, the Norwegian king summoned an assembly at his palace, and appointed Óspakr as king of the Suðreyjar, and also bestowed upon him the royal name Hákon. The saga states that the Norwegian king decided upon a plan to give Óspakr a military force to command in the Suðreyjar,[45] and some scholars have suspected that Óspakr was likely sent to gain control over not only the Suðreyjar, but also over what is now Argyll and Kintyre as well.[49]

With the coming of spring, Hákon set out for Bergen, and upon his arrival ordered the preparation of the fleet. While preparations were under way, Amlaíb Dub came to the king, and reported that there were many disputes in the Suðreyjar, and that Alan had assembled a powerful army and was causing grave dis-peace in the region. When the fleet left Norway for Orkney, Amlaíb Dub accompanied it on-board Páll Bálkason's ship. When the fleet reached Orkney, several ship-commanders sailed to Skye, where they defeated Þórketill Þórmóðsson in a sea-battle.[45] The fleet then united at Islay, and was strengthened by Óspakr's brothers and their followers, and swelled in size to 80 ships. The fleet then sailed south and around the Mull of Kintyre to Bute, where the force invaded the island and took the castle while suffering heavy casualties. The fleet then sailed to Kintyre, and Óspakr fell ill and died.[45] The Chronicle of Mann, however, specifically states that Óspakr was struck by a stone and killed, and then buried on Iona.[50] The chronicle continues stating that Amlaíb Dub then took control of the fleet, and led it to the Isle of Man, and that he and Gofraid Donn divided the kingdom between themselves—with Amlaíb Dub retaining Mann, and Gofraid Donn controlling the island portions of the kingdom.[45] Again the Eirspennill version gives more information; it states that after the Norwegians left in the spring, and sailed north to Kintyre; here they encountered a strong force of Scots, and both sides lost many men during the ensuing battle. Following this, the fleet sailed north to Lewis and came upon a man named Þórmóðr Þórketilson. Þórmóðr fled returning fleet, his wife was taken as a captive of war, and all his treasure was seized. The fleet then travelled to Orkney, and from there most of it sailed back to Norway. Páll Bálkason, however, remained behind in the Suðreyjar, where he was slain several weeks later. A short time later Gofraid Donn was also slain.[45] The Chronicle of Mann specifically states that Gofraid Donn was slain on Lewis, and that afterwards Amlaíb Dub ruled the kingdom until his death.[50] The Chronicle of Lanercost notes that Amlaíb Dub ruled the entire kingdom—except those that were held by Clann Somairle.[44]

Munch stated that, when the Norwegian fleet sailed from Kintyre into the northern Hebrides and defeated Þórmóðr Þórketilson, it was helping secure the power of Gofraid Donn in the islands. Munch believed that when Hákon appointed Óspakr to be king, he probably intended for Gofraid Donn to rule the northern island portions of the kingdom,[46] and this was likely why he and Amlaíb Dub divided the kingdom between themselves, since Amlaíb Dub was unlikely to have done so out of his own good will.[51] Munch also noted how soon hostilities broke out after the Norwegians left the Hebrides for Orkney—Páll Bálkason was killed, and Gofraid Donn was likewise slain days later. Munch believed that these recorded events show how fierce the feuding between the adherents of Gofraid Donn and Amlaíb Dub.[52] Manx historian Arthur William Moore stated that Gofraid Donn was likely slain by supporters of Amlaíb Dub during a revolt on the island.[53]


Gofraid Donn had at least one son, Aralt, who usurped the kingdom in 1249. In 1250, he was summoned to Norway and was deprived of the kingdom.[54]

Family tree[edit]

16. Gofraid Méránach (d. 1095)[2]
King of the Isles, King of Dublin[1]
8. Amlaíb mac Gofraid (d. 1153)[2]
King of the Isles[1]
4. Gofraid mac Amlaíb (d. 1187)[2]
King of the Isles[1]
18. Fergus (d. 1161)[3][55]
Lord of Galloway
9. Affraic[3][note 14]
2. Ragnall mac Gofraid (d. 1229)[2]
King of the Isles[1]
5. Sadhbh[56][note 15]
1. Gofraid Donn (died 1231)[2]
King of the Isles[1]
3. [unnamed] sister of Lauon[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ In several English secondary sources, this name is rendered Godred Don,[3] Godred Donn,[4] and Godred Dond.[5] The Gaelic form of the byname is donn.[6]
  2. ^ The Gaelic Gofraid, and Old Norse Guðrøðr, appear in Latin as Godredus, and both can be Anglicised as Godred and Godfrey.
  3. ^ For example, in one particular instance the Chronicle of Lanercost gives "Godredo Don".[11] and the Chronicle of Mann gives "Gotdredo Don".[12] Also note that within the Chronicle of Mann, Gofraid's uncle and rival, Amlaíb Dub (d. 1237), is given a byname that literally means "black". In Gaelic, this byname is rendered dub / dubh. This Gaelic byname can mean "dark" or "black", and can be used to refer to either a person with dark or black hair,[13] or someone with a 'dark' temperament,[13] or someone with a dark complexion.[citation needed] The Gaelic bynames borne by these two kings, and the various sobriquets of their ancestor Gofraid Méránach (also known in English as "Godred Crovan"), are given as evidence by historians who assert that the Kingdom of Man and the Isles was a bilingual society that utilised the Old Norse and Gaelic languages[10] (the Gaelic méránach means "furious"; and the Latinised "crovan" is possibly from Gaelic crobh bhán "white-hand",[14] or from an Old Norse word meaning "cripple-hand").[15]
  4. ^ The Inner Hebridean island of Islay, and even just the word "island", have also been suggested.[20]
  5. ^ These nephews were the three sons of his brother, Aralt.[19]
  6. ^ The Chronicle of Mann states that the pilgrimage was to the shrine of Saint James. This is considered to refer to the shrine located at Santiago de Compostela, in Spain.[25][26] See also the Wikipedia article Way of St. James, for more information on the mediaeval pilgrimage route.
  7. ^ The Chronicle of Mann gives Amlaíb Dub's wife's name as "Lauon". Some pre-20th-century commentators incorrectly[27] considered the text to read "Jauon", and thus translated this name into English as Joan.[28] This name ("Lavon") has been rendered as Lavon,[27] and also Lỳauon.[18] Sellar suggested that Lỳauon could stand for the Gaelic names Liamhain, and Líobhan.[18]
  8. ^ The Chronicle of Mann gives this man's name as "Reginaldus"[30] and "Reginandus".[31] His name has been rendered into English as Reginald,[32] and can be rendered into Gaelic as Ragnall. According to the chronicle, he was the son of Amlaíb Dub's sister.[33] The chronicle states that he became the bishop following the death of the previous bishop in 1217.[32]
  9. ^ Colm McNamee stated that the marriage was deemed "as being within prohibited degrees of relationship".[26] See also the Wikipedia article Consanguinity. According to Manx historian Arthur William Moore, it appears as if the nullification of the marriage was not altogether the idea of the bishop, but likely desired by Amlaíb Dub.[34]
  10. ^ It has sometimes been stated that the "island of Saint Columba", mentioned to in the Chronicle of Mann, may in fact represent the Inner Hebridean island of Iona, which is known in Scottish Gaelic as Ì Chaluim Chille. There have been several other islands suggested—all of which are located on, or near Skye. One such location is the Island of St. Colm, near Portree, suggested by historian Alick Morrison—although Sellar noted that Morrison gave no evidence in support of this location. Another proposed location is the Island of St Columba, which is located in the middle of the river Snizort on Skye, only few hundred yards from the sea. Sellar proposed another location which he considered to be a much more likely candidate—Eilean Chaluim Chille, at Kilmuir, located at grid reference NG37706885. This island was originally in the middle of Loch Chaluim Chille, which was drained in the 18th century. Sellar asserted that this location fits perfectly with the location described in the Chronicle of Mann, and noted that the island was associated in local tradition with a man who may represent Páll Bálkason.[18]
  11. ^ Munch translated the chronicle to read "about nine o'clock in the morning",[36] however Anderson gives "about the ninth hour of the day", and states that this equates to about 2-3 pm.[37]
  12. ^ The Old Norse Suðreyjar translates into English as "Southern Isles", as opposed to Norðreyjar, "Northern Isles". Suðreyjar could refer to the Hebrides, or the Hebrides and Mann combined. Norðreyjar refers to the islands of Orkney and Shetland.
  13. ^ The Chronicle of Mann differs only in stating that this event took place before 1230. Historians consider 1230 to be the specific year.
  14. ^ Although Amlaíb mac Gofraid (d. 1153) is known to have had at least two wives, it is thought most probable that Gofraid (d. 1187) was the son of Affraic.[19]
  15. ^ Sadhbh is recorded as Ragnall's mother in a Gaelic praise poem. Duffy stated that she was probably an Irishwoman.[56] The record of Sadhbh is considered to be further proof that Ragnall and Amlaíb Dub were half-brothers, and helps explain the intense animosity between the two.[57]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Sellar 2000: p. 192.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Duncan; Brown 1956-1957: p. 200.
  3. ^ a b c d Fryde; Greenway; Roy 1996: p. 63.
  4. ^ Ó Cróinín 1995: p. 365.
  5. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 250.
  6. ^ Learn about the family history of your surname, Ancestry.com, retrieved 30 December 2010 , which cited: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4 , for the surname "Dunn".
  7. ^ McDonald 2007: p. 128.
  8. ^ Anderson 1922: v. 1, p. xliii.
  9. ^ Anderson 1922: v. 1, p. xlii.
  10. ^ a b Price 2000: p. 60.
  11. ^ Stevenson 1839: p. 41.
  12. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 92.
  13. ^ a b Learn about the family history of your surname, Ancestry.com, retrieved 30 December 2010 , which cited: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4 , for the surname "Duff".
  14. ^ Marsden 2000: p. 147.
  15. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 173.
  16. ^ Anderson 1922: v. 1, pp. lxi–lxii.
  17. ^ MacPhail 1914: pp. 2-3.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g The Ancestry of the MacLeods Reconsidered, Associated Clan MacLeod Societies Genealogical Resources Center (www.macleodgenealogy.org), archived from the original on 13 May 2008, retrieved 9 July 2010  This webpage cited: Sellar, W.D.H. (1997–1998), "The Ancestry of the MacLeods Reconsidered", Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, Inverness, 60: 233–258 
  19. ^ a b c d Duffy 2004: Godred Crovan [Guðrøðr, Gofraid Méránach] (d. 1095), king of Man and the Isles.
  20. ^ a b Sellar 2000: pp. 190-193.
  21. ^ a b Woolf 2004: pp. 103-104.
  22. ^ Kinvig 1975: pp. 62-63.
  23. ^ Kinvig 1975: p. 60.
  24. ^ Munch 1874: p. 79.
  25. ^ a b c d Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 83–87; and also Anderson 1922: v. 2, pp. 456–457.
  26. ^ a b c McNamee 2004
  27. ^ a b Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 457.
  28. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 85; and also Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 457.
  29. ^ a b c Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 85-87; and also Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 458.
  30. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 82.
  31. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 84.
  32. ^ a b Munch; Goss 1874: p. 83.
  33. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 85; and also Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 458.
  34. ^ Moore 1900: p. 120.
  35. ^ a b Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 87-89; and also Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 458-459.
  36. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 89.
  37. ^ a b c Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 459.
  38. ^ Woolf 2004: p. 103.
  39. ^ MacPhail 1914: pp. 5-8.
  40. ^ a b c Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 89-91; and also Anderson 1922: v. 2, pp. 459-460.
  41. ^ a b c Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: pp. 248-250.
  42. ^ Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 466.
  43. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 89-93; and also Anderson 1922: v. 2, pp. 465-466.
  44. ^ a b c Anderson 1922: v. 2, pp. 471-472.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Anderson 1922: v. 2, pp. 473-478.
  46. ^ a b Munch; Goss 1874: p. 191.
  47. ^ Anderson 1922: v. 2, pp. 463-465.
  48. ^ Duncan; Brown 1956-1957: p. 201.
  49. ^ Duncan; Brown 1956-1957: p. 202.
  50. ^ a b Anderson 1922: v. 2, p. 472.
  51. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 193.
  52. ^ Munch; Goss 1874: p. 196.
  53. ^ Moore 1900: p. 124.
  54. ^ Fryde; Greenway; Roy 1996: p. 64.
  55. ^ McDonald 1995
  56. ^ a b Duffy 2004: Ragnvald [Rögnvaldr, Reginald, Ragnall] (d. 1229), king of Man and the Isles.
  57. ^ McDonald 2007: p. 73.