Gojong of Korea

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Gojong of Korea
대한제국 고종
大韓帝國高宗
Gojong of the Korean Empire 02.jpg
Emperor Emeritus of Korea
Reign20 July 1907 – 29 August 1910
PredecessorTitle created
Jungjong of Joseon As King Emeritus
SuccessorMonarchy abolished
Emperor of Korea
Reign13 October 1897 – 19 July 1907
PredecessorHimself as the king of Joseon
SuccessorSunjong
King of Joseon
Reign16 January 1864 – 13 October 1897
PredecessorCheoljong
SuccessorAs the Emperor of Korea
RegentsQueen Sinjeong (1864–1866)
Heungseon Daewongun (de facto) (1864–1873)
Born(1852-09-08)8 September 1852
Unhyeon Palace, Hanseong, Joseon
Died21 January 1919(1919-01-21) (aged 66)
Deoksu Palace, Keijō, Japanese Korea
Burial
SpouseEmpress Myeongseong
IssueEmperor Sunjong
Prince Imperial Ui
Crown Prince Euimin
Princess Deokhye
Era dates
Gaeguk (개국, 開國; 1894 – 1895)
Geonyang (건양, 建陽; 1896 – 1897)
Gwangmu (광무, 光武; 1897 – 1907)
Posthumous name
Emperor Munheon Mujang Inik Jeonghyo The Great
(문헌무장인익정효태황제, 文憲武章仁翼貞孝太皇帝)
Temple name
Gojong (, )
HouseHouse of Yi
FatherHeungseon Daewongun
MotherGrand Internal Princess Consort Sunmok of the Yeoheung Min clan
ReligionConfucianism
Signature대한제국 고종의 수결.jpg
Korean name
Hangul
고종 광무제 (short )
Hanja
高宗光武帝 (short )
Revised RomanizationGojong Gwangmuje (short Gojong)
McCune–ReischauerKojong Kwangmuje (short Kojong)
Birth name
Hangul
이명복, later 이희
Hanja
李命福, later 李㷩[1]
Revised RomanizationI Myeong-bok, later I Hui
McCune–ReischauerYi Myŏng-bok, later Yi Hŭi

Gojong (Korean고종; Hanja高宗; RRGojong; MRKojong; 8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919) was the monarch of Korea from 1864 to 1907. He reigned as the last King of Joseon from 1864 to 1897, and as the first Emperor of Korea from 1897 until his forced abdication in 1907. He is known posthumously as the Emperor Gwangmu (Korean광무제; Hanja光武帝; RRGwangmuje; MRKwangmuje).

He was instrumental in the forced signing of the Treaty of Ganghwa (1876), an unequal treaty which would eventually pave the way for Japanese annexation of Korea. In 1895, his wife Queen Min was assassinated by Japanese agents, strengthening the king's antipathy towards the Japanese. Gojong declared Korea an empire in 1897, which ended the country's historic subordination to the Qing dynasty. His slow pace in issuing reforms led to conflict with the Independence Club, but he saw more success when carrying out the Gwangmu Reform along military, economic and educational lines. Later, Gojong was subjected to several assassination and abdication attempts; eventually forced to abdicate, he was confined in a palace from where he tried unsuccessfully several times to seek refuge outside of Korea but eventually died in the Deoksugung Palace. There was suspicion that he was poisoned by Japanese officials.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Gojong was born in Jeongseonbang, a province of Hanseong. He was the son of Yi Ha-eung. After Cheoljong of Joseon died without son, Andong Kim clan nominated him as the next King. Gojong became Prince Ik-seon shortly before his coronation.[2] He entered the palace on 9 December 1863, and his father and mother were ennobled.[3]

Early reign[edit]

King Gojong (later Emperor Gwangmu) in 1884. Photo by Percival Lowell
Japanese illustration of King Gojong and Queen Min receiving Inoue Kaoru.

On 13 December 1863, Gojong was crowned in Injeong gate of Changdeokgung.[4] He was only twelve years old when he was crowned. Queen Sinjeong acted as regent until he became an adult. His father, Prince Heungseon Daewongun, assisted in the affairs of Queen Sinjeong's regency. In 1866, when the queen proclaimed the abolishment of the regency, Gojong's rule started.[2] On 6 March 1866, Min Chi-rok's daughter, Lady Min was selected as the new queen.[5] Even though Gojong's father Daewongun had no rights to maintain the regency, he still acted as regent illegally.[2]

During the mid-1860s, the Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and was responsible for the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French and the United States' expeditions to Korea, in 1866 and 1871 respectively. The early years of the Daewongun's rule also witnessed a concerted effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During this time, the Seowon (private academies that often doubled as epicenters of factional power), and the power wielded by the Andong Kim clan in particular was dismantled.[6]

Finally in 1873, Gojong announced the assumption of his direct royal rule. In November 1874, with the retirement of the Daewongun, Gojong's consort, Queen Min (posthumously known as Empress Myeongseong) and Yeoheung Min clan, gained complete control over the court, filling senior court positions with members of her family.[2]

Gojong tried to strengthen the king's authority by giving important positions to consort kins and royal family members. Its known that Min Young-hwan, who was a distant relative of Queen Min, was Gojong's favorite official.[7]

External pressures and unequal treaties[edit]

In the 19th century, tensions mounted between Qing China and Imperial Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895. Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, having acquired Western military technology after the Meiji Restoration, secured a victory against Joseon forces in Ganghwa Island, forcing Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, and other natural resources. It also established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese Imperial expansion in East Asia. These events were the roots of Gojong's antipathy to the Japanese Empire.[2]

The Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed between Korea and a foreign country; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea and forced the Korean government to open three ports, Busan, Incheon, and Wonsan, to Japanese and foreign trade. With the signing of such a lopsided treaty, Korea became easy prey for competing imperialistic powers, paving the way for Korea's annexation by Japan.[8]

Imo Rebellion and Gapsin Coup[edit]

King Gojong began to rely on a new paid army (byeolgigun) of soldiers equipped with rifles. These new armies were requested by the Gaehwa Party and was supervised by Yun Ung-nyeol.[9] In contrast to the well-armed army, the old army had not received a salary for 13 months. The tattered army was finally paid one month's salary. Enraged, the old army sparked a riot, and the Daewongun seized power.[10] When the Imo Incident happened, Queen Min requested the Qing Empire for military support. On 27 June 1882, the Qing deployed about 3,000 soldiers in Seoul. They kidnapped the Daewongun on 7 July 1882, which led the Min family to regain political power.[11]

During the Imo incident when Queen Min was taking refuge in her relative's villa, Lady Seon-yeong of the Yeongwol Eom clan showed extreme devotion towards King Gojong. He rewarded her fealty by promoting her to the rank of Jimil Sanggung (5th senior rank of Women of the Internal Court).[12]

On 4 December 1884, five revolutionaries attempted a coup d'état by leading a small anti-old minister army to detain King Gojong and Queen Min. These revolutionaries tried to remove the Qing army from Korea.[13] The Gapsin Coup failed after 3 days. Some of its leaders, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, and others were executed.

Peasant revolts[edit]

Widespread poverty presented significant challenges to the 19th century Joseon Dynasty. Starvation was rampant, and much of the populace lived in run-down shanties lined along dirt roads.[14] Famine, poverty, crushing taxes, and corruption among the ruling class, led to many notable peasant revolts in the 19th century.

In 1894, the Donghak Peasant Revolution took hold as an anti-government, anti-yangban, and anti-foreign campaign. One leading cause of the revolution was the tax system implemented by Queen Min, who was not familiar with modern tax systems. Gojong asked for the assistance from the Chinese and Japanese to crush the revolution. Yi Jun-yong and others coordinated with peasants to assassinate Gojong. However, the plot was leaked and the revolution failed.[2] Although the revolution ultimately failed, many of the peasants' grievances were later addressed with the Gabo Reform.

One of the biggest reforms in 1894 was abolishing the slave (nobi) system, which had existed as far back as the Gojoseon period.[15]

The assassination of Queen Min[edit]

In 1895, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Gorō, orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered Gyeongbokgung in Seoul, which was under guard by Korean troops sympathetic to the Japanese, and the queen was killed in the palace. The queen had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support.[citation needed]

Anti-Japanese sentiments in Korea[edit]

In 1895 Japan won the First Sino-Japanese War, expanding its influence over the Korean government. The Gabo reforms and the assassination of the queen stirred controversy in Korea, fomenting Korean anti-Japanese sentiment. Gojong's antipathy toward the Japanese intensified, and he turned to Russia as an ally by signing Russia–Korea Treaty of 1884. He sent many emissaries to Russian Empire.[2]

Some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, formed over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom. These armies were preceded by the Donghak movement and succeeded by various Korean independence movements.

Internal exile to the Russian legation[edit]

Pro-Japanese government grew, while anti-Japanese politicians were either killed or fled for their survival after the Chun Sang Door Incident in 1895. Gojong perceived the need for refuge.[16]

On 11 February 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince fled from the Gyeongbokgung to the Russian legation in Seoul,[17] from which they governed for about one year, an event known as Gojong's internal exile to the Russian legation. Because of staying in the Russian legation many concessions of Korea were taken by Russia.[2] Gojong sent Min Young-hwan to the coronation of Nicholas II of Russia.[18] Min returned to Korea in October 1896 with Russian Army instructors. These instructors were able to train guards which enabled Gojong to return to palace in February 1897.[19]

Emperor of Korea[edit]

Portrait of Emperor Gojong (age 49)

On 13 October 1897, yielding to rising pressure from overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, King Gojong returned to Gyeongungung (modern-day Deoksugung). He declared himself emperor, changed the country's name to the Great Korean Empire, and declared a new era name Gwangmu (Hangul: 광무, Hanja: 光武) (meaning, "shining and martial"). This effectively ended Korea's historic subordination to the Qing empire, which Korea had acknowledged since the fall of the Ming Dynasty. He took the title of Gwangmu Emperor, and was formally crowned emperor in Wongudan.[2] He changed the name of country to Great Han.[20] On the same day, Gojong appointed the Crown Prince as Imperial Crown Prince.[21] Proclamation of the empire brought conflict against the Qing dynasty, which used to be the only imperial state of East Asia. This conflict was resolved by not mentioning the title of the two emperors.[22]

When the Daewongun died in 1898, Emperor Gwangmu refused to attend the funeral of his father as the relationship between father and son had broken down irretrievably. But it was also reported that the emperor's cries could be heard when he looked over the palace wall.[23][24] On 17 August 1899, Gojong proclaimed the Great-han declaration law. This law gave absolute power to Gojong.[25]

Even though Gojong had absolute power, he did not despise Constitutional monarchy. He promised with members of the Independence Club that he would perform reforms. However, these reforms were not carried out quickly, which angered members of the Independence Club. While, the conservative politicians spread rumors that the Independence Club is trying to abolish the empire and proclaim a republic, which in turn led Gojong to abolish the Independence Club.[26]

Portrait of Emperor Gojong of Korea (1852-1919), Yi Myeong-bok, wearing Tongcheonggwan and Gangsapo
Emperor Gojong and the Crown Prince Sunjong with their Pickelhaube
Emperor Gojong in 1904

Gojong knew the need of modernizing his country and especially the military. Having a stronger army was another way for increasing the authority of the Emperor. Russian instructors that Min Young-hwan brought had the main tasks of modernizing the army. Gojong was pleased with Russian instructions. In March 1898, Russian instructors returned to Russia. Gojong ordered Ministry of Military to strengthen the army. By the request of the Minister of Military, Yi Jong-geon, Military academy was established in April 1898.[27] In order to command both army and navy, Gojong appointed himself as the Grand Field Marshal of the Imperial Korean Army, and Crown Prince as Field Marshal on 29 June 1898.[28] On 2 July 1898, Gojong established the full control of the army.[27] Board of Marshals was established on 1 August 1899.[29] In 1899, Gojong bought a lot of weapons from different countries. Gojong noticed that new officers need learnings from modernized military academies. He sent many cadets to Imperial Japanese Army Academy. More and more army units were formed around the country. By July 1900, there were 17,000 men of the Jinwidae. In 1901, about 44 percent of the total revenue was used for military.[27] Gojong tried to augment his authority in military by Board of Marshals. Board of Marshals became the supreme high command of the army.[30]

Gojong was subjected to many assassination or abdication attempts. First in July 1898, Ahn Gyeong-su, the Minister of Military tried to abdicate Gojong.[2] Ahn was executed for conspiracy on 28 May 1900.[31] Second, on 12 September 1898, Kim Hong-rok tried to assassinate Gojong with by instilling poison in Gojong's coffee.[32] In 1904, some Korean students in Japan tried to abdicate Gojong and make Prince Imperial Ui the emperor.[33]

In 1904–1905, Japan was the victor in the Russo-Japanese War. Amidst the war, there were diplomatic efforts to keep Korea independent, including that of Korean Charge d'Affaires Yi Han-eung in London who desperately tried to gain support from United Kingdom. But the latter already had common interests with Japan under the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and Lord Lansdowne in the British Foreign Office had ignored his diplomatic request. Yi Han-eung took his own life in May 1905 as protest; Gojong mourned his tragic death as his remains returned to Korea by ship.

When these acts of Gojong were revealed by the Japanese, the Japanese tried to remove him. On July 20, 1907, Gojong was removed. Gojong's son Sunjong succeeded him to the throne.[2] Some officials, such as Park Yung-hyo, and Yi Do-Jae, tried to assassinate the cabinet of Ye Wanyong, who led the abdication.[34]

After abdication[edit]

Gojong wearing a western-style uniform (Korean:태황제 예복, hanja:太皇帝 禮服). He wore it since the abdication of 1907.

After abdicating, Emperor Gojong was confined to Deoksu Palace. In June 1910, Gojong tried to gain refuge in Primorsky Krai and establish a provincial government, but failed.[35] On 22 August 1910, the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan under the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. In the treaty, Gojong lost his title as a former emperor; instead, he received a new title, "King Emeritus Yi of Deoksu" (徳寿宮李太王), and was recognized as a member of the imperial family of Japan. In 1915, Gojong tried to flee with the help of Sangsul but the attempt failed.[36] Also with Lee Hoe-yeong, Gojong tried to seek refuge in 1918 to Beijing as he expected it would draw the attention of diplomats.[37]

Gojong died suddenly on 21 January 1919 at Deoksugung Palace at the age of 66. There is much speculation that he was killed by poison administered by Japanese officials, an idea that gained wide circulation and acceptance at the time of his death. His death and subsequent funeral proved a catalyst for the March First Movement for Korean independence from Japanese rule.[38] He is buried with his wife at the imperial tomb of Hongneung (홍릉, 洪陵) in the city of Namyangju, Gyeonggi.

Family[edit]

  • Father
    • Yi Ha-Eung, King Heungseon (21 December 1820 – 22 February 1898) (흥선왕 이하응)
      • Grandfather: Yi Gu, Prince Namyeon (22 August 1788 – 19 March 1836) (이구 남연군)
      • Grandmother: Princess Consort Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (26 June 1788 – 1831) (군부인 여흥민씨, 驪興府大夫人 閔氏)
    • Legal Father: Yi Yeong, King Munjo of Joseon (18 September 1809 – 25 June 1830) (조선의 문조 이영)
  • Mother
  • Consorts and their Respective Issue(s):
  1. Min Ja-yeong, Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan (17 November 1851 – 8 October 1895) (명성황후 민자영 민씨)[a]
    1. Second son (4 November 1871 - 8 November 1871)[b][39][40]
    2. Second daughter (3 February 1873 - 28 September 1873)[c]
    3. Yi Cheok, Emperor Yunghui (25 March 1874 – 24 April 1926) (융희제 이척), third son
    4. Fourth son (5 April 1875 - 18 April 1875)[d]
    5. Sixth son (18 February 1878 - 5 June 1878)[e]
  2. Eom Seon-yeong, Imperial Noble Consort Sunheon of the Yeongwol Eom clan (2 February 1854 – 20 July 1911) (순헌황귀비 엄선영 엄씨)[f][g]
    1. Yi Un, Crown Prince Uimin (20 October 1897 – 1 May 1970) (이은 의민태자),[h] seventh son
  3. Yang Chun-gi, Imperial Consort Boknyeong Gwi-in of the Cheongju Yang clan (27 September 1882 – 30 May 1929) (복녕당 귀인 양씨)
    1. Princess Deokhye (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) (덕혜옹주), fourth daughter
  4. Yi Sun-ah, Imperial Consort Yeongbo Gwi-in of the Gyeongju Yi clan (1849 – 17 December 1928) (영보당귀인 이씨)[i]
    1. Yi Seon, Prince Wanhwa (16 April 1868 – 12 January 1880) (이선 완화군),[j] first son
    2. First daughter (1871 – 1872)
  5. Imperial Consort Gwi-in of the Deoksu Jang clan (귀인 장씨)
    1. Yi Kang, Prince Uihwa (30 March 1877 – August 1955) (이강 의화군),[k] fifth son
  6. Imperial Consort Naeandang Gwi-in of the Gyeongju Yi clan (1847 – 13 February 1914) (내안당 귀인 이씨)[41]
    1. Third daughter (1879 – 1880)
  7. Imperial Consort Bohyeon Gwi-in of the Haeju Jeong clan (23 February 1882 – 1943) (보현당 귀인 정씨)
    1. Prince Yi U (20 August 1915 – 25 July 1916) (이우), ninth son
  8. Lee Wan-deok, Imperial Consort Gwanghwa Gwi-in of the Lee clan (1885 – 10 November 1965) (광화당 귀인 이씨)[l]
    1. Prince Yi Yuk (3 July 1914 – 22 January 1915) (이육),[m] eighth son
  9. Kim Ok-gi, Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan of Samchuk Hall (1890 – 23 September 1970) (삼축당 김씨)[n]
  10. Court Lady Kim of the Gwangsan Kim clan of Jeonghwa Hall (정화당 상궁 김씨)

Honours[edit]

Korean honours[citation needed]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Grand Order of the Golden Ruler – 17 April 1900
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Grand Order of the Auspicious Stars – 12 August 1902
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Grand Order of the Plum Blossoms – 17 April 1900
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the National Crest – 17 April 1900
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Purple Falcon – 16 April 1901
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Eight Trigrams – 16 April 1901
  • Grand Cordon of the Grand Order of the Auspicious Phoenix – 1907
Foreign honours[citation needed]

Ancestry[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Trivia[edit]

  • Gojong was a great fan of billiards, sometimes staying up until 2 to 3 in the morning playing the sport, and having coffee.[46] Due to this, Kim Hong Ryuk attempted to assassinate him by poisoning his coffee.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ She was later given the posthumous title of Taehwanghu (태황후).
  2. ^ He only lived for 4 days.
  3. ^ She only lived for 222 days (about 7 months, 1 week, 5 days).
  4. ^ He only lived for 14 days (2 weeks).
  5. ^ He only lived for 105 days (about 3 months, 2 weeks, 1 day).
  6. ^ She was later given the posthumous title of 순헌황귀비 (Sunheon Hwang-Gwi-bi "Sunheon, Imperial Concubine of the Highest Rank").
  7. ^ Her full name was Eom Seon-yeong (엄선영), and she was the daughter of Eom Jin-sam (엄진삼) and Jeung Chan-jeong (증찬정).
  8. ^ Gojong's seventh son. He married Princess Masako Nashimotonomiya of Japan, daughter of Prince Morimasa Nashimotonomiya of Japan. During the Korean Empire, he was named "Prince Yeong" (영친왕).
  9. ^ Her full name was Yi Sun-ah (이순아).
  10. ^ During the Korean Empire, he was posthumously named as "Prince Wan" (완친왕).
  11. ^ During the Korean Empire, he was named "Prince Ui" (의친왕). He married Kim Su-deok (who became Princess Deogin), daughter of Baron Kim Sa-jun.
  12. ^ Her whole name is Lee Wan-deok (이완덕) of the Gwanghwa Hall.
  13. ^ Other records, however, say that he lived from 1906–1908.
  14. ^ Her whole name is Kim Ok-gi (김옥기).

References[edit]

  1. ^ 高宗太皇帝行狀 Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "고종(高宗) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  3. ^ 사료 고종시대사. "신정왕후, 대원군 부부의 봉작과 함께 대원군의 입궐 시 호위를 명함". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  4. ^ 사료 고종시대사. "고종, 인정문에서 즉위함". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  5. ^ 사료 고종시대사. "신정왕후, 대혼(大婚)을 민치록의 딸로 정할 것을 명함". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
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  7. ^ Yi 2014, p. 103-106.
  8. ^ Lee Jae-min (8 September 2010). "Treaty as prelude to annexation". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  9. ^ 신편 한국사. "(4) 신식 육군(별기군)의 창설(1881)". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  10. ^ "임오군란". terms.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  11. ^ 신편 한국사. "2) 개화파의 분화". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  12. ^ Yoon Hyo-jeong 《대한제국아 망해라》(박광희 국역, 다산초당, 2010) Pg. 337
  13. ^ "갑신정변(甲申政變) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  14. ^ Lankov, Andrei; Kim EunHaeng (2007). The Dawn of Modern Korea. 384-12 Seokyo-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul, South Korea, 121-893: EunHaeng Namu. p. 47. ISBN 978-89-5660-214-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  15. ^ "우리역사넷". contents.history.go.kr. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
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  17. ^ Veritable Records of Joseon Dynasty. "러시아 공사관으로 주필을 이어하다". sillok.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  18. ^ 조선/대한제국 관보 (3 April 1896). "赴俄公使閔泳煥隨員尹致昊參書官金得鍊金道一이本月一日上午八時에出發홈". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 18 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  19. ^ Yi 2014, p. 107.
  20. ^ Veritable Records of Joseon Dynasty. "국호를 대한으로 하고 임금을 황제로 칭한다고 선포하다". sillok.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  21. ^ 사료 고종시대사. "고종, 황태자를 책봉한 뒤 신하들에게 문안 인사를 받음". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  22. ^ French Ministry of Foreign Affairs Documents. "【50】대한제국 황제 칭호 관련 대한제국·청국간의 갈등 해결을 위한 러시아 공사의 역할". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  23. ^ 우리곁에 살아 있는 역사의 맥박과 숨결 월간조선 2001년 3월호
  24. ^ 나각순, 승상배, 이창훈, 《운현궁과 흥선대원군》 (종로문화원, 2000) 207페이지
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  26. ^ "독립협회(獨立協會) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  27. ^ a b c 신편한국사. "(1) 군제개혁의 방향". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  28. ^ 사료 고종시대사. "광무 황제, 직접 대원수가 되어 육해군을 통솔하고 황태자를 원수로 삼겠다는 조령을 내림". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  29. ^ 조선·대한제국 관보. "元帥府官制中改正件". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  30. ^ 신편한국사. "(2) 원수부를 통한 황제권 강화". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  31. ^ Veritable Records of Joseon Dynasty. "이유인은 자신의 사적인 감정으로 안경수 등을 교형에 처했음을 아뢰다". sillok.history.go.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  32. ^ "김홍륙독차사건(金鴻陸毒茶事件) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  33. ^ Journal of the Royal Secretariat. "모반 죄인 장호익 등을 처형하고 체차해 주기를 청하는 중추원 의관 안종덕의 상소". db.itkc.or.kr. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  34. ^ Records of the Japanese Legation in Korea. "(18) [한국 주재 외신기자가 외국 신문사와 發·受信한 通牒 전보내용 보고 件]".
  35. ^ 외교통상부 (2003). 이범진의 생애와 항일독립운동. pp. 223–224.
  36. ^ Park 2019, p. 103.
  37. ^ Park 2019, p. 113-114.
  38. ^ Neff, Robert (5 March 2019). "Emperor's death leads to independence movement". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  39. ^ Died from complications of imperforate anus
  40. ^ Was given title of Prince Royal (원자, 元子) before he died
  41. ^ She is a distant relative of Imperial Consort Yeongbo Gwi-in of the Gyeongju Yi clan
  42. ^ 刑部芳則 (2017). 明治時代の勲章外交儀礼 (PDF) (in Japanese). 明治聖徳記念学会紀要. p. 149.
  43. ^ 조선총독부 관보. "大正元年8月1日". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  44. ^ Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 403
  45. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 466. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
  46. ^ Yoo Seok-jae (15 October 2021). "태종은 사냥, 순종은 당구… 임금님도 덕후였네" [Taejong was hunting, his obedience was billiards... The king also had passions.]. chosun.com (in Korean). 조선일보 (Chosun Daily Report). Archived from the original on 4 June 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2022. 그런데 고종·순종 부자가 다 같이 탐닉했던 취미가 하나 있었다. 당시 옥돌(玉突)이란 이름으로 불리던 당구였다. [However, there was one hobby that Gojong and Sunjong both indulged in. At that time, it was billiards called jade (玉突).]

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]

Gojong of Korea
Born: 25 July 1852 Died: 21 January 1919
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Joseon
21 January 1864 – 13 October 1897
with Heungseon Daewongun (1864–1873)
Empress Myeongseong (1873–1895)
Elevated to Emperor
Elevated to Emperor Emperor of Korea
13 October 1897 – 19 July 1907
Succeeded by
Royal titles
New title
King Emeritus Yi
(Deoksugung)

29 August 1910 – 21 January 1919
Vacant